Presentation on theme: "Location: Central Europe Location: Central Europe Neighbouring Countries: 7 – Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Kaliningrad."— Presentation transcript:
Location: Central Europe Location: Central Europe Neighbouring Countries: 7 – Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast. Neighbouring Countries: 7 – Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Kaliningrad Oblast. Seas: Balitc Sea Seas: Balitc Sea Area: 312,679 km² Area: 312,679 km² Topography: plains, grasslands, Topography: plains, grasslands, highlands, mountain ranges. highlands, mountain ranges.
OVER 1000 YEARS
Polish scientists were responsible for the following breakthroughs in science: JAN CZOCHRALSKI ( )– elaborated the production method of monocrystals used for manufacturing of semi-conductors more...more... STEFAN BANACH ( ) mathematician, creator of functional analysis who set up School in Lvov which paved the way for Polish mathematics to the top of world ranking KAROL OLSZEWSKI – chemist, professor of Jagiellonian University who in 1833 together with physicist ZYGMUNT WRÓBLEWSKI led to condensation of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from air
If you arent sure....
Maria Skłodowska Curie (Physics) Henryk Sienkiewicz (Literature) Sienkiewicz received his Nobel Prize for Quo vadis. Maria Skłodowska Curie (Chemistry) Władysław Reymont (Literature) He got his Nobel Prize for the novel entitled Chłopi Czesław Miłosz (Literature) He was awarded for his contribution to literary output. Lech Wałęsa (Politics) Wisława Szymborska (Literature) She was granted the Nobel Prize for her contribution to literary heritage
Polish chemistry, physics and mathematics can boast the highest number of scientific publications in all fields of sciences, taking 19th place on the ranking list of Scientific Information Institute in Philadelphia; History Mathematics Chemisty Physics
the discovery of the practical implementation of blue laser by the team led by prof.Sylwester Porowski from PAN ( to detect cancer cells, control rockets or monitor contamination) the design of the technology for the manufacture of the smallest synthetic diamonds in the world designing nano-crystals for the purposes of 3G mobile telephony systems the discovery of a substance which induces cancer cells to self destruct and vaccines against Heine-Medina and typhus
implanting novatory valvules in the heart by the group of cardio-surgeons, led by prof.Jerzy Sadowski from the Hospital named after the Pope John II in Cracow, constructing an artificial heart, producing Polish insulin, elaborating the test to check presence of CHEK2 gene for detecting predispositions to cancer, designing unique scald bandages, making the first European cardiosurgical robot Robin Heart.
Bohdan Paczyński – renowned for searching dark matter in Universe PAN Space Research Centre specialising in designing instruments and devices e.g. spectro-photo-metres for 2008 Interplanetary Mission Beppi Colombo – unmanned space craft to probe Mercury, Mars, Tytan. more...
Witold Lutosławski ( ) avant-garde composer but his mournful music made the biggest impression on audience, Magdalena Abakanowicz – creator of a new form of spatial tapestry,after being awarded in Sao Paulo Biennale 1965 gained international fame. Henryk M. Górecki (1933) – his III Symphony became an international bestseller in Baden-Baden 1976, making him one of the best contemporary composers. Krzysztof Penderecki (1933) the most versatile composer, author of Credo whose operas are performed on the stages all over the world e.g.Raj utracony, Czarna Maska and Król Ubu Tadeusz Kantor – avant-garde artist hailed the importer of novelties form West, an inventor of new techniques in painting, sculpture, graphics, theatre, happening.
Andrzej Wajda is a known throughout the world Polish director. In his movies he shows fates of people in important historic moments. He received many prestigious awards such as: Gold Bear at the Berlin Festival; Golden Palm at Festival in Cannes for the motion picture entitled: Iron Man Człowiek z Zelaza. He was nominated for the Oscar for the film about Katyn. In 2000 he was awarded Oscar for lifetime achievements. Jan A.P. Kaczmarek – 2005 for composing music to the film Finding Neveland Zbigniew Rybczyński for the best cartoon film Allan Starski and Ewa Brown - for screenplay of Schindlers List Janusz Kamiński – 1993 and 1998 for shooting the films: Schindlers List and Saving Private Ryan. Roman Polański for directing the film The Pianist
Effective manufacturers Polish IT specialists are much sought after abroad. Well-qualified managerial staff in Poland Talented Youth Resourceful entrepreneurs
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES Poland distinguishes itself in terms of ICT graduates who are winning in the prestigious Top Coder ranking and also achieving high positions in the worldwide For the last 12 years pupils of junior highschools have been winning gold medals at International Computer Science Contests. In 2006 Filip Wolski became the world champion in computer studies in Mexico. Tomasz Kulczyński In 2007 Tomasz Kulczyński repeated his success in Croatia. A year later Marcin Kościelnicki took the third place in the world contest in Egypt. Polish Students the best at ICT in the world!
