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My Idiosyncrasies: TTYN: Talk to Your Neighbor – an opportunity for cooperative learning. I use a lot as part of a Do Now activity. Do Nows: EVERY day/lesson.

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Presentation on theme: "My Idiosyncrasies: TTYN: Talk to Your Neighbor – an opportunity for cooperative learning. I use a lot as part of a Do Now activity. Do Nows: EVERY day/lesson."— Presentation transcript:

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2 My Idiosyncrasies: TTYN: Talk to Your Neighbor – an opportunity for cooperative learning. I use a lot as part of a Do Now activity. Do Nows: EVERY day/lesson begins with some type of Do Now; generally to follow-up on what was learned either from h/w or previous lesson. I also utilize Do Nows an opportunity to preface what is about to be learned. Cooperative Learning: I typically include some type of cooperative learning activities in every lesson such as completing organizers, reading activities, completing maps/geography activities, etc… Common Core: Everything I do has the Common Core in mind. Every class should include some type of literacy component. Projects: See last slide for suggestion. Typically, I would begin a new unit with a class project, but thats me.

3 What I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I Learned About Greece

4 Geography

5 Unlike other early civilizations, Greek civilization did NOT rise in a fertile river valley Rugged and remote corner of S.E. Europe Mountainous and rocky terrain Several plains. TTYN: In what part of the world is Ancient Greece located?

6 Refer to Notes Packet Small Group Activity: Mapping Ancient Greece

7 Geography TTYN – Why is geography important? Identify and describe three reasons why the geographical features of a country is important. Hint…thing social, political, and economic. The Pindus Mountains start in northern Greece and stretch south to the Gulf of Patra. Geographically no where in Greece is more than 60 km from the sea Greece is located on the southernmost point of the Balkan Peninsula and is flanked by 3 large bodies of water: the Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.

8 Geography The Peloponnesus Mountains occupy southern part of Greece. Approximately 20% of Greece is made up of islands. Crete is a large island located in the Mediterranean Sea Most of the people in Greece live along the coast, or along rivers and harbors. Climate - Most of Greece has a mild climate Summers are warm and dry Rain is heavy during the winter months, with some mountain areas getting snow.

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15 Early Civilizations

16 Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization Occupied the island of Crete First inhabitants probably migrated from Asia Minor We do not know a lot of the Minoan Civilization Success of the Minoans was a result of trade…not conquest TTYN: What is Cultural Diffusion?

17 Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization Through contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Minoans acquired ideas and technology – Cultural Diffusion Minoan reached its peak between 1750 – 1500 BCE The Palace of Knossos (NAHS uhs) Archeologist digs reveal painting suggests that women moved freely and may have enjoyed more rights than women in most ancient civilizations

18 Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization Minoans established outposts throughout the Aegean world, including mainland Greece Location allowed the Minoans to cross the seas to the Nile River Valley and the Middle East

19 Palace of Knossos

20 Early Civilizations of Greece Minoan Civilization About 1400 BCE, Minoan Civilization vanished Archaeologists are not sure why…maybe a volcanic eruption on nearby island Maybe an earthquake Invaders definitely played a role – the Mycenaeans

21 Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's Indo-European people Conquered Greek mainland Dominated the Aegean world from 1400 – 1200 BCE Sea Traders Reached Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia Influenced by the Egyptians and Mesopotamia – Cultural Diffusion

22 Mycenean Greece and the Orient about 1450 B.C.

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24 Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's Lived in separate city-states on the mainland Warrior-king ruled his village Rulers amasses treasure; gold ornaments that archaeologists have unearthed from their tombs)

25 Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's The Trojan War – 1250 BCE Legend or Reality??? May had its origin due to economic rivalry with Troy Troy – rich trading city in now present-day Turkey Troy controlled the straits that connect the Mediterranean and Black Sea Trojan prince Pars kidnapped Helen, wife of a Greek King The Mycenaeans sailed to Troy to rescue her For 10 years, the Greeks and Troy fought

26 Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's The Trojan Horse Seeking entrance into Troy, Odysseus ordered a large wooden horse to be built. Its insides were to be hollow so that soldiers could hide within it. A number of the Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, climbed inside. The rest of the Greek fleet sailed away, so as to deceive the Trojans. One man, Sinon, was left behind.

