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Life of Christ: Matthew

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1 Life of Christ: Matthew
San Antonio College Oklahoma Christian University Life of Christ: Matthew 22 Feb 2010 Bill Brewer

2 Matthew 10: the “Limited Commission”
22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

3 Schedule Date Topic Assignments Due 11-Jan-10 Introduction 18-Jan-10
Lineage, Birth of Jesus syllabus 25-Jan-10 Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent 1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10 Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%) 3, 4, 11, 14:1-12 8-Feb-10 Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living 5; 6; 19:1-12 15-Feb-10 7; paper 22-Feb-10 Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom 10, 23 1-Mar-10 Parables of the Kingdom 13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10 By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%) 8, 9, 14 15-Mar-10 Spring Break 22-Mar-10 Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom 12, 16 29-Mar-10 The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church 17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10 Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon 20-25 12-Apr-10 The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion 26-27 19-Apr-10 The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%) 28 26-Apr-10 Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement 1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10 FINAL EXAM (20%) 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

4 Lesson 7 Questions 1. List the points Jesus covered in the Limited Commission. 2. What relevance did the Limited Commission have for Matthew’s community? 3. What historical problem is raised in the Limited Commission and how can it be resolved. List the seven woes on the Pharisees 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

5 Questions 1. Identify the points Jesus covered in the Limited Commission. Target population (vv5-6) Message (v7) Humanitarian ministry (v8) Personal preparation (vv9-10) Stipulations on lodging (vv11-14) Penalty for lack of hospitality (v15) Dealing with danger and persecution (vv16-18) Divine help (vv19-20) Intensity of opposition (vv21-22a) Reward for perseverance (v22b) The interrupting eschaton (v23) “lost sheep of the house of Israel” “kingdom of heaven is at hand” “heal, raise, cleanse, cast out ...” “do not acquire gold ...” “inquire who is worthy ...” “more tolerable for Sodom ...” “be shrewd ... innocent. Beware ...” “it will be given you what to say ...” “brother will betray brother ...” “he that endures will be save ...” “the cities of Israel will not be finished until Son of Man comes ...” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

6 Questions 1. Identify the points Jesus covered in the Limited Commission. (cont.) Likeness of Jesus and His disciples (vv24-25) “Do not fear” (vv26-31) Confession and denial (vv32-33) Messianic woes (vv34-36) Loyalty, sacrifice, and divine reversal (vv37-39) Identification of Jesus with His disciples (vv40-42) “if they have maligned me, how much more will they malign you?” “nothing hidden that will not be revealed ... hairs are numbered” “everyone who confess me ...” “bring not peace, but a sword ...” “he who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me ...” “he who receives you receives Me ...” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

7 Questions What relevance did the Limited Commission have for Matthew’s community? The Limited Commission bore witness to the eminence of Jews in the ministry of Jesus What historical problem is raised in the Limited Commission and how can it be resolved. The problem is the failure of an imminent Parousia (“the coming of the Son of Man”) The problem is solved by viewing the Roman-Jewish War of AD as a fulfillment of “the coming of the Son of Man” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

8 Questions Identify the seven woes on the Pharisees. Woe for ...
Obstructing entry into the kingdom while refusing to enter themselves Evicting widows while offering pious prayers Seeking converts but making them twice as ungodly as themselves Artful oath-making Focusing on minor things while neglecting weightier matters of the law Worrying about outward appearances rather than inner purity Feigning reverence for the prophets while following in the steps of their fathers who murdered them What purpose do the woes serve? They set the stage for the Olivet discourse on last things 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

9 *“And it came about that when Jesus had finished …” *
Excursion to Mt 11 CONTEXT 9:35 Jesus was going about ... teaching ..., and proclaiming ... and healing .... 36 And seeing the multitudes, He felt compassion .... 37 Then He *said ... “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few. 38 “Therefore beseech the Lord of the harvest to send out workers into His harvest.” First of five major discourses in Matthew Matthew *“And it came about that when Jesus had finished …” * Sermon on the Mount (5-7) Instructions to the Twelve (10) Parables of the Kingdom (13) Humility and Forgiveness Among Followers of Christ (18) The Olivet Discourse on Last Things (24-25) 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