In April 2005 Cracow University of Economics graduates won an international management contest – EUROMANAGER in Lisbon. Google Code Jam Competition and the IBM Linux Scholars Challenge. Over 300 Polish IT engineers are employed at the Silicon Valley. In 2008 students of computer science in Warsaw University won 9th edition of Global Managament Challenge. Lifetech –life saving system is an invention made a year later by students from University of Technology in Poznań. They beat 250 teams and proved to be the best in the world. The highest note was given to them by jury of Computer Society in charge of International Design Competition in Washington.
Poles are ranked among the best chess players in the world. In 2008 Radosław Wojtaszek became Champion of Europe in chess. The best Polish chess players are Bartosz and Monika Soćkowie. The latter is the first Polish woman who was granted the title of man super champion. WORLD CUP OF CHESS & BRIDGE Polish bridge players are also considered to be among the best 3 teams in the world, soon after Americans and Italians. At the International Championship of Mind Sports held in Pekin in 2008 Polish bridge players won 2 silver and 1 brown medal.
Polish boat builders have specialized in small and medium sized yachts of up to 7.5 metres in length. The so called Big Five of the Polish boatyards, which include Balt Yacht, Delphia Yachts, Galeon, Ostróda Yachts and Ślepsk, export nearly 100% of their production.
Polands "aviation valley is famous for its aviation industry and pilot training centres. It draws its knowledge from a hundred years of aviation traditions and 70 years of Polish experience in aviation. Manufacturing companies in Poland produce: light sports, passenger, agricultural and training aircrafts, helicopters, gliders, aircraft parts and accessories. In general, there are more than 60 aviation companies operating in Poland which employ a total of 18 thousand people. The aircraft are exported, mainly to: the USA, Venezuela, Italy, Greece, Canada, Spain, Germany, South Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam and Iraq. One of them is PZL Mielec ( Manufacturer of light transport and special- purpose airplanes, agro and fire-fighting and trainer aircraft, supplier of aerostructures and aircraft components for international industrial cooperation programs).
Poland - centre of automotive sector suppliers Poland is also a leading manufacturer of components such as: tyres, car seats and upholstery, car electronics, electric cables, Engines are slowly becoming Polish specialty. car brake's systems. Components manufactured in Poland are installed in cars of many brands, such as: Mercedes, Nissan, Opel, Porsche, Toyota, Volkswagen, Isuzu, Fiat, Citroen, Honda, Peugot, Volvo, BMW, Rolls-Royce, Lamborghini and Ferrari. Our boast: cars Gepard and Leopard produced in Mielec
Infusion of herbs, berries or fruits steeped in alcohol Oscypek (Polish; plural: oscypki) is a smoked cheese made of salted sheep milk In Poland, vodka (Polish: wódka), has been produced since the early Middle Ages. Polish sausages, Kiełbasa, come in a wide range of styles such as Swojska, Krajańska, Szynkowa, Biała, śląska, Krakowska, podhalańska, and others. Sausages in Poland are generally made of pork, rarely beef. Honey is the perfect sweetener for hot winter drinks Żubrówka- also known in English as Bison Grass Vodka. In Poland since the 16th century, and by 18th century it was one of the favourite raw drinks of the nobility
CRACOWS HISTORIC CENTRE WIELICZKA SALT MINE AUSCHWITZ BIRKENAU –GERMAN NAZI CONCENTRATION AND EXTERMINATION CAMP ( ) THE BIA Ł OWIEZA FOREST HISTORIC CENTRE OF WARSAW
OLD TOWN OF ZAMOŚĆ MEDIEVAL TOWN OF TORUŃ CASTLE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN MALBORK KALWARIA ZEBRZYDOWSKA THE MANNERIST RCHITECTURAL AND PARK LANDSCAPE COMPLEX AND PILGRIMAGE PARK
CHURCHES OF PEACE IN JAWOR AND ŚWIDNICA WOODEN CHURCHES OF SOUTHERN LITTLE POLAND PARK MUŻAKOWSKI THE CENTENNIAL HALL IN WROCŁAW
St Peters Square The Statue of Liberty Y ou N eednt L eave P oland
Inwałd, a small town located in the south of Poland. It's a place where you can meet beautiful miniature models of the most famous architectural wonders from all over the world. In the park you can admire structures like: the Colosseum, the Statue of Liberty, the Great Wall of China, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben, the Great Sphinx of Giza, the White House and many other. It sounds fantastic, isn't it?
