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Part 1: Using Anthropology as the Scientific Basis for the Study of Culture Part 2: New Jersey History – 12000 BP to European Contact.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Using Anthropology as the Scientific Basis for the Study of Culture Part 2: New Jersey History – 12000 BP to European Contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1: Using Anthropology as the Scientific Basis for the Study of Culture Part 2: New Jersey History – BP to European Contact

2 What is Anthropology? Physical Anthropology Primatology The study of primates. Paleoanthropology The study of human evolution Human Variation Studies: The study of the physical differences in humans. Cultural Anthropology A.K.A. Ethnology Ethnography A.K.A. Participant Observation Linguistics Archaeology

3 What is Culture? The Culture Concept: Culture is understood as the learned body of knowledge, beliefs, and customs that people use to organize their natural and social environments. Material Traits Tools Clothing Housing ETC. Non-Material Traits Attitudes Behaviors Beliefs ETC.

4 Culture: No overall consensus as to its meaning…over 300 definitions. An Autonomous Population Unit Distinct Cultural Characteristics Shared Traditions Problems: Cannot Define Cultural Boundaries Cultures are Not Closed and Self-Contained Cultures are in Constant Contact and Change Cultures are Provisional and Transitory Many are Extinct

5 Culture is a Survival Mechanism An infinite variation in cultural expression, but each meets a certain need – Food, Shelter, Resolve Conflict, Solace, etc. A blueprint of our customs and ideas for living. It is packaged and delivered by symbols. It is pervasive - we are often unaware but it surrounds and envelops us. Items and ideas meld together and make sense.

6 Fine Arts Storytelling Subsistence Pattern Dancing-Games-Cooking-Dress Observable Material Elements May Include Behavioral Characteristics, i.e. Religion, Handshakes, etc. Surface Culture Deep CultureConception of Beauty – Ideals of Governing – Patterns of Raising Children Notions of Modesty – Cosmology – Relationship to Animals Patterns of Superior/Subordinate Relations – Courtship Practices Conception of Justice – Incentives to Work – Notions of Leadership Tempo of Work – Patterns of Group Decision Making Conception of Status Mobility (Class, Caste, etc.) – Eye Behavior Roles in Relation to Status by Age, Sex, Class, Occupation, Kinship, etc. Conversational Patterns in Various Social Contexts – Conception of Past and Future Nature of Friendship – Conception of Self – Preference for Competition or Cooperation Patterns of Handling Emotions AND MUCH, MUCH MORE…

7 Cultural Anthropology-Ethnology Ethnography-Participant Observation Social Organization Subsistence Pattern Economic Pattern Political Organization Religion ETC.

8 Do these concepts inherently reinforce bias when we teach history? PRIMITIVE UNDEVELOPED/DEVELOPED RACE ETHNOCENTRISM/CULTURAL BIAS

9 NEW JERSEYS NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY

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13 Ice sheet on Ellsmere Island, Canada

14 From Tundra: Semi-frozen Sub Arctic Plain To: Deciduous Forests

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16 New Jersey During the Late Pleistocene Epoch Circa 15,000-10,000 BP

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18 Hypothetical NJ Local Sequence in Archaeology BP 8000 BP 2000 BP Paleo Indian Period Archaic Period Woodland Period

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20 An Archaeological Local Sequence

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22 Woodland Period Archaic Hunters and Gatherers Circa 2000 BP Circa 1000 BP Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow Raising Corn, Beans and Squash An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ Circa 3000 BPPottery Circa 8000 BP Paleo Indians Circa BP Semi Nomadic Nomadic Herd Hunters

23 Paleo Indians And Mega Fauna

24 PALEO INDIAN TOOL KIT

25 Paleo Indian Projectile Points

26 Woodland Period Archaic Hunters and Gatherers Circa 2000 BP Circa 1000 BP Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow Raising Corn, Beans and Squash An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ Circa 3000 BPPottery Circa 8000 BP Paleo Indians Circa BP Semi Nomadic Nomadic Herd Hunters

27 ARCHAIC PERIOD POINTS

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30 Woodland Period Archaic Hunters and Gatherers Circa 2000 BP Circa 1000 BP Cultivating Grasses, Bow and Arrow Raising Corn, Beans and Squash An Archaeological Local Sequence in NJ Circa 3000 BPPottery Circa 8000 BP Paleo Indians Circa BP Semi Nomadic Nomadic Herd Hunters

31 The Three Sisters of the Garden

32 WOODLAND POINTS

33 EarlyMiddleLate Woodland Period Pottery

34 Guns, Germs and Steel The First Globalization

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36 EUROPEAN CONTACT

37 FROM THIS

38 TO THIS

39 COLONIAL ARTIFACTS

40 18 th and 19 TH CENTURY HOMES

41 LIGHTING

42 18 th and 19 th Century Artifacts and Methods Colonial Maps Homesites


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