10 Major Topics – Hagner 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

11 Detailed Outline – Hagner
22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

12 Major Points in the “Limited Commission”
Target population ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv5-6 Message ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ v7 Humanitarian ministry ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ v8 Personal preparation ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv9-10 Stipulations on lodging ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv11-14 Penalty for lack of hospitality ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ v15 Dealing with danger and persecution ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv16-18 Divine help ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv19-20 Intensity of opposition ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv21-22a Reward for perseverance ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ v22b The interrupting eschaton ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ v23 Likeness of Jesus and His disciples ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv24-25 “Do not fear” ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv26-31 Confession and denial ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv32-33 Messianic woes ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv34-36 Loyalty, sacrifice, and divine reversal ◦◦◦◦◦◦◦◦ vv37-39 Identification of Jesus with His disciples ◦◦◦◦ vv40-42 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

13 Matthew 10:1-4 10:1 And having summoned His twelve disciples, He gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every kind of disease and every kind of sickness. 2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; 3 Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax-gatherer; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; 4 Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Him. V1: the preceding verse (9:38) is the setup for the sending out of the Twelve “Therefore beseech the Lord of the harvest to send out workers into His harvest” V2: the number 12 corresponds to the 12 tribes of Israel, symbolizes “all Israel” (cf 19:28), and supports the church’s claim to be “true Israel” V3: the Gospel of Matthew is the only gospel where Matthew (not Levi) is described as a tax collector, a possible clue to the author of the gospel Vv2-4: Matthew delays identification of all 12 disciples to coincide with Jesus’ second great discourse, which deals with them specifically 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

14 Simon (the **Cananite)
Lists of the Apostles Matthew 10:2-4 Mark 3:16–19 Luke 6:14-16 Acts 1:3 Simon Peter Andrew James John Philip Bartholomew* Bartholomew Thomas Matthew Matthew* James (of Alphaeus) Thaddaeus Simon (the Zealot) Simon (the **Cananite) Judas (of James) Judas Iscariot *Bartholomew is traditionally identified with Nathanael in John 1:45; 21:2. The number 12 though is more important than the specific identities of the Twelve (as with the 12 tribes of Israel in the OT) **“Cananite” translates an Aramaic word for “enthusiast” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

15 Matthew 10:5-10 5 These twelve Jesus sent out after instructing them, saying, “Do not go in the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samaritans; 6 but rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 7 “And as you go, preach, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’ 8 “Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons; freely you received, freely give. 9 “Do not acquire gold, or silver, or copper for your money belts, 10 or a bag for your journey, or even two tunics, or sandals, or a staff; for the worker is worthy of his support. Vv5-6 are unique to Matthew and are the reason all of Mt 10 is often described as the “Limited Commission” (cf. the “Great Commission” in Mt 28:19) V7ff: the disciples continue the ministry of Jesus V8: no mention is made of how such authority was conveyed “Freely received/give” is unique to Matthew V9: the good news of the kingdom is still “in season,” so lack of physical provisions is possible (cf. Lk 22:35-38) Vv9-10: the synoptics differ on the details, but the point is the same 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

16 Matthew 10:11-15 11 “And into whatever city or village you enter, inquire who is worthy in it; and abide there until you go away. 12 “And as you enter the house, give it your greeting. 13 “And if the house is worthy, let your greeting of peace come upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your greeting of peace return to you. 14 “And whoever does not receive you, nor heed your words, as you go out of that house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet. 15 “Truly I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city. Matthew reflects a “salvation-history” perspective in which the Limited Commission (10) gives way to the Great Commission (28:19) Matthew’s preservation for his community of an otherwise irrelevant episode highlights God’s faithfulness to Israel, the religious continuity between Judaism and Christianity, and his community’s claim to being true Israel over against the synagogue Vv11-15: the disciples not only have a right to support, they are to be selective about those who give it V15: ministry recipients will be judged based on their hospitality toward Jesus’ disciples 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

17 Matthew 10:16-18 16 “Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; therefore be shrewd as serpents, and innocent as doves. 17 “But beware of men; for they will deliver you up to the courts, and scourge you in their synagogues; 18 and you shall even be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. Vv16ff shift attention from a context of acceptance to that of rejection V17: “their synagogues” probably reflects alienation of Matthew’s community from the synagogues Reference to “governors” and “Gentiles” in v18 anticipates the shift from the particularism of the Limited Commission to the universalism of the Great Commission 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