SAFARI GOLD PANNING WESTERN CITY VIKINGS FESTIVAL CHIVALRY COMPETITIONS MINIATURE WORLD Warsaw
Its safari in Świerkocin near Gorzów Wielkopolski. You could see there more than 600 species of animals from the whole world. An area of Safari ZOO is about 20ha. Roads are similar to African Savannah, wild prairies or Mongolian Steppe and they lead to the most exotic animals. There are four regions in the ZOO: Asia, Africa, South America and Mongolian zone. In the ZOO we have to move only by cars. We mustnt go out of the car and feed animals even if they come near us. Thanks to that trip, we can see the animals in close-up,so it gives us the opportunity to have different view of wildlife.
If you share our passion for gold prospecting and collecting gold nuggets, this place is for you. Welcome to the capital city of Polish Gold - Złotoryja. It is undoubtedly the most wonderful small town in the Sudeten mountains. Only here will you find gold - both in nearby streams, and in hearts of inhabitants. For years local authorities have been doing activities associated with traditional seeking of the gold ore.This long-standing experience shows that they provide high-quality services which enjoy great popularity.
The atmosphere of the gold prospecting triggers unusual joy in participants, arousing rivalry and sometimes even leading to the illness called gold fever. Gold is the symbol of the affluence and riches. The word itself evokes pleasant thrill in hearts of many people. Gold Fever Prospecting
In 2001 the representation of Poland participated in the World Championships in Australia – from where we brought two gold medals, in 2002 in Japan we won a gold medal in the category of amateurs, and in 2003 about 70 strong representation team of Poland took part in the world championships in Switzerland taking also high places among competitors.
The Polish Brotherhood of Gold Panning is an organization operating for the promotion of the city, the region, and Poland as an unusually attractive place for tourists. Their another objective is the popularization of gold panning" as an active form of family rest in the natural environment. They are the only Polish organiser of gold prospecting events - displays, cups, regional, Polish, European and world championships. Till now ten editions of the International Open Polish Championships have been held in which a few hundred competitors from Europe, Australia and the USA participated. They also got media coverage. It is a member of the world federation (World Goldpanning Association) with the registered office in Great Britain. In 2000 the Brotherhood was entrusted with the task of being the host to the World Gold Panning Championships, which was recognised as the "best tourist offer for Central and Eastern Europe".
The Western Country town called 'Kansas City' in Rudnik near Grudziądz in the southern part of Poland. It is not a very big village, but it looks like in the old western film. You can meet cowboys or Indians there or see a show. There are a lot of them - for example a bank robbery or defence of Alamo fort.. Kansas City gives you an opportunity to go to the Saloon in the evening and take part in dancing show full of country dances. There is also a small zoo and other attractions.
The event is considered as one of the largest and most important events of this kind in Europe, every year it attracts one thousand participants from dozen European countries, as well as from United States and Australia. During the festival, you will be able to see, among others, Slav races and Vikings ships, theatre productions, Slavs and Vikings battle, presentation of early medieval crafts, cooking and Slavs and Vikings camp, Slavic wedding ceremony, sea battle, slaves market, horse fighting, the presentation of Slavic myth about the creation of the world, and even a competition for the most dignified beard. One of the main organizers of the event is association: Slavs and Vikings Wolin - Jomsborg - Vineta Center. I strongly advise you to see the historical festival which takes place at the Promenada Centre in Rynia, near Warsaw - the site of Viking ruins.
