Presentation on theme: "Layers of the Earth Inner Core Outer Core Mantle Crust."— Presentation transcript:
1Layers of the EarthInner Core Outer Core Mantle Crust
2The Earth’s Crust The first layer consists of about 10 miles (16km) of rock and loose materials scientists call the crust. Underneath the continents, the crust is almost three times as thick as it is under the oceans
4sediment beds get buried and the pieces of rock become cemented form a new type of rock called a sedimentary rock.Cut out pieces and put in order after reading the passage. Paste the rectangles on a piece of brown construction paper.Magma cools and solidifies into rockigneous rocks exposed on the surface, time and weather break the rock down into smaller and smaller pieces (weathering and erosion)igneous rocks formed from magmaWind and water carry the smaller pieces of igneous rocks into piles called sediment beds
5There are three main types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Each of these types of rocks are formed in different ways and each type of rock can be changed into each of the other types of rock. Geologists call this process the Rock Cycle.Essentially the rock cycle is the process that makes and recycles rocks.Most rocks on earth began as igneous rocks. Let's trace a possible rock cycle for newly formed igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are formed from magma. Magma cools and solidifies into rock. When igneous rocks are exposed on the surface, time and weather break the rock down into smaller and smaller pieces. This process is called weathering and erosion. Wind and water carry the smaller pieces of igneous rocks into piles called sediment beds. Over time the sediment beds get buried and the pieces of rock become cemented together to form a new type of rock called a sedimentary rock.
6Minerals – The Building Blocks of Crust If you were planning to bake a pie, what ingredients would you use for the crust? The ingredients used to make the Earth’s crust are complex.The basic ingredients are known as elements. There are 90 known elements that exist in the Earth’s crust. These elements combine with one another in a number of natural ways, creating molecules known as minerals. There are around 3,700 known minerals found in the Earth’s crust, with dozens of new minerals being discovered each and ever year.
7Gems, precious crystals, rainbow hued fire. So, what are gems? Gems are rare mineral crystals valued for their beauty.
8The most famous gem in the world is the Hope Diamond The most famous gem in the world is the Hope Diamond. The Hope Diamond is a very large blue-white diamond currently owned by the Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC, United States.
9All rocks on Earth were initially igneous in nature All rocks on Earth were initially igneous in nature. Igneous rocks form as liquid magma cools, forming crystal structured rocks. There are many different types of igneous rocks.
10This is an igneous rock. Think about how an igneous rock forms This is an igneous rock. Think about how an igneous rock forms. What evidence do you see ?
11Sedimentary RocksOver the course of millions of years, the igneous rocks are weathered down by forces of wind and water. Fine particles of dirt begin to cover the landscape. Often, these small rock particles end up being suspended in water, and find their way to the bottom of lakes, streams, and the ocean.
12The first thing that we need to know about rocks is: rocks are created from minerals. When a liquid cools to a solid, the substance is said to have crystallized.The elements in the magma form solid bonds with their neighbors in a repetitive pattern.If you look closely at the rock you can see the mineral crystals. If you look closely at a piece of granite you will see little flecks of white, black, gray, and sometimes pink. These flecks of color are crystals.
13The most common near the surface of the crust is sedimentary rock The most common near the surface of the crust is sedimentary rock. This is due to the many rivers, lakes, and seas that have covered the surface at one time or another. This layer of sedimentary rock is very thin, however, extending downward only a mile or so in depth. Below this sedimentary rock and also mixed with it in many locations is igneous rockThe bulk of the Earth’s crust is made up of both igneous rock and metamorphic rock.