18 Matthew 10:19-22 19 “But when they deliver you up, do not become anxious about how or what you will speak; for it shall be given you in that hour what you are to speak. 20 “For it is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you. 21 “And brother will deliver up brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 22 “And you will be hated by all on account of My name, but it is the one who has endured to the end who will be saved. V19: preparation does not entail advance development of talking points V20: under examination, the disciples will be as prophets, speaking the mind of God V21: opposition will sever the bonds of natural affections. The allusion is to Mic 7:6 V22: endurance in the face of universal opposition is the only option If the view on v23 is correct, then “the end” here is borrowed from the “eschaton” to serve a more limited time horizon; i.e., the mission to Israel 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

19 Matthew 10:23-25 23 “But whenever they persecute you in this city, flee to the next; for truly I say to you, you shall not finish going through the cities of Israel, until the Son of Man comes. 24 “A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a slave above his master. 25 “It is enough for the disciple that he become as his teacher, and the slave as his master. If they have called the head of the house Beelzebul, how much more the members of his household! V23: the “coming of the Son of Man” (the eschaton) has at least three possible meanings: The literal end of the age The destruction of Jerusalem Some other major event (e.g., the Resurrection, Pentecost) The first did not/could not occur prior to the mission to the Gentiles and the third is too early for the level of persecution envisioned, so the best option is the destruction of Jerusalem Vv24-25: Jesus identifies Himself with His disciples, encouraging perseverance 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

20 Matthew 10:26-27 26 “Therefore do not fear them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed, and hidden that will not be known. 27 “What I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in your ear, proclaim upon the housetops. 28 “And do not fear those who kill the body, but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. 29 “Are not two sparrows sold for a cent? And yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father. 30 “But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31 “Therefore do not fear; you are of more value than many sparrows. V26 and v31 form an inclusio using the phrase “therefore do not fear” V26: the “fear” in question would appear to be that of the truth being suppressed V27: the disciples have a role in spreading the truth V28 reflects a soul-body (dichotomous) view of human beings (cf. Greek trichotomy, “soul, body, spirit”) Vv29-31 provide an a fortiori (lesser to the greater) argument (Hebrew qal wahomer) INCLUSIO 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

21 Matthew 10:32-36 32 “Everyone therefore who shall confess Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in heaven. 33 “But whoever shall deny Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven. 34 “Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth; I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. 35 “For I came to set a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; 36 and a man’s enemies will be the members of his household. Vv32-33: the acts of confession and denial are reciprocal although the exact content would of course differ Vv34-36: the imagery is in line with “Messianic woes,” but the context is still the mission to Israel Vv35-36: Micah 7:6 (alluded to in v21) is now quoted 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

22 Matthew 10:37-39 37 “He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. 38 “And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me. 39 “He who has found his life shall lose it, and he who has lost his life for My sake shall find it. V37: worthy discipleship requires uncompromising loyalty V38: worthy discipleship requires uncompromising sacrifice The mention of the “cross” at this point is interesting in that it is not announced until Mt 16:21, 24 V39: worthy discipleship produces a “divine reversal” that regains that which has been freely abandoned The paradox avoids contradiction by using “losing/finding life” in two different senses 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

23 Matthew 10:40-42 40 “He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me. 41 “He who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward; and he who receives a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man’s reward. 42 “And whoever in the name of a disciple gives to one of these little ones even a cup of cold water to drink, truly I say to you he shall not lose his reward.” V40: identification of the Father with Jesus and of Jesus with His disciples is so strong they are interchangeable when it comes to the mission to Israel (and by extension to the Gentiles) Vv41-42: rewards go to those who receive prophets, righteous men, and disciples simply because such bear the name “prophet, righteous man, or disciple” “Receive” implies more than just simple hospitality “Little one” is common cipher for “disciple” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

24 Excursion to Matthew 23: Context
Context: Matthew 21-22 Matthew 23 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

25 Excursion to Mt 23: Context
First of five major discourses in Matthew Matthew *“And it came about that when Jesus had finished …” * Sermon on the Mount (5-7) Instructions to the Twelve (10) Parables of the Kingdom (13) Humility and Forgiveness Among Followers of Christ (18) The Olivet Discourse on Last Things (24-25) 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

26 Review: The Pharisees Pharisees are variously understood by scholars as a religious sect, religious leaders, political leaders, lay leaders, scholars, middle-class artisans, or combination thereof Key sources are the NT, Josephus, and rabbinic literature Uncritical acceptance of sources is a mistake Even NT has an “agenda;” i.e., each gospel portrays Pharisees and Sadducees a bit differently Center of power was the synagogue 1 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