27 Early Civilizations of Greece The Mycenaean's When the Trojans came to marvel at the huge creation, Sinon pretended to be angry with the Greeks, stating that they had deserted him. He assured the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to the Trojans. The Trojans celebrated what they thought was their victory, and dragged the wooden horse into Troy. At night, after most of Troy was asleep or in a drunken stupor, Sinon let the Greek warriors out from the horse, and they slaughtered the Trojans.

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31 Early Civilizations of Greece Homer Mycenaean power faded 1100 to 800 BCE, Greek Civilization seemed to have step backwards; trade declined, cities were abandoned, and people stopped writing Homer; Greek poet; author of the Iliad and Odyssey According to legend, Homer was blind and would wander from village to village playing his harp and singing of heroic deeds His tales were passed from generation to generation before they were written down Not This Homer

32 Early Civilizations of Greece Homer The Iliad, serves as our primary source about the Trojan War, including several writing liberties such as gods, goddesses, and a talking horse Mother tells me, the immortal goddess Thetis with her glistening feet, that two fates bear me on to the day of death. If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy, my journey home is gone, but my glory never dies. If I voyage back to the fatherland I love, my pride, my glory dies… TTYN – W hat is Homers message in this passage? Courage is not the absence of fear, but the presence of fear yet the will to go on

33 Early Civilizations of Greece Homer The Odyssey, Homer tells the reader a story of the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus to return home to his faithful wife, Penelope, after the fall of Troy. During his journey home, Odysseus encounters a sea monster, a race of one-eyed giants, and beautiful sorceress who turns men into swine. TTYN – The Iliad and the Odyssey tell us what about the ancient Greeks? Homer depicts the heroism and courage of the ancient Greeks

34 The Rise of Greek City-States How Geography played a big role in the development of Ancient Greece The mountains divided the peninsula into isolate valleys Beyond the coastline sat hundreds of rocky islands The Greeks did NOT establish a large empire as the Egyptians and Mesopotamians had – they built many small city-states City-states were cut off from one another by either land or water Strong loyalty to their own city-state Fiercely defended their independence Frequent wars between the city-states

35 The Rise of Greek City-States The Polis 750 BCE, a unique version of the city-state called the polis The top of the city sat the acropolis or high city, with great marble temples dedicated to gods and goddesses On flatter grounds lay the walled main city with its market place, theater, public buildings, and homes Men would spend time in the marketplace, debating issues that affected their lives

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37 The Rise of Greek City-States Early Governments 750 – 500 BCE Different forms of government First, Monarchy – king or queen exercised power Next, Aristocracy – class of noble landowners would win power for themselves Trade expands and new middle class of wealthy merchants emerge Challenged the landowning nobles for power. Oligarchy – power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business elite

38 The Rise of Greek City-States Changes in Warfare Technology contributes to military strategies and power Iron weapons replaced bronze; iron cheaper; now the common man could acquire iron helmets, shields, and swords New fighting methods emerge The Phalanx emerges – formation of heavily armed foot soldiers The phalanx reduces class differences TTYN – why did the phalanx impact class differences? Defense was now in the hands of ordinary citizens

39 What I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I Have Learned So far About Greece

40 The Rise of Greek Super Powers Sparta and Athens The Rise of Greek Super Powers Sparta and Athens

41 Athens Sparta

42 Activity - Sparta and Athens Task: Working in small groups, each student will complete the Sparta & Athens Learning Stations Packet Class should be separated into four groups Group Presentation Groups present summary of Sparta and Athens Materials Required Poster Board Learning Stations Packets

43 Sparta and Athens The effect of new technology and warfare lead to emergences of two dominate city-states: Sparta and Athens Developed very different ways of life Sparta stressed military virtues and discipline Athens glorified the individual; would extend political rights to more citizens Geography Rewind: Locate Sparta and Athens on your map

44 Sparta and Athens Sparta Spartans conquer Laconia This region lies in the Peloponnesus (southern part of Greece) Conquered people turned into slaves, called helots Helots worked the land Spartans administered a brutal system of strict control Spartan Government – consisted of two kings and a council of elders who advised the elders Assembly, made up of all citizens approved major decisions; citizens were male and over 30

45 Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Young boys were bred to be strong Spartans Spartan boys were only allowed to wear one layer of clothing Spartan youth became excellent soldiers Encouraged to steal to develop cunning and supplement their diet; if caught they would be beaten Spartan women wrestled and took part in sports Had to obey their fathers or husbands The culture of Sparta changed from normal Archaic Greek to military and athletic.