On the fields of Grunwald In the castle of Princess Anna Wazówna in Golub-Dobrzyn Chivarly Tournament of St. Dominik in Gdańsk Knights Feasts in Rynie /Mazury
European School Club Mielec Liceum Ogólnokształcące 1 Jędrusiów 1 Polska Radka Bociek Ewa Jędrzejowska Agata Wieczorek Alicja Dziura Eliza Jurek Sara Jarochowska Marika Frankiewicz Weronika Mędrak Edyta Grądziel Adrianna Szady Klaudia Ząbek Adrianna Sztuka Karolina Dudek Joanna Madura Joanna Działo Sara Rajzer
Source: Internet - Atlas Polski - Readers Digest
Poland came into being in the 10th century through unification of Slavic tribes by Duke Mieszko I. He was the first historical duke of Poland
The first King of Poland was Boleslaw I (Boleslaus the Brave) crowned in The outline of Polish territory was changing constantly because Poland had strong and aggressive neighbours just then with whom our homeland was waging wars.
The last King of Poland was Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski who abdicated in In the same year Poland disappeared from the European Map because it was scooped by Russia, Austria and Prussia. In 1918 Poland got back her independence, but as early as in 1939 it was attacked by the Third Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.
Between 1945 and 1989 Poland was under influence of the USSR as a socialist country. Martial law was introduced in Poland on 13th December in Since 1989 our motherland has been sovereign country.
In 1999 Poland joined NATO and in 2004 entered the European Union Poland became a democratic country.
Casimir III the Great was one of the most outstanding lords of Poland and the last from the Piast dynasty. In 1333 he acceded to the throne of Poland. He was waging very active foreign policy by developing contacts with the Teutonic Order, Czech, Hungary and Kievan Rus. Casimir the Great strengthened the Polish country, founded 50 cities and walled about 30 of them. In 1364 he founded the first Polish university and the oldest in Central Europe – Cracows Academy. Jadwiga of Anjou was the Queen of Poland from 1384 until her death in She was ten years old when she acceded to the throne of Poland. At the age of 12 she married to Grand Duke of Lithuania – Ladislaus Jogaila (Jagiello). She was very well- known for her beauty and generosity. She gave her jewellery for renovation of Cracow Academy, whose name was changed to Jagiellonian University.
The Battle of Grunwald (or 1st Battle of Tannenberg) which took place on 15 July 1410 – on one side between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by the Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło, - and on the opposite site - the Knights of the Teutonic Order, led by the Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. It was the decisive engagement in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War ( ) and an important battle in Medieval Europe because it prevented further expansion of the Teutonic Knights.
The Battle of Vienna was held on 12th September 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe, and marked beginning of the political hegemony of the Habsburg dynasty in Central Europe. The large-scale battle was won by Polish-Austrian-German forces led by King of Poland John III Sobieski against the Ottoman Empire army commanded by Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.
August The Battle of Warsaw - sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula - was the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War (1918 until the Treaty of Riga (1921).The battle of Warsaw was fought from 13 to 25 August On August 16, Polish forces commanded by Józef Piłsudski counterattacked from the south, forcing the Russian forces into a disorganised withdrawal eastward and behind the Neman River. It was an outstanding event as it stopped Bolsheviks expansion.
A bulletproof vest – Its a special clothing which looks like a waist-coat. It protects from a bullet of revolver, a rifle or shotgun. It is used by police, army, bodyguards or common people in countries where law allows citizens to posses & carry guns. It was invented by Jan Szczepanik and Kazimierz Zeglen in 1902.
A periscope – an optical device used to look over the top of something, especially to see out o submarine. It was constructed of a long tube and two mirrors. It is applied in the army. The inventor of periscope is Jan Heweliusz.
Cryptologic bomb – an appliance created by Polish cryptographers: Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różtcki and Henryk Zygalski. The cryptologic bomb was aimed at cracking the code of German code machine – Enigma. The phenomenon of this invention was that Germans said that the code of Enigma was impossible to break.
Armoured car wz. 29 – This car was produced between Interestingly, it had two drivers. One of them was driving when the car went ahead and the other one while backed out. It was good because it didnt have to turn back.
Parrafin lamp – made by Ignacy Lukasiewicz in It was an effect of distillation oil. Thanks to it, oil industry came into being. The paraffin lamp gave a rise to an electric lamp which we are still using nowadays.
