Presentation on theme: "Madame Maria Curie - Skłodowska The Daughter of Poland A Scientific Genius of the World Ms. Beata Paszyc, Vice Honorary Consul, Republic of Poland Copyright."— Presentation transcript:
Madame Maria Curie - Skłodowska The Daughter of Poland A Scientific Genius of the World Ms. Beata Paszyc, Vice Honorary Consul, Republic of Poland Copyright 2011
Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.
Childhood Maria Sklodowska was born in Warsaw, Poland November 7, 1867 Mother was a school principal, Father a teacher Three sisters and one brother Lost her sister at the age of 9 and mother at the age of 11
Warsaw, Poland (Russian Empire) Following three partitions 1772,1793, 1795 (by Prussia, Austria-Hungary & Russia) POLAND as a country in Europe ceased to exit for 123 years
Adolescence Maria was an excellent student; loved physics, chemistry, math, biology & music Spoke Polish, Russian, French & English Fond of nature
Graduated High School with Honors Governess and first love Flying University Training at lab in Warsaw
Maria attended began boarding school that her mother had operated while she was well; then a gymnasium for girls, from which she graduated on 12 June 1883 with honors. She spent the following year in the countryside with her father's relatives and the next with her father in Warsaw, where she did some tutoring. On both the paternal and maternal sides, the family had lost their property and fortunes through patriotic involvements in Polish national uprisings. This condemned each subsequent generation, including that of Maria, her elder sisters, and brother to a difficult struggle to get ahead in life. Maria made an agreement with her sister, Bronisława, that she would give her financial assistance during Bronisława's medical studies in Paris, in exchange for similar assistance two years later. In connection with this, Maria took a position as governess: with, the Żorawski family relatives of her father. While working for them, she fell in love with their son, Kazimierz Żorawski, His parents, however, rejected the idea of his marrying the penniless relative, and Kazimierz was unable to oppose them. Maria lost her position as governess.governessKazimierz Żorawski Maria made an agreement with her sister, Bronisława, that she would give her financial assistance during Bronisława's medical studies in Paris, in exchange for similar assistance two years later. In connection with this, Maria took a position as governess: with, the Żorawski family relatives of her father. While working for them, she fell in love with their son, Kazimierz Żorawski, His parents, however, rejected the idea of his marrying the penniless relative, and Kazimierz was unable to oppose them. Maria lost her position as governess Maria tutored, studied at the clandestine Floating University, and began her practical scientific training in a laboratory The laboratory was run by her cousin Józef Boguski, who had been assistant in St. Petersburg to the great Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev SOURCE????
Paris Left Poland for France at the age 24 (changes her name to Marie Sklodovska) Student at Sorbonne Studied, worked and lived on 3 francs a month Visited Poland, patriotic. With Sister Bronislawa 1886
Pierre Pierre Curie born in Paris, May 15, 1859 Son of a physician Professor of Physics at Sorbonne Pierres untimely death April 19, 1906 Maries favorite photo of Pierre
Maria ruled out love and marriage from her life, disappointed by her first love. In Paris she was poor; she vowed to follow her vocation in solitude. She was obsessed by her work and extremely driven. She met Pierre when he was 35 and they discussed science together. He was an extraordinary scientist, who had received his MA in physics at the age of 18.
Marie & Pierre Met at Sorbonne Worked together, formed friendship & fell in love Our work drew us closer and closer, until we were both convinced that neither of us could find a better life companion.
Marriage Marie and Pierre married in a civil ceremony on July 26, 1895 They had two daughters, Irene and Eve Wedding 1895 I have no dress except the one I wear every day. If you are going to be kind enough to give me one, please let it be practical and dark so that I can put it on afterwards to go to the laboratory. -Marie Curie referring to he wedding dress
Family Mother of Irene and Eve Irene Curie – Joliot Noble Prize Winner Eve Curie wrote Madame Curie Biography I have frequently been questioned, especially by women, of how I could reconcile family life with a scientific career. Well, it has not been easy.
Trips to Poland (Tatra Mountains) Marie with Pierre and daughter Irene
Obtained Masters degrees in Physics and Mathematics Later, in 1903, Doctorate in Physics.
Marie and Pierre worked 4 years in a shed to separate polonium and radium into a pure state. A scientist in his laboratory is not a mere technician: he is also a child confronting natural phenomena that impress him as though they were fairy tales.
