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Exit Choose to view chapter section with a click on the section heading. A Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction The Linnaeus Classification System.

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Presentation on theme: "Exit Choose to view chapter section with a click on the section heading. A Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction The Linnaeus Classification System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exit Choose to view chapter section with a click on the section heading. A Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction The Linnaeus Classification System Prokaryotes – Small Yet Vital Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chromalveolates – Dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores, Diatoms and Brown AlgaeChromalveolates – Dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores, Diatoms and Brown Algae Marine Plants: Red Algae, Green Algae, Seagrasses and MangrovesMarine Plants: Red Algae, Green Algae, Seagrasses and Mangroves Rhizaria: Foraminiferans and Radiolarians Chapter Topic Menu

2 MenuPreviousNext Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction Chapter 5 Pages 5-3 to 5-5

3 MenuPreviousNext A Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction nChapters 5, 6 and 7 survey life in the sea. Chapter 5 overviews the classification system, prokaryotes, eukaryotes chromalveolates, marine plants and rhizaria. Chapter 6 overviews invertebrates - animals without backbones. Chapter 7 overviews vertebrates - animals with backbones. Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction Chapter 5 Pages 5-3 to 5-5

4 MenuPreviousNext A Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction nFew people realize how diverse life is on planet Earth. nScientists have classified about 2 million species. nIt is estimated that there are between 5 to 100 million possible species on Earth. nNew species are discovered with regularity. nWhat is the importance of any one species? Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction Chapter 5 Pages 5-3 to 5-5

5 MenuPreviousNext Imagine Classifying the Variety of Organisms Survey of Life in the Sea - Introduction Chapter 5 Pages 5-3 to 5-5

6 MenuPreviousNext The Linnaeus Classification System - Putting Life in Its Place The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-5 to 5-15

7 MenuPreviousNext nThree reasons for classifying organisms: It helps identify the relationships between organisms. It requires scientists to clearly identify key characteristics of each organism. It avoids confusion. Common names differ with cultures. Scientists in the US and Japan can identify exactly what they are both talking about by using the species Latin name. Common names are avoided in science. The Linnaeus Classification System The Need for Classification Chapter 5 Pages 5-5 to 5-6

8 MenuPreviousNext The Need for Classification nThe same common name may apply to two different organisms. nScientists avoid the problems with common names by assigning every species its own Latin name. nThese photos are different animals. The common name for both is Dolphin. But, its a Dolphin fish and a Dolphin mammal. Coryphaena hippurus Tursiops truncatus The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-5 to 5-6

9 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa nIn 1758, Carolus Linnaeus laid the framework for the classification system we use today. nLinnaeus used Latin for organisms names since that was the common language of science at the time. Latin is used for two main reasons: Tradition Its a neutral language - no one culture need feel slighted because scientific names are in another scientists native language. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

10 MenuPreviousNext The Linnaeus Classification System Classification Taxa nAn organisms scientific name represents two taxa. They are: Species – is the most specific of the taxa. Species is usually considered to be a group of organisms that can reproduce together. Genus – is the taxon above species. Genus grouped species are considered to be closely related. Example, there are 34 species of reef shark belonging to genus Carcharhinus. Arctic Krill Euphausia superba Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

11 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa nScientists identify each species by referring to both the genus and the species. The genus is capitalized and the species name in lower case. You also italicize or underline scientific names. Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas Gray Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

12 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa nA scientific name is a binomial name - from Latin bis meaning twice and nomen meaning name. nEach organism has a unique scientific name. Pilot Whale Globicephala melas The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

13 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa nThere are eight main taxa into which scientists classify organisms (from the general to specific): 1.Domain - Fundamental groups of living organisms based on the genetic and physical structure of individual cells. 2.Kingdom - (or supergroups) a group of similar phyla. 3.Phylum - (or division) - a group of Classes. 4.Classes - are groups of related Orders. 5.Orders - groups of related Families. 6.Families - groups of Genera that share characteristics. 7.Genus - (plural Genera) groups species that are closely related. 8.Species - the Latin name for an individual organism. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

14 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

15 MenuPreviousNext Classification Taxa The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-7 to 5-9

16 MenuPreviousNext Determining Taxa nHow organisms are classified: Originally by using anatomical features. The prevailing view now is that taxonomy generally reflects theoretical evolutionary relationships. Classifying by anatomical features remains an important classification method. However, the study of genetics has become more important. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-10 to 5-12

