2My Idiosyncrasies:TTYN: Talk to Your Neighbor – an opportunity for cooperative learning. I use a lot as part of a ‘Do Now’ activity.Do Now’s: EVERY day/lesson begins with some type of Do Now; generally to follow-up on what was learned either from h/w or previous lesson. I also utilize Do Now’s an opportunity to preface what is about to be learned.Cooperative Learning: I typically include some type of cooperative learning activities in every lesson such as completing organizers, reading activities, completing maps/geography activities, etc…Common Core: Everything I do has the Common Core in mind. Every class should include some type of literacy component.Projects: See last slide for suggestion. Typically, I would begin a new unit with a class project, but that’s me.
3What I KnowAbout GreeceWhat I Want to LearnAbout GreeceWhat I LearnedAbout Greece
5TTYN: In what part of the world is Ancient Greece located? GeographyUnlike other early civilizations, Greek civilization did NOT rise in a fertile river valleyRugged and remote corner of S.E. EuropeMountainous and rocky terrainSeveral plains. TTYN: In what part of the world is Ancient Greece located?
6Refer to Notes PacketSmall Group Activity: Mapping Ancient Greece
7GeographyTTYN – Why is geography important? Identify and describe three reasons why the geographical features of a country is important. Hint…thing social, political, and economic.The Pindus Mountains start in northern Greece and stretch south to the Gulf of Patra.Geographically no where in Greece is more than 60 km from the seaGreece is located on the southernmost point of the Balkan Peninsula and is flanked by 3 large bodies of water: the Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.
8Geography Approximately 20% of Greece is made up of islands. The Peloponnesus Mountains occupy southern part of Greece.Approximately 20% of Greece is made up of islands.Crete is a large island located in the Mediterranean SeaMost of the people in Greece live along the coast, or along rivers and harbors.Climate - Most of Greece has a mild climateSummers are warm and dryRain is heavy during the winter months, with some mountain areas getting snow.
16Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan CivilizationOccupied the island of CreteFirst inhabitants probably migrated from Asia MinorWe do not know a lot of the Minoan CivilizationSuccess of the Minoans was a result of trade…not conquestTTYN: What is Cultural Diffusion?
17Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan CivilizationThrough contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Minoans acquired ideas and technology – Cultural DiffusionMinoan reached its peak between 1750 – 1500 BCEThe Palace of Knossos (NAHS uhs)Archeologist digs reveal painting suggests that women moved freely and may have enjoyed more rights than women in most ancient civilizations
18Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization Minoans established outposts throughout the Aegean world, including mainland GreeceLocation allowed the Minoans to cross the seas to the Nile River Valley and the Middle East
20Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization About 1400 BCE, Minoan Civilization vanishedArchaeologists are not sure why…maybe a volcanic eruption on nearby islandMaybe an earthquakeInvaders definitely played a role – the Mycenaeans
21Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean'sIndo-European peopleConquered Greek mainlandDominated the Aegean world from 1400 – 1200 BCESea TradersReached Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and MesopotamiaInfluenced by the Egyptians and Mesopotamia – Cultural Diffusion
24Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's Lived in separate city-states on the mainlandWarrior-king ruled his villageRulers amasses treasure; gold ornaments that archaeologists have unearthed from their tombs)
25Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean'sThe Trojan War – 1250 BCELegend or Reality???May had its origin due to economic rivalry with TroyTroy – rich trading city in now present-day TurkeyTroy controlled the straits that connect the Mediterranean and Black SeaTrojan prince Pars kidnapped Helen, wife of a Greek KingThe Mycenaeans sailed to Troy to rescue herFor 10 years, the Greeks and Troy foughtThe Trojan War has its roots in the marriage between Peleus and Thetis, a sea-goddess. Peleus and Thetis had not invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to their marriage and the outraged goddess stormed into the wedding banquet and threw a golden apple onto the table. The apple belonged to, Eris said, whomever was the fairest.Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each reached for the apple. Zeus proclaimed that Paris, prince of Troy and thought to be the most beautiful man alive, would act as the judge.Hermes went to Paris, and Paris agreed to act as the judge. Hera promised him power, Athena promised him wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world.Paris chose Aphrodite, and she promised him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife. Paris then prepared to set off for Sparta to capture Helen. Twin prophets Cassandra and Helenus tried to persuade him against such action, as did his mother, Hecuba. But Paris would not listen and he set off for Sparta.In Sparta, Menelaus, husband of Helen, treated Paris as a royal guest. However, when Menelaus left Sparta to go to a funeral, Paris abducted Helen (who perhaps went willingly) and also carried off much of Menelaus' wealth.In Troy, Helen and Paris were married. This occurred around 1200 B.C.
26Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean'sThe Trojan HorseSeeking entrance into Troy, Odysseus ordered a large wooden horse to be built.Its insides were to be hollow so that soldiers could hide within it.A number of the Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, climbed inside.The rest of the Greek fleet sailed away, so as to deceive the Trojans.One man, Sinon, was left behind.
27Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's When the Trojans came to marvel at the huge creation, Sinon pretended to be angry with the Greeks, stating that they had deserted him.He assured the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to the Trojans.The Trojans celebrated what they thought was their victory, and dragged the wooden horse into Troy.At night, after most of Troy was asleep or in a drunken stupor, Sinon let the Greek warriors out from the horse, and they slaughtered the Trojans.
31Early Civilizations of Greece HomerMycenaean power faded1100 to 800 BCE, Greek Civilization seemed tohave step backwards; trade declined, cities wereabandoned, and people stopped writingHomer; Greek poet; author of the Iliad and OdysseyAccording to legend, Homer was blind and would wander from village to village playing his harp and singing of heroic deedsHis tales were passed from generation to generation before they were written downNot This Homer
32Early Civilizations of Greece HomerThe Iliad, serves as our primary source about the Trojan War, including several writing liberties such as gods, goddesses, and a talking horseMother tells me, the immortal goddess Thetis with her glistening feet, that two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, my journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies…Courage is not the absence of fear, but the presence of fear yet the will to go onTTYN – What is Homer’s message in this passage?Courage is not the absence of fear, but the presence of fear yet the will to go on
33Homer depicts the heroism and courage of the ancient Greeks Early Civilizations of GreeceHomerThe Odyssey,Homer tells the reader a story of the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus to return home to his faithful wife, Penelope, after the fall of Troy.During his journey home, Odysseus encounters a sea monster, a race of one-eyed giants, and beautiful sorceress who turns men into swine.TTYN – The Iliad and the Odyssey tell us what about the ancient Greeks?Homer depicts the heroism and courage of the ancient Greeks
34The Rise of Greek City-States How Geography played a big role in the development of Ancient GreeceThe mountains divided the peninsula into isolate valleysBeyond the coastline sat hundreds of rocky islandsThe Greeks did NOT establish a large empire as the Egyptians and Mesopotamians had – they built many small city-statesCity-states were cut off from one another by either land or waterStrong loyalty to their own city-stateFiercely defended their independenceFrequent wars between the city-states
35The Rise of Greek City-States The Polis 750 BCE, a unique version of the city-state called the polisThe top of the city sat the acropolis or high city, with great marble temples dedicated to gods and goddessesOn flatter grounds lay the walled main city with its market place, theater, public buildings, and homesMen would spend time in the marketplace, debating issues that affected their lives
37The Rise of Greek City-States Early Governments 750 – 500 BCEDifferent forms of governmentFirst, Monarchy – king or queen exercised powerNext, Aristocracy – class of noble landowners would win power for themselvesTrade expands and new middle class of wealthy merchants emergeChallenged the landowning nobles for power.Oligarchy – power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business elite
38Defense was now in the hands of ordinary citizens The Rise of Greek City-StatesChanges in WarfareTechnology contributes to military strategies and powerIron weapons replaced bronze; iron cheaper; now the common man could acquire iron helmets, shields, and swordsNew fighting methods emergeThe Phalanx emerges – formation of heavily armed foot soldiersThe phalanx reduces class differencesTTYN – why did the phalanx impact class differences?Defense was now in the hands of ordinary citizens
39What I Have Learned So far What I KnowAbout GreeceWhat I Want to LearnAbout GreeceWhat I Have Learned So farAbout Greece
40The Rise of Greek Super Powers Sparta and Athens
42Activity - Sparta and Athens Task:Working in small groups, each student will complete the Sparta & Athens Learning Stations PacketClass should be separated into four groupsGroup PresentationGroups present summary of Sparta and AthensMaterials RequiredPoster BoardLearning Stations Packets
43Geography Rewind: Locate Sparta and Athens on your map The effect of new technology and warfare lead to emergences of two dominate city-states: Sparta and AthensDeveloped very different ways of lifeSparta stressed military virtues and disciplineAthens glorified the individual; would extend political rights to more citizensGeography Rewind: Locate Sparta and Athens on your map
44Sparta and Athens Sparta Spartans conquer Laconia This region lies in the Peloponnesus (southern part of Greece)Conquered people turned into slaves, called helotsHelots worked the landSpartans administered a brutal system of strict controlSpartan Government – consisted of two kings and a council of elders who advised the eldersAssembly, made up of all citizens approved major decisions; citizens were male and over 30
45Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Young boys were bred to be strong SpartansSpartan boys were only allowed to wear one layer of clothingSpartan youth became excellent soldiersEncouraged to steal to develop cunning and supplement their diet; if caught they would be beatenSpartan women wrestled and took part in sportsHad to obey their fathers or husbandsThe culture of Sparta changed from normal Archaic Greek to military and athletic.
46Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Elders judged whether Spartan babies were strong or weak enough to live.If they were judged too weak, they were hurled into a gorge or left to die in a hillside.Life was made tough for the Spartan citizens so they could forever control the Messenians.Even alcohol was banned to the Spartans, but the helots were allowed to drink.
48Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Looked down and wealth Sparta isolate itself from its neighbors such as the GreeksLooked down and wealthForbade their citizens from travelingHad little use for new ideas or the artsWere willing to die for their cityTTYN – Why would Sparta’s rigid system and inability to change lead to their decline in power
50Sparta and Athens Athens Athens was located in Attica, north of PeloponnesusGovernment would evolve from a monarchy into an aristocracy700 BCE, noble landowners held the power and chose chief officialsNobles judged major cases in court and dominated the assembly
51Sparta and Athens Athens Merchants and soldiers resented the power of the noblesArgued that their service to Athens entitled them to more rightsDemands for change also came from farmersDuring hard times, farmers were forced to sell their lands to nobles; some were forced to sell themselves and family into slavery
52Sparta and Athens Athens Solon’s Reform Athens moves closer to democracy; government by the peopleSolon’s ReformSolon – Chief Official granted permission to make needed reformOutlawed slavery because of debtHigh office to more citizensGranted citizenship to foreignersGave Athenian assemble more say in important decisions
53Sparta and Athens Athens Economic ReformEncouraged the export of wine and olive oil; helped merchants and farmers by increasing demandCitizenship still remained limitedWealthy landowners still held onto the highest positions of authorityRise of the Tyrants – people who gained power by forceWon support by imposing reforms
54Sparta and Athens Athens Athenian tyrant, Pisistratus (pi SIHS truh tuhs) seized power in 546BCEHelped farmers by giving them loans and land taken from noblesNew building projects – gave jobs to the poorGave the poor a voice and weakened the aristocracy507BCE, reformer Cleisthenes created the Council of 500members were chosen by lot of all citizensCreated law and supervised the day-to-day work of governmentCreated a legislature – lawmaking body, debated lawAll male citizens over 30 were members
55Sparta and Athens Athens Limited Rights Only males citizens could participate in governmentSlavery still existedSlavery provided the citizens with the time to participate in government
56In a democracy you were expected to voice your opinion and views Sparta and AthensAthensWomen, as in other Greek city-states had no share in public lifeWomen must be guided by menManaged the house, cared for the children, and prepared foodBoys received an education, girls received very little, if anyYoung men received military training and encouraged to explore many others areas of knowledgeStudied to become public speakersTTYN – why would it be necessary to become a good public speaker?In a democracy you were expected to voice your opinion and views
57Sparta and Athens Athens Common Culture Spoke same language Honored same ancient heroesParticipated in common festivals such as the Olympic GamesPrayed to the same gods (polytheistic)
58Sparta and Athens Athens Believed the gods lived on Mt. Olympus in Northern GreeceZeus – the most powerful godHera – goddess of marriagePoseidon – god of the seaAphrodite – goddess of loveAres – god of warAthena – god of wisdom, gave her name to Athens
59Sparta and Athens Athens View of non-Greeks Trade expanded and so did Greek coloniesCame in contact with people who had different cultures and languagesFelt superior to non-GreeksCalled outsiders or non-Greeks barbaroi; people who did not speak GreekEnglish word Barbarians comes from barbaroiThis feeling of superiority and what they learned from other cultures would help the Greeks face a threat from the mightiest power in the Mediterranean world – The Persian Empire
66Activity: The Persian Wars Task:Working in small groups, each group shall complete the worksheet using their spilt note-taking skills.Complete the questions at the end of each section
67Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars “Earth and Water” 492 BCE, King Darius of Persia sent messengers to the Greek city-states demanding gifts of “earth and water” as a symbol of surrenderMany states obeyedAthens and Sparta declinedPrior to the Persian demand, the Greek city-states, despite their cultural ties, were often bitterly divided.However, when Persia made their threat, they united to defend their freedom
70Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars By 500 BCE, Persian authority had stretched into the Ionian SeaIonian Greeks rebelled against Persian ruleAthens sent ships to helpPersians crush the rebellion within the Ionian cities.Persia looks to punish Athens for interferingBattle at Marathon – 490 BCEMarathon, north of Athens
71Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars Persian outnumbers the Athenians two to oneDespite being outnumbered, the Athenians used an element of surprisePersians retreated….The Greeks were victoriousThe Greek sent a runner to Athens to share the newsHe sprinted nearly 26 miles
72Sparta and AthensThe Persian Wars480 BCE, Xerxes, Ruler of the Persians sends a much larger force to AthensSparta is on-boardPersians marched south to Athens; burn Athens; however, Athens was emptyAthens puts their faith in the fleet of ships that they had buildStrait of Salamis; Athenian ships trapped, rammed, and sank the Persian fleetTTYN – What effect would the victory over the Persians represent for the Athenians?Increased the Greek sense of their own uniqueness; the gods had protected their superior form of gov’t; Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece;
73Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars The Delian League – alliance with other Greek city-states designed to meet the continued threats from PersiaAthens dominates the leagueCreates an Athenian EmpireForced its allies to remain in the league against their willThe League and the power it gave Athens over the rest of Greece were to become one of the major reasons for the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and its allies.
74Topic: The Persian Wars Concept LadderTopic: The Persian Wars
77The Legend of PericlesThe Golden Age – the years after the Persian WarsPericles leads AthensEconomy thrivedgovernment became more democratic490 – 429 BCE – The Age of PericlesArchitects and sculptors to rebuild the AcropolisNew temples for the gods to remind Athens that the gods favored themBuilding projects increased prosperity by creating jobs for artisans and workersAthens became the cultural center of Greece
78Indirect democracy – through representatives The Legend of PericlesPericles believed that all male citizens should take part in governmentBegan to pay salaries to those who helped in public office; enabled poor men to serve in governmentThe Assembly met several times per monthAt least 6K members would participateDirect Democracy – large number of male citizens took part in the day-to-day affairs of governmentTTYN – How do we (today) participate in democracy?Indirect democracy – through representatives
79TTYN – What is Pericles suggesting? The Legend of PericlesThe Funeral OrationThucydides, historian during the Age of Pericles“Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law: when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership of a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses.”TTYN – What is Pericles suggesting?Athenian citizens bore a special responsibility, We alone,” he stated, “regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harmless but as a useless character”
81The Peloponnesian War Greek vs. Greek Many Greeks resented Athens and Athenian dominationTwo camps emerge; Led by SpartaThe Peloponnesian LeagueSparta encouraged oligarchy vs. Athenian democracy431 BCE, war brakes out between Sparta and Athens27 years of war
82The Peloponnesian WarAthens has a powerful navy, but Sparta has a land advantageSparta was located inland, therefore, could not be attacked by seaSparta marches to AthensPericles moves the citizens inside the walls of AthensDisaster – a plague emerges; kills 1/3, including PericlesPericles successors were less able; power struggle undermines the city’s democratic governmentSparta aligns with Persia404 BCE, the Spartans capture Athens, stripped the Athenians of their fleet and their empire
83The Peloponnesian War The impact of the war Athenian economy would reviveSpirit and greatness would never returnDemocratic government sufferedCorruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city-stateSparta would eventually be defeated by the Thebes, another Greek city-stateGreeks would continue to fight among themselves359 BCE, a new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to the northStay tuned for out unit on Alexander the Great
84A Comparison of City-States AthensSpartaGovernmentSocietyEducationMilitary
85Spartan SocietyThe Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered.Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors.Spartan captives were called helots.
86Spartan EducationThe Spartan government feared the helots might rebel, so they firmly controlled the people of Sparta and began training boys for war at age 7.From age men remained in military barracks.Education was based on military strategy and strength.Women and men were both educated
87Spartan Military All Spartan men were in the army until age 60. One mother told her son: “Come home carrying your shield or being carried on it”Military was the priority in Sparta
88Spartan WomenSpartan women enjoyed more freedom than most Greek women.Girls were trained in sports like running, wrestling, and javelin throwing.Wives stayed at home while their husbands lived in the barracks.This meant they could own property and go where they wanted!