MARIA SKŁODOWSKA CURIE was born in She spent the larger part of her life in France, where she finished chemical studies at Sorbonne University. She made a great contribution into the European science thanks to radioactivity research and discovery of two new elements: polonium and radium. She received Nobel Prize twice, in 1903 in the field of physics, in 1911 in the sphere of chemistry. She remains till today a sole prestigious woman honored with this prize twice. We owe her the evolution of a new science – radioactivity.
NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a scientifically-based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. His epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941), is a retired Polish Air Force officer. He became the first (and to this day remains the only) Pole in space when he flew aboard the Soyuz 30 spacecraft in During the martial law in Poland Hermaszewski was a member of the Military Council of National Salvation, a military quasi- government. After that he was a commander of the Fighter Pilots School in Dęblin. In 1988 he was promoted to general.
Aleksander Wolszczan - astronomer and discoverer of the first extra solar planetary system – candidate for Nobel prize.
Andrzej Udalski - author of photometric method aimed at discovering planets in galaxy
China welcomed the world to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games on Friday 8th of August with the roll of two thousand drums and a battering fireworks, smokes and varied lights. There were 91,000 people In the National Stadium, popularly known as the Birds Nest. It was a wonderful show. The first success for Poland was achieved by Tomasz Majewski. He won the gold medal in shot put. Wins of handball and volleyball players also cheered up that day. Sunday 17th was the lucky day for our sportsmen. It brought four medals! Our quadruple sculls got a gold medal and four without coxswain received a silver medal. Moreover, Agnieszka Wieszczek, the debutant on an Olympic Games, won a brown medal in wrestling beating Maider Unda from Spain in final. But this was not the end. Szymon Kołecki became a vice master in weightlifting. Next day was also satisfying. The gold medal was awarded to Leszek Blanik in artistic gymnastics. Polish team drew with France in handball, and mens volleyball team defeated Russians. The further day Piotr Małachowski deserved a silver medal in discus throw on Tuesday 19th It was the eighth medal for our representation. Only on Saturday 23rd we had an occasion to celebrate next and the last two silver medals. The first medal for Maja Włoszczowska in Cycling Mountain Bike and the second for Aneta Konieczna i Beata Mikołajczyk in K-2 500m kayak double. And thats all. Olympic Games in Beijing were finished by Polish representation with three gold, six silver medals and one brown medal. There were nice surprises but also loses about which it is better to forget.
Polish dairy products, meat, vegetables and fruit are export winners. Competitive prices, high quality as well as punctual deliveries are much valued by our foreign trade partners. Many Polish firms engaged in fruit and vegetable processing, have been doing exceptionally well on the foreign markets. The Rolnik company exported its products to the Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia, Latvia and to the United States. The Roleski company is one of the leading producers of ketchups, sauces, mustard and mayonnaises in Poland. Polish dairy products are also becoming competitive on the EU market. Last year, besides powdered milk (up to now a Polish speciality) yoghurts and cheese have also been selling very well. After entry into the EU the demand for Polish meat rose abruptly. Beef and poultry are proving to be the most popular meats.
CRACOWS HISTORIC CENTRE Close to the Old City, the Royal Castle on Wawel Hill has also been registered on the UNESCO list. It was the centre of power and chief residence of the kings of Poland from the 10th to the late16th century. Wawel Castle and Cathedral overlook the River Vistula, and both edifices have had numerous conversions and additions over the centuries, which has resulted in a mixture of styles: Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque. In Wawel Castle you'll see the biggest and most valuable collection of Renaissance arrases (Flemish tapestries) in the world - over a hundred of them WIELICZKA SALT MINE There are tourists who come to Poland just to see the Wieliczka Salt Mine. It's the world's oldest commercial enterprise still in business - salt has been mined here since the 13th century with no interruptions, although it's no longer done on an industrial scale. Today's mine is a labyrinth of corridors and chambers 350 km long, 2 km of which are accessible to visitors. The most spectacular sight is Saint Kinga's Chapel, although, in fact, it deserves to be called an underground salt church in deference to its dimensions AUSCHWITZ BIRKENAU - GERMAN NAZI CONCENTRATION AND EXTERMINATION CAMP ( ) The Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp museum has been entered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Several hundred thousand people visit it every year. During the Second World War, the Nazis murdered Jews, Poles, Romany People, Russians, and people of several other nationalities; the majority of those who died were Jews deported from all over occupied Europe. Entry to the Auschwitz museum is through the gates immortalised in many films and photographs, inscribed "Arbeit Macht Frei" ("work makes you free") THE BIAŁOWIEZA FOREST There's also a work of nature on the UNESCO list; the Bialowieza Forest, the biggest naturally afforested area in Europe and the last remaining section of primaeval forest, with an abundance of flora and fauna unmatched anywhere else in Europe. The Bialowieza National Park is also on the World Biosphere Reserve list. It's the habitat of the European bison, the continent's largest mammal, 26 species of trees and 56 species of shrubs. The average age of the trees is 126 years HISTORIC CENTRE OF WARSAW Warsaw is also on the UNESCO list. It's hard to believe, looking at this city, that it was almost razed to the ground during the Second World War. Once known as the "Paris of the North", this city, boasting 13th-century buildings, ceased to exist having been bombarded. Little coloured houses surrounded by defensive walls, the spires of the churches and the Royal Castle; it's all the result of reconstruction carried out in the post-war years. Warsaw's Old City was entered on the UNESCO list as an example of faithful reconstruction including the preservation of original sections of the architecture.