Polonium & Radium We believe the substance contains a metal not yet observed. If the existence of this new metal is confirmed we propose to call it : Polonium from the name of the original country of one of us Year 1898 1902 they explained their discovery of another new element, which they named "radium" from the Latin word for ray.
Pierre was so intrigued by Marie's work that he joined forces with her. Her research had revealed that two uranium ores, pitchblende and chalcolite, were much more radioactive than pure uranium itself. She concluded that the highly radioactive nature of these ores might be due to one or more additional, as yet undiscovered, radioactive elements. Pierre put aside his research on crystals to help expedite Marie's discovery of the possible new elements. They worked as a team, each taking on specific scientific tasks.
Perhaps the most famous of all women scientists, Maria Curie-Sklodowska is notable for her many firsts: She was the first to use the term radioactivity for this phenomenon. She was the first woman in Europe to receive her doctorate of science.
In 1903, she became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize for Physics. The award, jointly awarded to Curie, her husband Pierre, and Henri Becquerel, was for the discovery of radioactivity. She was also the first female lecturer, professor and head of Laboratory at the Sorbonne University in Paris (1906).
1906 marks a very dark period of her life. On 19 April 1906, Pierre was killed in a street accident. Walking across the Rue Dauphine in heavy rain, he was struck by a horse-drawn vehicle and fell under its wheels, his skull was fractured.Rue Dauphine Skłodowska–Curie was devastated by the death of her husband. She noted that, as of that moment she suddenly had become "an incurably and wretchedly lonely person". On 13 May 1906, the Sorbonne physics department decided to retain the chair that had been created for Pierre Curie and they entrusted it to Skłodowska–Curie together with full authority over the laboratory. This allowed her to emerge from Pierre's shadow. She became the first woman to become a professor at the Sorbonne, and in her exhausting work regime she sought a meaning for her life. Quote: page 259 10 days after this tragic accident she resumed the course at the precise sentence where Pierre Curie left it.
In 1911, she won an unprecedented second Nobel Prize (this time in chemistry) for her discovery and isolation of pure radium and radium components. She was the first person ever to receive two Nobel Prizes and win the award in two different fields and only person to win the award in different sciences. She was the first mother-Nobel Prize Laureate of daughter-Nobel Prize Laureate. Her oldest daughter Irene Joliot-Curie also won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1935).
I am one of those who think like Nobel, that humanity will draw more good than evil from new discoveries.
Curie was the only woman at the 1911 conference, organized and subsidized by Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay. Discussions at this gathering of the world's top physicists opened the way to a new physics that would bring together relativity, the quantum, and radioactive atoms. Langevin, at far right, stands next to the young Albert Einstein. Rutherford stands above Curie, who confers with Poincaré.
World War I Marie Curie at the wheel of Renault car converted into a radiological unit, in which from August 1914 she traveled from hospital to hospital. Marie Curie and her daughter Irène at the Hoogstade Hospital in Belgium, 1915. Radiographic equipment is installed.
The United States of America In 1921 President Harding presented Madame Curie with a gram of radium bought for her by the Americans.
Pres. Warren G. Harding escorting Madame Curie down steps to south grounds of the White House 5/20/21
We must not forget that when radium was discovered no one knew that it would prove useful in hospitals. The work was one of pure science. And this is a proof that scientific work must not be considered from the point of view of the direct usefulness of it. It must be done for itself, for the beauty of science, and then there is always the chance that a scientific discovery may become like the radium a benefit for humanity.
Radium Institute, Paris 1919 Under Curies direction the Radium Institute in Paris became a world center for the study of radioactivity. Between 1919 and Curie's death in 1934, scientists at her Radium Institute published 483 works, including 31 papers and books by Curie herself. Until the end of her life she continued research to isolate, concentrate, and purify polonium and actinium.
Radium Institute, Warsaw, 1932 Thanks to the initiative of Maria, Radium Institute was opened in Warsaw. Skłodowska laid the corner stone in 1925. Seven years later, in the presence of the next President of the Republic of Poland, Skłodowska formally opened the Institute, which was directed by her sister Bronislawa. Now called the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology.