89Athens Government Athens started out as an oligarchy like Sparta. After a revolution by the major population, Athens became a direct democracy in 508 BC
90Athens SocietyAthenians valued education, art, literature and philosophyCitizens participated in major decisionsAthens wanted to control theGreek Peninsula
91Athens EducationGoal: prepare students to be citizens in war and peacetimeChildren in Athens had teachers for reading, writing, arithmetic, sports, and musicAt 18 Athenian boys finished school and became citizens.Athenian women didn’t get to go to school.
92Athens Military Athens maintained an army and navy Strongest navy in GreeceMilitary was not priorityAllowed them to control the nearby seas.
93TTYN: In which city-state would you have rather lived in ancient Greece? Why? Sparta or Athens??
94Sparta’s Government Sparta’s government was an oligarchy. An oligarchy is a type of government that means by rule by few.In Sparta two kings headed a council of Elders. The Elders, which included 28 citizens over age 60, presented laws to the Council.All Spartan men over 30 belonged to the Council. They chose five people to be ephors to enforce laws and collect taxes.
95The Peloponnesian War!Before: Athens control Greece, Sparta is unhappySpartans and allies (The Peloponnesian League) attack AthensAfter vicious war, Athens surrendersLeads to decline of city-states and mass disorder in Greece
96What I Have Learned So far What I KnowAbout GreeceWhat I Want to LearnAbout GreeceWhat I Have Learned So farAbout Greece
97The Great Thinkers of Greece Some great thinkers denied that events were caused by the whims of the gods – they used observation and reason to justify what happenedThe PhilosophersExplored many subjects – mathematics, physics, music, logic, and rational thinkingThrough reason and observation, they believed they could discover laws that govern the universeEthics and moral behavior – debated the best kind of government and what standards should govern people’s behavior
98The Great Thinkers of Greece The Sophists, questioned accepted ideas about truth and justiceUrged students to develop skills in rhetoric, the art of skillful speakingSocrates was an outspoken critic of the Sophists – believed they undermined traditional valuesSocrates – The Wandering TeacherQuestioned fellow citizens about their beliefs and ideasUrged his students to question and critically examine all around them
99The Great Thinkers of Greece Socrates - Although he wrote nothing, he left Western philosophy the rich legacy of his example in the persistent pursuit of truthThe Socratic Method – to seek truth and knowledgeDevoted himself to free-wheeling discussion with the aristocratic young citizens of Athens, insistently questioning their unwarranted confidence in the truth of popular opinionsCharged with corrupting the youth and interfering with the religion of the cityConvicted Socrates; sentenced him to death in 399 B.C.E; drank hemlock in the company of his friends and died
101The Great Thinkers of Greece The legacy of SocratesPlato – emphasized the importance of reason; through rational thought, people could discover unchanging ethical values, recognize perfect beauty, and learn how to organize an ideal societyThe Republic – described his vision of the ideal stateRejected Athenian democracy because it condemned SocratesBelieved that the state should regulate every aspect of its citizens’ lives in order to provide for their best interests
102The Great Thinkers of Greece Divided the society into 3 classes: workers, soldiers, and philosophersTTYN – Using Plato’s template for society, describe the role for each of three classesWorkers produce the necessities, soldiers defend the state, and philosophers would rule; trained to ensure order and justice; the wisest would have the ultimate authorityBelieved women could and should play an active role
103The Great Thinkers of Greece AristotleAll types of government, Aristotle found good and bad examplesSuspicious of democracy; thought it would lead to mob ruleFavored rule by a single, strong, and virtuous leaderReason was the guiding force for living and learning
105The Beauty of Ancient Greece Greek architecture has been admired and copied for centuriesMost of our knowledge of Greek architecture comes from the few surviving buildings of the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods…..since Roman architecture heavily copied GreekAncient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship
108The Beauty of Ancient Greece Greek sculpture emphasized the same passion for perfection as architectureEmphasized natural posesCarved gods, goddesses, athletes, and famous men in a way that showed individuals in their most perfect, graceful form
111Project“Greeks Ain’t No Freaks”Your Task: Working cooperatively with your peers, students, working in groups will create a PowerPoint presentation emphasizing the significant events and contributions of ancient Greece.In a PowerPoint format, each group will present to the class their work-product. Be prepared to explain why you selected the topics, and confidently explain the historical significance of each topic.Each member of the group will a two-page summary reflecting what you learned throughout the task.Each student will complete a task worksheet summary that indicates the role of each member of the group, their cooperation, and their participation/contribution throughout the project.
