2 Beauty A quality that gives aesthetic pleasure Visual pleasantness of a person, animal, object or scene.Pleasantness of sound.
3 Subjectivity of Beauty Perception of each personRace, culture, era
4 The Divine Proportion The Golden Ratio No unification or generalization“Beauty is in the eye of the Beholder”PHIThe Divine Proportion The Golden Ratio
5 Mathematics and the Golden Ratio Since the twentieth century, the golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter Φ or φ (phi, after Phidias, a sculptor who is said to have employed it when sculpting figures for the Parthenon).Ratio = 1.618… = Phi = ø
6 Fibonacci Numbers Each number is phi times the last 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89…Found in natureWhite Calla LilyEuphorbiaTrilliumBlack-eyed SusanColumbineBloodrootShasta DaisyPassion FlowerField Daisy
7 Golden Rectangle The Parthenon Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa Vitruvius Since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing
8 Golden Pentagon The Sacrament of the Last Supper Salvador Dali Raphael CrucifixionThe Sacrament of the Last SupperSalvador Dali
9 Golden SpiralNautilus ShellCapitulum: SunflowerPine Cones
11 PHI MASK Dr Stephen Marquardt Dr. Stephen Marquardt has studied human beauty for years. He has performed cross-cultural surveys on beauty and has found that all groups have the same perceptions of facial beauty. He has also analyzed the human face from ancient times to modern day. Through he research he has discovered that beauty is not only related to PHI but can be defined for both genders and for all races, cultures and eras with the beauty mask which he developed and patented. The mask uses the pentagon and decagon as its foundation, which embody phi in all their dimensions.