27 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Review: Pharisees ORIGINS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THEOLOGY NT CONTACT DESTINY Arose as a religious and political party during the second- temple period (516 BC-AD 70) briefly after the Maccabean Revolt about BC. They probably came from the Hassidim ("pious ones"). "Pharisee" may be from Hebrew stem meaning "to be separated"; i.e., separated from pagan practices and forces Arising from the mass of people, the Pharisees waged a vigorous struggle to remove Jewish religion from the control of the priests. They removed several ceremonies from the temple and placed them in the Jewish home. While the Sadducees occupied themselves with the temple, the Pharisees proclaimed to the people the law of God. They were more liberal and flexible in interpreting the Law than were the Sadducees God is omnipotent, all-wise, all-knowing, and all-present; He created man with two impulses, one to do evil and the other good. God urges him to do good, but man has the free will. The Torah consists of Written Law and Oral Law, both revealed by God to Moses; the Torah was to be interpreted with God-given reason, in view of the ideas of the knowledge of each age; not sacrifice but study of Torah was true worship; God is in total control, helping people to do good, and permitting them to do evil; believed in life after death, resurrection, and angels and other spirits NT references are likely against insincere Pharisees, who were even condemned by their fellows (cf. Sotah 111:4 and 22b). These Pharisees are called hypocrites and vipers (Mt. 23:5, 23ff; Lk 18:1ff.); Paul was proud of his heritage as a Pharisee (Acts 22). Pharisaic beliefs were in keeping with much of early Christian theology Survived into the present via Rabbinic Judaism H.W. House, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament, Academie Books, 1981 1 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

28 Review: The Sadducees Sadducees most likely traced back to the high priest Zakok in the time of David Their center of power was the Temple They did not believe in final judgment, afterlife, resurrection (22:23), or fate Sadducees rejected anything not found in the Law of Moses Matthew pays little attention to the distinctions between the Pharisees and Sadducees 1 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

29 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Review: Sadducees ORIGINS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THEOLOGY NT CONTACT DESTINY Name may be from Zadok, high priest in the days of David (2 Sam 8:17; 15:24) and Solomon (1 Ki 1:34-35; 1 Chron 12:28). Eze 40:46; 43:19; 44:10-15 show Zadok family worthy to control the temple. Sadducees may then be Zadokite partisans, a party formed about 200 BC as the party of the high priests and aristocratic families; not all priests were Sadducees Sadducees controlled the temple and the affairs of the country as representatives of the priestly aristocracy, supporting the Hasmonean rulers. Even under Roman rule, through the Sanhedrin, in which many were members, they exercised considerable political control over the people of Palestine; they were more apt to adopt Hellenism and were favored by the Romans Sadducees had a more anthropomorphic view of God than the Pharisees; as the conservative element in Jewish religion, they rejected the Oral Law, accepting only the Written Law of Moses; they denied the resurrection of the body and the existence of angels; emphasized the sacrificial cult of the temple; considered God not interested in human affairs, and so rejected divine providence Sadducees were highly political and considerably opposed to Christian doctrine (Mt 22:23; Mk 12:18; Acts 4:5; 23:8); thus the church had most to fear from the Sadducees Vanished in the Roman Jewish War of AD 66-70 H.W. House, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament, Academie Books, 1981 1 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

30 Origins and Destinies of the Pharisees and Sadducees
Roman-Jewish War (66-70 Haberim (associates) Rabbinic Judaism Pharisees “The Pious” Chasidim Essenes Israelite Cult Babylonian Captivity Jewish Religion Others (Ezra) Zadikim Sadducees Karaites “The Righteous” Samaritans 432 BC – 3rd Return, Nehemiah 458 BC – 2nd Return, Ezra 538 BC – 1st Return, Zerubbabel 586 BC - Fall of Jerusalem 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

31 Matthew 23:1-2 23:1 Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, 2 saying, “The scribes and the Pharisees have seated themselves in the chair of Moses; 3 therefore all that they tell you, do and observe, but do not do according to their deeds; for they say things, and do not do them. 4 “And they tie up heavy loads, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves are unwilling to move them with so much as a finger. Chapter 23 is a setup for Matthew’s fifth great teaching block (24-25) Vv1-12 contrast the pride of the scribes and Pharisees against the humility required of Jesus’ disciples Vv1-3a start on a positive note toward His antagonists, but in principle only Alexandre Bide 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