46 Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Elders judged whether Spartan babies were strong or weak enough to live. If they were judged too weak, they were hurled into a gorge or left to die in a hillside. Life was made tough for the Spartan citizens so they could forever control the Messenians. Even alcohol was banned to the Spartans, but the helots were allowed to drink.

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48 Sparta and Athens Life as a Spartan Sparta isolate itself from its neighbors such as the Greeks Looked down and wealth Forbade their citizens from traveling Had little use for new ideas or the arts Were willing to die for their city TTYN – Why would Spartas rigid system and inability to change lead to their decline in power

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50 Sparta and Athens Athens Athens was located in Attica, north of Peloponnesus Government would evolve from a monarchy into an aristocracy 700 BCE, noble landowners held the power and chose chief officials Nobles judged major cases in court and dominated the assembly

51 Sparta and Athens Athens Merchants and soldiers resented the power of the nobles Argued that their service to Athens entitled them to more rights Demands for change also came from farmers During hard times, farmers were forced to sell their lands to nobles; some were forced to sell themselves and family into slavery

52 Sparta and Athens Athens Athens moves closer to democracy; government by the people Solons Reform Solon – Chief Official granted permission to make needed reform Outlawed slavery because of debt High office to more citizens Granted citizenship to foreigners Gave Athenian assemble more say in important decisions

53 Sparta and Athens Athens Economic Reform Encouraged the export of wine and olive oil; helped merchants and farmers by increasing demand Citizenship still remained limited Wealthy landowners still held onto the highest positions of authority Rise of the Tyrants – people who gained power by force Won support by imposing reforms

54 Sparta and Athens Athens Athenian tyrant, Pisistratus (pi SIHS truh tuhs) seized power in 546BCE Helped farmers by giving them loans and land taken from nobles New building projects – gave jobs to the poor Gave the poor a voice and weakened the aristocracy 507BCE, reformer Cleisthenes created the Council of 500 members were chosen by lot of all citizens Created law and supervised the day-to-day work of government Created a legislature – lawmaking body, debated law All male citizens over 30 were members

55 Sparta and Athens Athens Limited Rights Only males citizens could participate in government Slavery still existed Slavery provided the citizens with the time to participate in government

56 Sparta and Athens Athens Women, as in other Greek city-states had no share in public life Women must be guided by men Managed the house, cared for the children, and prepared food Boys received an education, girls received very little, if any Young men received military training and encouraged to explore many others areas of knowledge Studied to become public speakers TTYN – why would it be necessary to become a good public speaker? In a democracy you were expected to voice your opinion and views

57 Sparta and Athens Athens Common Culture Spoke same language Honored same ancient heroes Participated in common festivals such as the Olympic Games Prayed to the same gods (polytheistic)

58 Sparta and Athens Athens Believed the gods lived on Mt. Olympus in Northern Greece Zeus – the most powerful god Hera – goddess of marriage Poseidon – god of the sea Aphrodite – goddess of love Ares – god of war Athena – god of wisdom, gave her name to Athens

59 Sparta and Athens Athens View of non-Greeks Trade expanded and so did Greek colonies Came in contact with people who had different cultures and languages Felt superior to non-Greeks Called outsiders or non-Greeks barbaroi; people who did not speak Greek English word Barbarians comes from barbaroi This feeling of superiority and what they learned from other cultures would help the Greeks face a threat from the mightiest power in the Mediterranean world – The Persian Empire

60 Athens

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63 SpartaAthens

64 What I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I Have Learned So far About Greece

65 Greco-Persian War

66 Activity: The Persian Wars Task: Working in small groups, each group shall complete the worksheet using their spilt note-taking skills. Complete the questions at the end of each section

67 Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars Earth and Water 492 BCE, King Darius of Persia sent messengers to the Greek city-states demanding gifts of earth and water as a symbol of surrender Many states obeyed Athens and Sparta declined Prior to the Persian demand, the Greek city-states, despite their cultural ties, were often bitterly divided. However, when Persia made their threat, they united to defend their freedom