Farewell Marie Curie – Sklodovska died on July 4, 1934. The disease was an aplastic pernicious anemia of rapid, feverish development (due to long exposure to radiation) She was buried twice: On July 6, 1934, she in the same cemetery in Sceaux with Pierre. Over 60 years later the remains of Pierre and Marie Curie were re- interred in France's national mausoleum, the Panthéon, in Paris.
She is the first woman which has been laid to rest under the famous dome of the Pantheon in Paris (1995) for her own merits. She received 15 gold medals, 19 degrees, and many other honors.
Curie – Sklodowska Remembered Marie Curie is, of all celebrated beings, the only one whom fame has not corrupted. Albert Einstein Maria Curie-Sklodowska Museum in Warsaw, Poland
Tributes As one of the most famous female scientists to date, Marie Curie has been an icon in the scientific world and has inspired many tributes and recognitions. The curie (symbol Ci), a unit of radioactivity, is named in honour of her and Pierre, as is the element with atomic number 96 curium.curiecurium Three radioactive minerals are named after the Curies: curite, sklodowskite, and cuprosklodowskite.curitesklodowskitecuprosklodowskite Skłodowska-Curie's likeness appeared on the Polish late-1980s inflationary 20,000-złoty banknote. Her likeness also has appeared on stamps and coins, as well as on the last French 500-franc note, before the franc was replaced by the euro.inflationaryzłotybanknotefranceuro Marie Curie was voted the "Most inspirational woman in science" in a 2009 poll carried out by New Scientist magazine on behalf of the L'Oréal UNESCO 'For Women In Science' programme. Curie received 25.1 per cent of all the votes cast, nearly twice as many as second-place Rosalind Franklin (14.2 per cent).New ScientistL'OréalUNESCORosalind Franklin Polish institutions named after Maria Skłodowska–Curie include: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, in Lublin, founded in 1944;Maria Curie-Skłodowska UniversityLublin Soviet postage stampSovietpostage stamp Medallion, University at BuffaloMedallionUniversity at Buffalo Maria Skłodowska–Curie Institute of Oncology, in WarsawMaria Skłodowska–Curie Institute of OncologyWarsaw French institutions named after Maria Skłodowska–Curie include: Pierre and Marie Curie University, the largest science, technology, and medicine university in France, and the successor institution to the faculty of science at the University of Paris, where she taught; it is named in honor of her and Pierre. The university is home to the laboratory where they discovered radium.Pierre and Marie Curie UniversityUniversity of Parisradium The Curie Institute and Curie Museum, in ParisCurie InstituteCurie Museum In 2007, the Pierre Curie Paris Métro station was renamed the "Pierre et Marie Curie" station.Pierre CurieParis MétroPierre et Marie Curie American institutions named after Maria Skłodowska–Curie include: Curie Community at the Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, in Chicago, a memorial gathering room for students at the university In Bayside, Queens, New York, another school named for her, Marie Curie M.S. 158, specializes in science and technology; as does Curie Metropolitan High School located in Archer Heights, on Chicago's Southwest Side which has a Technical, Performing Arts and IB programBayside, QueensM.S. 158science technologyCurie Metropolitan High SchoolArcher HeightsChicago's Southwest Side The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Medallion, a stained-glass panel created by Jozef C. Mazur, may be found at the University at Buffalo Polish Room.Maria Skłodowska-Curie Medallionstained-glassJozef C. Mazur University at Buffalo Greer Garson and Walter Pidgeon starred in the 1943 U.S. Oscar-nominated film, Madame Curie, based on her life. "Marie Curie" also is the name of a character in a 1988 comedy, Young Einstein, by Yahoo Serious.Greer GarsonWalter PidgeonMadame CurieYoung EinsteinYahoo Serious More recently, in 1997, a French film about Pierre and Marie Curie was released, Les Palmes de M. Schutz. It was adapted from a play of the same name. In the film, Marie Curie was played by Isabelle Huppert. Unlike the 1943 drama, Les Palmes de M. Shutz is a light comedy.Les Palmes de M. SchutzIsabelle Huppert A KLM McDonnell Douglas MD-11 (registration PH-KCC) is named in her honor.KLMMcDonnell Douglas MD-11
Maria Curie - Sklodowska University, est. 1944; Currently, 36,000 students; international exchange programs.
Life is not easy for any of us. But what of that? We must have perseverance and above all confidence in ourselves. We must believe that we are gifted for something and that this thing must be attained.