112Document Based Question: Ancient Greek Contributions Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents in part A. As you analyze the documents over the next three days, do the following steps.Carefully read the document-based question. Consider what you already know about this topic.Now, read each document/primary source/secondary source carefully, underlining or highlighting key phrases and words that address the document-based question. You may also write brief notes in the margins.Answer the questions which follow each document.Based on the information found in the documents and your own knowledge, formulate a thesis statement that answers the question.Organize supportive and relevant information into a brief outline on the attached worksheet.Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis statement. The essay should be presented clearly and include information from the documents. You may include knowledge from outside the documents in addition to those provided here. In your essay, you must state where you get evidence from (for example: “In Document 6, it states…”) and use quotation marks if you are quoting directly from one of the sources. Also, do not use personal “I/me/my opinion” statements.
113DBQ: How did the ancient Greeks contribute to lasting ideas in Western civilization? Explain some political, artistic, and social ways. (Explain means “to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes of.”) Use at least three examples in each paragraph from the documents to explain your thesis.Part A: The following documents will help you understand the various ideas and contributions of the Ancient Greeks. Examine each document carefully, and answer the question or questions that follow each one.Document 1: A philosopher’s view on lifeThis quotation is from the philosopher Socrates, who lived in Athens from about 470 to about 399 B.C.E.“The unexamined life is not worth living.”What was Socrates suggesting about each person’s individual life in this quote?
114Document 2: Humanism in Ancient Greece This quotation is from the philosopher Aristotle, who lived and taught in Athens from 384 B.C.E. to 322 B.C.E.“Since human reason is the most godlike part of human nature, a life guided by human reason is superior to any other…For man, this is the life of reason, since the faculty [ability] of reason is the distinguishing characteristic of human beings.”Why did Aristotle believe human nature was so superior?
115Document 3: A leader in Athens This quotation is from the leader Pericles and his famous Funeral Oration (speech) given to his Athenians in about 430 B.C.E.“Our plan of government favors the many instead of the few; that is why it is called a democracy…While every citizen has an equal opportunity to serve the public, we reward our most distinguished citizens by asking them to make our political decisions…A man may serve his country no matter how low his position on the social scale.”What time of government was Pericles describing? What were his expectations for citizens in this type of government?
116Document 4: The population in Athens, 430 B.C.E. Adult male citizens with power to vote ,000Citizens without political power (women, children, some men) ,000Foreign-born residents of Athens ,000Slaves ,000Total population ,000--from Bertram Linder, A world History, 1979According to this document, which sector (part) of the population was the largest? Which sector was the smallest?What do these two numbers tell us about who had the most power in Athenian society? (Was it a democracy for everyone? Why or why not?)
117Document 5: MedicineFollowing is an excerpt from the Hippocratic oath (pledge). Hippocrates, a Hellenistic-age medical practitioner, lived from about 460 to about 377 B.C.E.“I will follow that [treatment] which, according to my ability and judgment, I will consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is [harmful].”What was Hippocrates—and doctors who still take his oath—promising to do?
118Document 6: The Parthenon What “perfect ratio” do this building’s proportions reflect?What elements of this building have influenced others after it?
119Document 7: Warfare in Sparta The expression below was supposed to be the parting cry of mothers to their sons. Mothers whose sons died in battle openly rejoiced; mothers whose sons survived hung their heads in shame."Come back with your shield - or on it.”How does this attitude reflect Spartans values?
120Document 8: Statue of Doruyphorus What do this statue’s features revealabout Greek ideals?How did the ancient Greek Olympic Gamesinfluence later civilization?
121Document 9: Greek DramaThis is an excerpt from the play Antigone by Sophocles, written in about 441 B.C.E. In this play, Antigone goes against the king’s order and buries her brother,Creon: And still you dared to overstep these laws?Antigone: For me, it was not Zeus who made that order. Nor do I think your orders were so strong that you, a mortal man, could overrun the gods’ unwritten and unfailing laws…I know I must die…but if I left my brother dead and unburied, I’d have cause to grieve as now I grieve not.What values are expressed in this Greek play?
122Use this worksheet to outline your DBQ essay: How did the ancient Greeks contribute to lasting ideas in Western civilization? Explain some political, artistic, and social ways.Thesis (Remember, no “I” or “me/my” statements!): What is this essay about?Body paragraph of topic #1: What is your first subject?Example one from documentsExample twoExample threeBody paragraph of topic #2: What is your second subject?B. Example twoConclusion