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69 Historian Herodotus

70 Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars By 500 BCE, Persian authority had stretched into the Ionian Sea Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian rule Athens sent ships to help Persians crush the rebellion within the Ionian cities. Persia looks to punish Athens for interfering Battle at Marathon – 490 BCE Marathon, north of Athens

71 Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars Persian outnumbers the Athenians two to one Despite being outnumbered, the Athenians used an element of surprise Persians retreated….The Greeks were victorious The Greek sent a runner to Athens to share the news He sprinted nearly 26 miles

72 Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars 480 BCE, Xerxes, Ruler of the Persians sends a much larger force to Athens Sparta is on-board Persians marched south to Athens; burn Athens; however, Athens was empty Athens puts their faith in the fleet of ships that they had build Strait of Salamis; Athenian ships trapped, rammed, and sank the Persian fleet TTYN – What effect would the victory over the Persians represent for the Athenians?

73 Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars The Delian League – alliance with other Greek city-states designed to meet the continued threats from Persia Athens dominates the league Creates an Athenian Empire Forced its allies to remain in the league against their will The League and the power it gave Athens over the rest of Greece were to become one of the major reasons for the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and its allies.

74 Concept Ladder Topic: The Persian Wars

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77 The Legend of Pericles The Golden Age – the years after the Persian Wars Pericles leads Athens Economy thrived government became more democratic 490 – 429 BCE – The Age of Pericles Architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis New temples for the gods to remind Athens that the gods favored them Building projects increased prosperity by creating jobs for artisans and workers Athens became the cultural center of Greece

78 The Legend of Pericles Pericles believed that all male citizens should take part in government Began to pay salaries to those who helped in public office; enabled poor men to serve in government The Assembly met several times per month At least 6K members would participate Direct Democracy – large number of male citizens took part in the day-to-day affairs of government TTYN – How do we (today) participate in democracy? Indirect democracy – through representatives

79 The Legend of Pericles The Funeral Oration Thucydides, historian during the Age of Pericles Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law: when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership of a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses. TTYN – What is Pericles suggesting? Athenian citizens bore a special responsibility, We alone, he stated, regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harmless but as a useless character

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81 The Peloponnesian War Greek vs. Greek Many Greeks resented Athens and Athenian domination Two camps emerge; Led by Sparta The Peloponnesian League Sparta encouraged oligarchy vs. Athenian democracy 431 BCE, war brakes out between Sparta and Athens 27 years of war

82 The Peloponnesian War Athens has a powerful navy, but Sparta has a land advantage Sparta was located inland, therefore, could not be attacked by sea Sparta marches to Athens Pericles moves the citizens inside the walls of Athens Disaster – a plague emerges; kills 1/3, including Pericles Pericles successors were less able; power struggle undermines the citys democratic government Sparta aligns with Persia 404 BCE, the Spartans capture Athens, stripped the Athenians of their fleet and their empire

83 The Peloponnesian War The impact of the war Athenian economy would revive Spirit and greatness would never return Democratic government suffered Corruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city- state Sparta would eventually be defeated by the Thebes, another Greek city-state Greeks would continue to fight among themselves 359 BCE, a new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to the north Stay tuned for out unit on Alexander the Great

84 AthensSparta Government Society Education Military A Comparison of City-States

85 The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors. Spartan captives were called helots.

86 The Spartan government feared the helots might rebel, so they firmly controlled the people of Sparta and began training boys for war at age 7. From age men remained in military barracks. Education was based on military strategy and strength. Women and men were both educated

87 All Spartan men were in the army until age 60. One mother told her son: Come home carrying your shield or being carried on it Military was the priority in Sparta

88 Spartan women enjoyed more freedom than most Greek women. Girls were trained in sports like running, wrestling, and javelin throwing. Wives stayed at home while their husbands lived in the barracks. This meant they could own property and go where they wanted!

89 Athens started out as an oligarchy like Sparta. After a revolution by the major population, Athens became a direct democracy in 508 BC

90 Athenians valued education, art, literature and philosophy Citizens participated in major decisions Athens wanted to control the Greek Peninsula

91 Goal: prepare students to be citizens in war and peacetime Children in Athens had teachers for reading, writing, arithmetic, sports, and music At 18 Athenian boys finished school and became citizens. Athenian women didnt get to go to school.