32 The Vilna Gaon (1720-1797) wearing head-tefillin
Matthew 23:3-6 5 “But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries [Heb. "tefillin"], and lengthen the tassels of their garments. 6 “And they love the place of honor [at the right hand] at banquets, and the chief seats [front seats] in the synagogues, 7 and respectful greetings in the market places, and being called by men, Rabbi [“my great one” or “my teacher;” in Matthew, Judas is the only one who calls Jesus “Rabbi”]. The Vilna Gaon ( ) wearing head-tefillin 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

33 22 Feb 2010

34 Matthew 23:7-12 8 “But do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. 9 “And do not call anyone on earth your father; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven. 10 “And do not be called leaders [or teachers]; for One is your Leader [or Teacher], that is, Christ. 11 “But the greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 “And whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted. V8: Cf. Jeremiah’s declaration that “all will know the Lord” (31:34 V9: the point here is the use of “father” in reverential sense, but cf. Paul’s use in Acts 7:2; 22:1; 1 Cor 4:15 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

35 The Seven Woes Woe for ... Obstructing entry into the kingdom while refusing to enter themselves Evicting widows while offering pious prayers Seeking converts but making them twice as ungodly as themselves Artful oath-making Focusing on minor things while neglecting weightier matters of the law Worrying about outward appearances rather than inner purity Feigning reverence for the prophets while following in the steps of their fathers who murdered them James Tissot 22 Feb 2010

36 Matthew 23:13-15 13 “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut off the kingdom of heaven from men; for you do not enter in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in. 14 [“Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you devour widows’ houses, even while for a pretense you make long prayers; therefore you shall receive greater condemnation.] 15 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you travel about on sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves. Matthew pairs the Pharisees with the scribes and portrays them as Jesus’ chief opponents Matthew has deployed seven “woe sayings” against the Pharisees for maximum effect Woes are the opposite of beatitudes, but they fall short of imprecations (curses) in being largely descriptive rather than prescriptive The first six woes come in three pairs and the seventh stands by itself Interestingly, the principle application of these woe sayings today might be to the church V14 (from Mk 12:40) is missing from early mss and occupies different positions in later mss 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

37 Matthew 23:16-20 16 “Woe to you, blind guides, who say, ‘Whoever swears by the temple, that is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.’ 17 “You fools and blind men; which is more important, the gold, or the temple that sanctified the gold? 18 “And, ‘Whoever swears by the altar, that is nothing, but whoever swears by the offering upon it, he is obligated.’ 19 “You blind men, which is more important, the offering or the altar that sanctifies the offering? 20 “Therefore he who swears by the altar, swears both by the altar and by everything on it. In vv16 and18, Jesus states the Pharisaic positions in “casuistic” form (i.e., application of general principles to specific cases) to expose the crassness of the Pharisee’s value system The main point though is not that the Pharisees had matters reversed, but that all oaths are binding (vv20-22) 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

38 Matthew 23:21-24 21 “And he who swears by the temple, swears both by the temple and by Him who dwells within it. 22 “And he who swears by heaven, swears both by the throne of God and by Him who sits upon it. 23 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier provisions of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others. 24 “You blind guides, who strain out a gnat ["qalmā”] and swallow a camel ["gamlā”]! V22 comes up unexpectedly but its missing preface can be reconstructed based on the patterns of vv16 and 18; i.e., the Pharisees were apparently saying oaths sworn on God’s throne don’t count while those sworn on the One who sits on the throne are obligatory V23: even though the tithing of spices was not strictly required by the Law, Jesus indulges the practice, but only if more important matters are attended to first V24: note the play on words within this proverbial statement 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

39 Matthew 23:25-28 25 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside they are full of robbery and self-indulgence. 26 “You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that the outside of it may become clean also. 27 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which on the outside appear beautiful, but inside they are full of dead men’s bones and all uncleanness. 28 “Even so you too outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. V25: the metaphor of ritual or hygienic cleanliness quickly turns to moral cleanliness V26: the process of cleanliness must flow from the inside out. V27-28 makes the preceding point with different imagery. In ancient times, Jewish tombs were whitewashed to make them more visible and therefore easier to avoid for purposes of maintaining ceremonial cleanness The contradictory result, which Jesus applied to the Pharisees, was outward beauty masking inward corruption 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