OLD TOWN OF ZAMOŚĆ Zamosc was founded in the 16th century by the chancellor Jan Zamoysky on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea. Modelled on Italian theories of the 'ideal city', Zamosc is a perfect example of a late-16th-century Renaissance town. It has retained its original layout and fortifications and a large number of buildings that combine Italian and central European architectural traditions MEDIEVAL TOWN OF TORUŃ Torun owes its origins to the Teutonic Order, which built a castle there in the mid- 13th century as a base for the conquest and evangelization of Prussia. It soon developed a commercial role as part of the Hanseatic League. In the Old and New Town, the many imposing public and private buildings from the 14th and 15th centuries (among them the house of Copernicus) are striking evidence of Torun's importance CASTLE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN MALBORK Another UNESCO site which arouses excitement and admiration is Malbork Castle, erstwhile headquarters of the Teutonic Order and the largest Gothic fortress in Europe. It consists of three wards surrounded by separate fortifications and occupies about 20 hectares. There's also a museum with an amber collection. The Castle organises special night-time tours and son et lumière shows in its courtyards KALWARIA ZEBRZYDOWSKA THE MANNERIST RCHITECTURAL AND PARK LANDSCAPE COMPLEX AND PILGRIMAGE PARK Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is a breathtaking cultural landscape of great spiritual significance. Its natural setting – in which a series of symbolic places of worship relating to the Passion of Jesus Christ and the life of the Virgin Mary was laid out at the beginning of the 17th century – has remained virtually unchanged. It is still today a place of pilgrimage.
CHURCHES OF PEACE IN JAWOR AND ŚWIDNICA The Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica were built in the former Silesia in the mid-17th century, amid the religious strife that followed the Peace of Westphalia. Constrained by the physical and political conditions, the Churches of Peace bear testimony to the quest for religious freedom and are a rare expression of Lutheran ideology in an idiom generally associated with the Catholic Church WOODEN CHURCHES OF SOUTHERN LITTLE POLAND The wooden churches of southern Little Poland represent outstanding examples of the different aspects of medieval church-building traditions in Roman Catholic culture. Built using the horizontal log technique, common in eastern and northern Europe since the Middle Ages, these churches were sponsored by noble families and became status symbols. They offered an alternative to the stone structures erected in urban centres PARK MUŻAKOWSKI A landscaped park of ha astride the Neisse River and the border between Poland and Germany. Blending seamlessly with the surrounding farmed landscape, the park pioneered new approaches to landscape design and influenced the development of landscape architecture in Europe and America. This integrated landscape extends into the town of Muskau with green passages that formed urban parks framing areas for development. The town thus became a design component in a utopian landscape. The site also features a reconstructed castle, bridges and an arboretum THE CENTENNIAL HALL IN WROCŁAW The Centennial Hall, a landmark in the history of reinforced concrete architecture, was erected in by the architect Max Berg as a multi-purpose recreational building, situated in the Exhibition Grounds. The 23m-high dome is topped with a lantern in steel and glass. The Centennial Hall is a pioneering work of modern engineering and architecture.