92 Athens maintained an army and navy Strongest navy in Greece Military was not priority Allowed them to control the nearby seas.

93 TTYN: In which city-state would you have rather lived in ancient Greece? Why? Sparta or Athens??

94 Spartas government was an oligarchy. An oligarchy is a type of government that means by rule by few. In Sparta two kings headed a council of Elders. The Elders, which included 28 citizens over age 60, presented laws to the Council. All Spartan men over 30 belonged to the Council. They chose five people to be ephors to enforce laws and collect taxes.

95 Before: Athens control Greece, Sparta is unhappy Spartans and allies (The Peloponnesian League) attack Athens After vicious war, Athens surrenders Leads to decline of city-states and mass disorder in Greece

96 What I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I Have Learned So far About Greece

97 The Great Thinkers of Greece Some great thinkers denied that events were caused by the whims of the gods – they used observation and reason to justify what happened The Philosophers Explored many subjects – mathematics, physics, music, logic, and rational thinking Through reason and observation, they believed they could discover laws that govern the universe Ethics and moral behavior – debated the best kind of government and what standards should govern peoples behavior

98 The Great Thinkers of Greece The Sophists, questioned accepted ideas about truth and justice Urged students to develop skills in rhetoric, the art of skillful speaking Socrates was an outspoken critic of the Sophists – believed they undermined traditional values Socrates – The Wandering Teacher Questioned fellow citizens about their beliefs and ideas Urged his students to question and critically examine all around them

99 The Great Thinkers of Greece Socrates - Although he wrote nothing, he left Western philosophy the rich legacy of his example in the persistent pursuit of truth The Socratic Method – to seek truth and knowledge Devoted himself to free-wheeling discussion with the aristocratic young citizens of Athens, insistently questioning their unwarranted confidence in the truth of popular opinions Charged with corrupting the youth and interfering with the religion of the city Convicted Socrates; sentenced him to death in 399 B.C.E; drank hemlock in the company of his friends and died

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101 The Great Thinkers of Greece The legacy of Socrates Plato – emphasized the importance of reason; through rational thought, people could discover unchanging ethical values, recognize perfect beauty, and learn how to organize an ideal society The Republic – described his vision of the ideal state Rejected Athenian democracy because it condemned Socrates Believed that the state should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives in order to provide for their best interests

102 The Great Thinkers of Greece Divided the society into 3 classes: workers, soldiers, and philosophers TTYN – Using Platos template for society, describe the role for each of three classes Workers produce the necessities, soldiers defend the state, and philosophers would rule; trained to ensure order and justice; the wisest would have the ultimate authority Believed women could and should play an active role

103 The Great Thinkers of Greece Aristotle All types of government, Aristotle found good and bad examples Suspicious of democracy; thought it would lead to mob rule Favored rule by a single, strong, and virtuous leader Reason was the guiding force for living and learning

104 SocratesAristotle

105 The Beauty of Ancient Greece Greek architecture has been admired and copied for centuries Most of our knowledge of Greek architecture comes from the few surviving buildings of the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods…..since Roman architecture heavily copied Greek Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship

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108 The Beauty of Ancient Greece Greek sculpture emphasized the same passion for perfection as architecture Emphasized natural poses Carved gods, goddesses, athletes, and famous men in a way that showed individuals in their most perfect, graceful form

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110 Athens Sparta

111 Project Greeks Ain t No Freaks Your Task: Working cooperatively with your peers, students, working in groups will create a PowerPoint presentation emphasizing the significant events and contributions of ancient Greece. In a PowerPoint format, each group will present to the class their work-product. Be prepared to explain why you selected the topics, and confidently explain the historical significance of each topic. Each member of the group will a two-page summary reflecting what you learned throughout the task. Each student will complete a task worksheet summary that indicates the role of each member of the group, their cooperation, and their participation/contribution throughout the project.

