Presentation on theme: "Imants Breidaks Renaissance was a cultural movement, that began in the 15th century Italy and later spread into other parts of Europe. Renaissance from."— Presentation transcript:
Renaissance was a cultural movement, that began in the 15th century Italy and later spread into other parts of Europe. Renaissance from French language means «rebirth» and it influenced culture, politics, art and education. Historians consider Renaissance to be a «bridge» between Middle Ages and modern world. What is Renaissance?
In politics idea developed that political process should be based on «principles». More and more observation served as basis for scientific work. Humanists werent interested in rejecting faith or standing against church – they rather wanted to add new methods and rekindle ancient knowledge that were given by God. Humanists extensively studied Latin literature. Rejuvenated interest in the legacy of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. Gradually there began a reform of education. What happened in Renaissance?
Humanism can be considered as a core element of Renaissance. The Humanism was a movement that popularized the knowledge and values of Ancient Rome and Greece in language, literature and philosophy. Representatives of Humanism asserted the importance of humanities and their skills. Humanistic education was – studies of poetry, gramatics, history, moral philosophy and rethorics. It was called studija humanitates or the study of humanism. What is Humanism?
Humanists put emphasis on the «genious of human» and «the unique and unbelievable capabilities of human mind». Humanists considered that people have to be free in spirit, well educated, physically strong. What were humanists values?
The Humanism movement consisted of writers, researchers, political leaders and intelectuals. They wished to form a new society – politically active and civic. A society where women would also be active. Society that is active and capable to clearly and elegantly write and talk. This society would be ethical and practical. Some of the most important humanist thinkers: Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Leonardo Bruni, Còsimo de Mèdici, Niccolò Machiavelli, Desiderius Erasmus, David Hume. Humanism thinkers
Rulers often hired Humanists as their state secretaries and their personal advisors. Several Popes also supported Humanist thinkers and artists. The centers of Humanist movement and education were in Florence, Naples, Rome, Venice, Mantua, Ferrara and Urbino. Supporters of Humanists and the centres of Humanism
Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469.-1536.). Outstanding theologian, active critique of the church. Raised position against medieval ignorance, religious fanaticism and sharlatanism in science. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti or Michelangelo (1475.-1564.). Most ellaborately expressed Humanistic ideals – momumentalism, generalization, beauty and unlimited capabilities of humans. Recomended reading: Erasmus of Rotterdam, «Praise of folly». Some humanists
Humanism changed the existing Medieval education, by introducing new accents on the practical and scientific. Until then the study of nature almost did not happen at all. Humanists succeeded in rekindling and creating interest in the Antique texts and ideas. With the discovery of book printing, that began in the middle of 15th century, the new ideas started to spread quicker and easier accross the borders – thus these ideas became popular also in France, Germany, then Holland and England. The book printing allowed humanists to exchange letters easily and share their studies. Humanism encouraged a fast growth of literacy. What did Humanism achieve?
Ideas of Humanism reached Riga and Vidzeme in 16th century, two centuries after they began in Italy. The literature of Humanists in Riga in 16th century was well known in other lands as well. Their works were read and discused in Revel, Lubeck, Stockholm and Konigsberg. Some of the most active Humanist writers in Riga were Daniel Salomon, Salomon Frencel, Rotger Pistorij, David Hilhen, Burkard Valdiss and Basilij Plinij. Humanism in Livonia
One of the humanists in Livonia was Basil Pliny. (?- 1605). Doctor by education, but more widely known as a poet. In his texts, written in Latin, he is close to natural sciences. Pliny prizes humans and their work – especially brilliant scientists, for example, astronomer Tycho Brahe. Also he highly prizes the common people who do simple jobs and traders – inhabitants of Riga who work to rise the wealth of their great city. He as a poet tells about the beauty of everyday life, putting the achievements of human mind as the most important ones. Humanism in Livonia
Although ideas of Humanism and Renaissance were widespread in Europe, but Europeans, after discovering far away lands in Africa and America, did not acted upon the ideals that they upheld at homee. Europeans in 15th to 19th centuries often used brute force towards other cultures to promote their interests and their culture. Such policies were contrary to Humanistic morals. There even was a discussion about – what should be the grounds for legitimacy of putting to slavery those that do not belong to Christian faith. Humanism outside Europe?
The Humanism greatly increased interest about phylosophical concepts, technical achievements and geographical articles. Humanists not only increased the growth of sciences and art, but also tolerance towards different opinions. That on its own fostered the development of diversity of ideas. Humanists used the works of antique authors as inspiration for their own theories. In those works they found affirmation that human beings are entitled to independent and critical thinking. That gave It put foundations for later ideas about human rights and rational perception of the world that is grounded in science. Humanists were the first to divide history in three: Antiquity, Medieval ages and modern history. In their works they often called the Antiquity as the «Golden age». The legacy of Humanism
What technical innovation allowed and speed up the spread of Humanism? When did Humanism arrived in Livonia ? What were the Humanists values ? The Humanistic values were not present in European contacts with other cultures and inhabitants of other continents. Why? Was Humanism successful in its goals? What is the legacy of Humanism? Has anything valuable and important survived till nowadays? Why is Humanism seen as the begining of modern mentality? Questions: