Presentation on theme: "National Institute of Communication Finance 30 th April 2013 (T K Varada Krishnan, Consultant, WPC Wing)"— Presentation transcript:
National Institute of Communication Finance 30 th April 2013 (T K Varada Krishnan, Consultant, WPC Wing)
Outline of Presentation Radio Frequency Spectrum What is Spectrum Management Spectrum Management Process Radiocommunication Services Frequency Bands for certain Radio Services Frequency Bands for 2G & 3G technologies (as per NFAP) Frequency Bands for IMT Digital Dividend Spectrum Re-farming Spectrum Efficiency
Radio Frequency Spectrum Radio Frequency Spectrum (RFS) and associated satellite orbits, including Geostationary-Satellite Orbit (GSO) are limited natural resources. Radio waves are defined as electromagnetic waves of frequencies arbitrarily from 9 kHz to 275 GHz, propagated in space without artificial guide. Radio frequency waves do not respect geographical boundary, and these cannot be confined to national boundaries. Radio waves are susceptible to harmful interference and requires application of complex engineering tools to ensure interference-free operation of various wireless networks.
Radio Frequency Spectrum continued… This natural resource is used and not consumed; It is wasted if not used or if not used optimally and efficiently. Available universally and uniformly to the whole mankind. Radio Frequency Spectrum and Geostationary Satellite Orbit must be used efficiently, optimally, rationally and economically in conformity with the provisions of the national law and international treaty.
Radio Frequency Spectrum continued… The limitation of radio frequency spectrum is mainly due to the following: Propagation characteristics of radio waves Availability of technology and equipment for different applications Suitability of frequency bands for specific applications. Demands on spectrum have always been more than its availability.
Radio Frequency Spectrum continued… The utilisation of radio frequency spectrum is governed by international treaties, namely, the Constitution, the Convention and the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as well as by the bilateral agreements between two countries. All frequency bands are available for use in all countries, including India, in accordance with international table of Frequency allocations and associated radio regulatory provisions. National Frequency Allocation Plan forms the basis for development, manufacturing and spectrum utilisation activities in the country.
What is Spectrum Management Combination of administrative, scientific and technical procedures to ensure efficient operation of the various radiocommunication services without causing harmful interference. It has national and international aspects.
Spectrum Management Process Spectrum planning Allocation (Band Plan) Table of Frequency Allocations Spectrum engineering Modeling of propagation patterns Spectrum Authorisation Assignment (Spectrum licensing) First come, first served, beauty contest, lotteries, auctions Spectrum monitoring and enforcement Type approval of equipment Detection of illegal or wrongful use of frequencies or equipment Enforcement of regulations & licence conditions
Spectrum Planning Spectrum planning involves the allocation of portions of the frequency spectrum to specified uses in accordance with international agreements, technical characteristics and potential use of different parts of the spectrum, and national priorities and policies.
Spectrum Engineering Spectrum engineering involves the development of electromagnetic compatibility standards for equipment that emits or is susceptible to radio frequencies.
Spectrum Authorisation Spectrum authorization involves granting access under certain specified conditions to the spectrum resource by various types of radio communication equipment and the certification of radio operators.
Spectrum Monitoring Spectrum monitoring and compliance involves the monitoring of the use of the radio spectrum and the implementation of measures to control unauthorized use.
Allocation Allocation (of a frequency band): Allocations are entries in a table of frequency allocations which sets out the use of a given frequency band for use by one or more radiocommunication services. An allocation then is a distribution of frequencies to radio services.
Allotment Allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel): Allotments are entries for designated channels in a plan for use by one or more countries in those countries or within designated areas for a radiocommunication service under specified conditions. An allotment then is a distribution of frequencies to geographical areas or countries.
Assignment Assignment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel): Assignments are authorizations given to radio stations to use radio frequencies or radio frequency channels under specified conditions. An assignment then is a distribution of a frequency or frequencies to a given radio station.
Assignment It is done to the end user based on their requests It contains technical parameters like frequency spots, bandwidth, RF Power, Antenna gain, Azimuth, locations, and time of operations It requires technical examination which includes RR, Existing assignment (NFR), characteristics of proposed Tx/Rx, etc EMC analysis is done using the radio propagation models as per ITU before arriving at actual frequency assignment
Radiocommunication Services There are forty different types of radiocommunication services, defined in the ITUs Radio Regulations. Some of the radio services, among others, are as given below: o FIXED SERVICEo MOBILE SERVICE o FIXED SATELLITE SERVICEo MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE o MARITIME MOBILE SERVICEo MARITIME MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE o AERONAUTICAL MOBILE SERVICE o SHIP MOVEMENT SERVICE o AERONAUTICAL MOBILE (R) SERVICEo AERO-MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE o BROADCASTING SERVICEo BROADCASTING SATELLITE SERVICE o RADIOLOCATION SERVICEo RADIOLOCATION SATELLITE SERVICE o RADIONAVIGATION SERVICEo RADIONAVIGATION SATELLITE SERVICE o METEOROLOGICAL AIDS SERVICEo EARTH EXPLORATION SATELLITE o AMATEUR SERVICE o RADIO ASTRONOMY SERVICE o SAFETY SERVICEo STANDARD FREQUENCY AND TIME SIGNAL SERVICE
Frequency Bands for certain Radio Services Some of the typical frequency bands for certain Radio Services are as below: Radio ServiceFrequency Bands Radionavigation9 – 14 kHz Mobile (Distress & Calling)495 – 505 kHz Broadcasting kHz Maritime Mobile2065 – 2107 kHz 2170 – kHz – 2194 kHz Amateur & Amateur Satellite7000 – 7100 kHz – kHz
Frequency Bands for certain Radio Services c ontinued Radio ServiceFrequency Bands Fixed, Mobile, Broadcasting Radio Astronomy 610 – 806 MHz Mobile, Fixed, Broadcasting Mobile Satellite MHz 942 – 960 MHz Radiolocation1350 – 1400 MHz Mobile Satellite (s-E)1535 – 1559 MHz Mobile, Fixed, Space Operation, Space Research MHz Fixed, Fixed Satellite (s-E), Mobile MHz
Frequency Allocations For Satellite Services FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE (FSS) MHz FOR UP-LINK(C-BAND) MHz FOR DOWNLINK( C BAND) MHz FOR UPLINK (UPPER EXT C) MHz FOR DOWNLINK(UPPER EXT C) MHz FOR UPLINK (LOWER EXT-C) MHz FOR DOWNLINK( LOWER EXT-C) GHz (down-links) GHz (down-links) GHz (down-links) (Region 2 only) GHz (down-links) (Region 1 only) GHz (up-links) GHz (down-links) GHz (up-links)
Frequency Bands for IMT The WARC-92 and the WRC-2000 identified certain frequency bands for implementation of IMT-2000 ( now known as IMT) MHz MHz paired with MHz MHz Further, the WRC-07 identified certain additional frequency bands for implementation of IMT MHz MHz MHz MHz
Spectrum Allocations in India-NFAP 2002* (MHz) GSM/CDMA CDMA Mobile Transmit GSM * Under Revision Cor-DECT(TDD) IMT 2000(3G) PCS CDMA
Digital dividend after digital television transition The digital dividend refers to the spectrum which is released in the process of digital television transition. When television broadcasters switch from analog platforms to digital only platforms, part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been used for broadcasting will be freed up because digital television needs less spectrum than analog television.digital television transition electromagnetic spectrum
Digital dividend after digital television transition The digital dividend usually locates at frequency bands from 174 to 230 MHz (VHF) and from 470 to 862 MHz (UHF). However, the location and size of digital dividend vary among countries due to the factors including geographical position and penetration of satellite/cable services.VHFUHF
Spectrum Re-farming One of the biggest planning challenges facing spectrum managers is the reallocation of spectrum. When frequencies have been used for one purpose, perhaps for decades, it is often difficult to reallocate these frequencies for a different use. The need for reallocation – often known as refarming - can arise in several ways:
Spectrum Re-farming The international table of frequency allocations may have changed and the national table of frequency allocations must be realigned to remain consistent with it; A radio service may not have developed as expected; New technologies are made available that are more spectrum-efficient, allowing spectrum to be freed up either for the same use in that band or other uses.
Spectrum Re-farming Spectrum refarming may be seen as process constituting any basic change in conditions of frequency usage in a given part of radio spectrum. Such basic changes might be: Change of technical conditions for frequency assignments; Change of application (particular radiocommunication system using the band); Change of allocation to a different radiocommunication service.
Spectrum Refarming: Roll-out 3G services on 2G spectrum Recently European Union officially ratified the updated GSM Directive which allows 900MHz frequency to be used for 3G and eventually 4G. This means governments across the region will now be obliged to allow operators to use 900 MHz spectrum band to roll out 3G and other high-speed technologies. The usual spectrum band for 3G services is 2.1 GHz but many operators are planning to use the existing 2G spectrum (850 MHz and 900 MHz) for 3G services.
Spectrum Re-farming Fund who pays for the costs of transitioning existing users to new frequencies. the user to absorb the cost. the beneficiaries of the change are either invited or required to reimburse all or part of the transition costs of the incumbent user. to establish a refarming fund by setting aside a portion of spectrum revenues where funds come from either general taxation revenues, a combination of above.
Spectrum Efficiency One radiocommunication system is more "spectrum efficient" than another if it conveys the desired information using less of the spectrum resource.
Spectrum Efficiency In this broader sense, spectrum is not used efficiently when systems are not packed together as tightly as possible in frequency bands (as when excessive guard bands are used), or when portions of frequency bands are unused while other bands with similar physical characteristics are congested. The allocation of frequency bands, the development of channeling plans, and the assignment of frequencies to specific systems all affect spectrum efficiency.