40 Matthew 23:29-33 29 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous, 30 and say, ‘If we had been living in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partners with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ 31 “Consequently you bear witness against yourselves, that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. 32 “Fill up then the measure of the guilt of your fathers. 33 “You serpents, you brood of vipers, how shall you escape the sentence of hell? Vv29-31 bear witness to the operation of a guilty but unrepentant conscience in its being obsessed with the symbol of its guilt Jesus exploits the “our fathers” part of the Pharisee’s disclaimer to make the charge the Pharisees therefore admit to being the children of those who killed the prophets V32: see 1 Thess 2:16 V33: calling spiritual leaders of the Jews “brood of vipers” is shocking in its harshness. Cf. Mt 3:7 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

41 Matthew 23:34-36 34 “Therefore, behold, I am sending you prophets and wise men and scribes; some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city, 35 that upon you may fall the guilt of all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. 36 “Truly I say to you, all these things shall come upon this generation. V34 explains how v32 will be fulfilled “Prophets and wise men” is Matthew’s way of referring to Jesus’ followers As in other places in Matthew, “your synagogues” reflect alienation between Matthew’s community and unbelieving Jews “City to city” echoes chapter 10 Vv34-36 reflect a structure of (1) invective (v34), (2) threat (v35), and confirmation (v36) that will be repeated in vv37-39 V35: Zechariah is probably the one in 2 Chron 24:20. Since Chronicles was the last book in the Jewish canon, all of Scripture is bracketed by two murders: Abel’s and Zechariah’s Vv35-36 probably refer to the War of 66-70 V36 all guilt is imputed to one “generation” 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

42 Matthew 23:37-39 37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, the way a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were unwilling. 38 “Behold, your house is being left to you desolate! 39 “For I say to you, from now on you shall not see Me until you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!’” Vv37-39 are a lament that set the stage for the last of Matthew’s five discourses V37: Jerusalem, not Jesus, had chosen to put itself outside the grace of God V39: like most laments, this one offers a glimmer of hope 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

43 Lesson 7 Wrap Up 1. List the points Jesus covered in the Limited Commission. 2. What relevance did the Limited Commission have for Matthew’s community? What historical problem is raised in the Limited Commission and how can it be resolved. List the seven woes on the Pharisees. What purpose do the woes serve? 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

44 Postings for this Week 22 Feb 2010

45 Schedule Date Topic Assignments Due 11-Jan-10 Introduction 18-Jan-10
Lineage, Birth of Jesus syllabus 25-Jan-10 Timing, Preparation for Jesus' Advent 1-2, Gal. 3:23-4:7 1-Feb-10 Jesus' Baptism, Temptations; Test 1 (10%) 3, 4, 11, 14:1-12 8-Feb-10 Sermon on the Mount: Kingdom Living 5; 6; 19:1-12 15-Feb-10 7; paper 22-Feb-10 Limited Commission; the Eternal Kingdom 10, 23 1-Mar-10 Parables of the Kingdom 13, 15, 25 8-Mar-10 By the Power of God; Test 2 (20%) 8, 9, 14 15-Mar-10 Spring Break 22-Mar-10 Power over Demons; Foundation of Jesus' Kingdom 12, 16 29-Mar-10 The Transfiguration; Instructions to the Church 17, 18, 19 5-Apr-10 Conflict with Opponents; Mount of Olives Sermon 20-25 12-Apr-10 The Last Supper, Betrayal, Trial, Crucifixion 26-27 19-Apr-10 The Resurrection of Christ; Test 3 (20%) 28 26-Apr-10 Post-Resurrection; Doctrine of Atonement 1 Cor 15; Heb 7, 9, 10 3-May-10 FINAL EXAM (20%) 22 Feb 2010 - Bill Brewer

46 Questions for Next Week
1. Answer objective questions and write detailed paragraphs on … Parables and Jesus' use of them 2. List the parables of Jesus in chapter 13 and give the meaning of each. 3. What theme does chapter 15 illustrate? 4. List the three parables in chapter 25 and identify the main point of each. 5. Who is being judged in the parable of the judgment in chapter 26 and on what basis is the judgment determined? 22 Feb 2010


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