112 Document Based Question: Ancient Greek Contributions Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents in part A. As you analyze the documents over the next three days, do the following steps. 1.Carefully read the document-based question. Consider what you already know about this topic. 2.Now, read each document/primary source/secondary source carefully, underlining or highlighting key phrases and words that address the document-based question. You may also write brief notes in the margins. 3.Answer the questions which follow each document. 4.Based on the information found in the documents and your own knowledge, formulate a thesis statement that answers the question. 5.Organize supportive and relevant information into a brief outline on the attached worksheet. 6.Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis statement. The essay should be presented clearly and include information from the documents. You may include knowledge from outside the documents in addition to those provided here. In your essay, you must state where you get evidence from (for example: In Document 6, it states…) and use quotation marks if you are quoting directly from one of the sources. Also, do not use personal I/me/my opinion statements.

113 DBQ: How did the ancient Greeks contribute to lasting ideas in Western civilization? Explain some political, artistic, and social ways. (Explain means to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes of.) Use at least three examples in each paragraph from the documents to explain your thesis. Part A: The following documents will help you understand the various ideas and contributions of the Ancient Greeks. Examine each document carefully, and answer the question or questions that follow each one. Document 1: A philosophers view on life This quotation is from the philosopher Socrates, who lived in Athens from about 470 to about 399 B.C.E. The unexamined life is not worth living. What was Socrates suggesting about each persons individual life in this quote?

114 Document 2: Humanism in Ancient Greece This quotation is from the philosopher Aristotle, who lived and taught in Athens from 384 B.C.E. to 322 B.C.E. Since human reason is the most godlike part of human nature, a life guided by human reason is superior to any other…For man, this is the life of reason, since the faculty [ability] of reason is the distinguishing characteristic of human beings. Why did Aristotle believe human nature was so superior?

115 Document 3: A leader in Athens This quotation is from the leader Pericles and his famous Funeral Oration (speech) given to his Athenians in about 430 B.C.E. Our plan of government favors the many instead of the few; that is why it is called a democracy…While every citizen has an equal opportunity to serve the public, we reward our most distinguished citizens by asking them to make our political decisions…A man may serve his country no matter how low his position on the social scale. What time of government was Pericles describing? What were his expectations for citizens in this type of government?

116 Document 4: The population in Athens, 430 B.C.E. Adult male citizens with power to vote - 40,000 Citizens without political power (women, children, some men) - 80,000 Foreign-born residents of Athens - 80,000 Slaves 250,000 Total population 450,000 --from Bertram Linder, A world History, 1979 According to this document, which sector (part) of the population was the largest? Which sector was the smallest? What do these two numbers tell us about who had the most power in Athenian society? (Was it a democracy for everyone? Why or why not?)

117 Document 5: Medicine Following is an excerpt from the Hippocratic oath (pledge). Hippocrates, a Hellenistic-age medical practitioner, lived from about 460 to about 377 B.C.E. I will follow that [treatment] which, according to my ability and judgment, I will consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is [harmful]. What was Hippocratesand doctors who still take his oathpromising to do?

118 Document 6: The Parthenon What perfect ratio do this buildings proportions reflect? What elements of this building have influenced others after it?

119 Document 7: Warfare in Sparta The expression below was supposed to be the parting cry of mothers to their sons. Mothers whose sons died in battle openly rejoiced; mothers whose sons survived hung their heads in shame. "Come back with your shield - or on it. How does this attitude reflect Spartans values?

120 Document 8: Statue of Doruyphorus What do this statues features reveal about Greek ideals? How did the ancient Greek Olympic Games influence later civilization?

121 Document 9: Greek Drama This is an excerpt from the play Antigone by Sophocles, written in about 441 B.C.E. In this play, Antigone goes against the kings order and buries her brother, Creon: And still you dared to overstep these laws? Antigone: For me, it was not Zeus who made that order. Nor do I think your orders were so strong that you, a mortal man, could overrun the gods unwritten and unfailing laws…I know I must die…but if I left my brother dead and unburied, Id have cause to grieve as now I grieve not. What values are expressed in this Greek play?

122 Use this worksheet to outline your DBQ essay: How did the ancient Greeks contribute to lasting ideas in Western civilization? Explain some political, artistic, and social ways. Thesis (Remember, no I or me/my statements!): What is this essay about? Body paragraph of topic #1: What is your first subject? 1.Example one from documents 2.Example two 3.Example three Body paragraph of topic #2: What is your second subject? I.Example one from documents B. Example two C.Example three Conclusion

123 Resources and Readings

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130 Learning Stations Packet

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