17 MenuPreviousNext Determining Taxa nA common problem taxonomists have in classifying organisms is that some organisms dont fit neatly into defined classifications. An organism can have characteristics that fit in one and others that separate it from that same classification. nThe answer is to insert intermediate classification levels. By assigning super or sub levels to create new higher or lower divisions within a classification. Intermediate classifications may sometimes have two names. For example, one taxonomist may use the division subphylum, while another uses the division superclass. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-10 to 5-12

18 MenuPreviousNext Determining Taxa The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-10 to 5-12

19 MenuPreviousNext The Linnaeus Classification System The Three Domain System of Classification nTaxonomic studies have lead to the development of a system of classification. nThey divided all life-forms (except viruses) into several kingdoms. nDivision into kingdoms is still argued among scientists. nToday, most taxonomists divide all life on Earth into three domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Chapter 5 Pages 5-13

20 MenuPreviousNext Viruses - The Tiniest Fragments of Life nThe smallest forms of what could be considered marine life are viruses. nUnlike other organisms, viruses have no metabolism or cell structure of any kind. nViruses are simply strands of DNA or RNA in a protective coat. nDespite their small size, it has been calculated that the ocean contain hundreds of millions of tons of viruses. nThe biomass of marine viruses may be greater than that of all marine mammals. nThey are the most common biological agent in the sea. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-13

21 MenuPreviousNext Phylogenetic Tree of Life nThe tree is a visual representation of how organisms fit with one another. nIt shows the theorized evolutionary relationships among various species that are thought to have a common ancestor. The Linnaeus Classification System Chapter 5 Pages 5-14

22 MenuPreviousNext Prokaryotes - Small Yet Vital Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-16 to 5-20

23 MenuPreviousNext Old and Simple nMost life in the ocean exists as microbes and minute organisms. nThe prokaryotes (from the Latin, pro meaning before and the Greek, karyon meaning kernal, nucleus) are important oceanic micorbes. nIn the worlds ocean they number more than 3 x This is an almost unimaginable number – more than 100 million times as great as the number of stars in the visible universe. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-16 to 5-17

24 MenuPreviousNext Old and Simple nDomain Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes because theyre structurally far simpler than the cells found in the organisms of the domain Eukarya. nThey: Lack chromosomes or a nucleus. Do not have mitochondria. Lack chloroplasts, but accomplish photosynthesis. nPhotosynthesis by prokaryotes is accomplished by having chlorophyll molecules in its membranes. nThey are the smallest organisms. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-16 to 5-17

25 MenuPreviousNext Old and Simple nIt is theorized that the process of photosynthesis evolved with these early prokaryotes. nIt is thought that prokaryote cells had a endosymbiotic relationship within other cells. nSome prokaryotes are extremophiles – organisms that live in environments fatal to most forms of life. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-16 to 5-17

26 MenuPreviousNext Archaea and Bacteria nGenetic work has clearly separated bacteria and archaea into two different domains - although both are prokaryotes. nArchaea (from the Greek archaio meaning old) are extremely common in the ocean – they dominate the life of many deep-sea open ocean areas. nArchaea includes many extremophiles. Archaea live near deep hydrothermal vents, in high salinity pools, in highly acidic environments, in sulfur pools, and even close to volcanoes. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-18 to 5-20

27 MenuPreviousNext Archaea and Bacteria nScientists continue to find new and diverse bacteria. nBacteria are extremely adaptable and capable of processes that no other organisms can accomplish. nOne important example is a species of bacteria that creates organic nitrogen compounds by fixing inorganic nitrogen from the air. These organic nitrogen compounds are essential to most forms of life. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-18 to 5-20

28 MenuPreviousNext Archaea and Bacteria nThere are hundreds of thousands of bacteria species, one important group are Cyanobacteria (from the Greek kyan meaning dark blue). nCyanobacteria are: Crucial to life - important to nitrogen cycle and are primary producers. Cyanobacteria are extremely abundant. Perhaps the most plentiful species on Earth. Prokaryotes – Small yet Vital Chapter 5 Pages 5-18 to 5-20

29 MenuPreviousNext Eukaryotes - Diversity of Body Forms Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chapter 5 Pages 5-21 to 5-22

30 MenuPreviousNext Domain Eukarya – Major Groups nDomain Eukarya includes protists (mostly microbial eukaryotes, including those eukaryotes that arent a plant, animal or fungus), fungi, plants and animals. nEukaryotes are all organisms with cells organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes. nAll organisms in this domain have cells that have a nucleus. It is the presence of a nucleus that defines the members of domain Eukarya. nEukarya comes from the Greek eu, meaning good or true, and karyon meaning kernal, nucleus. Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chapter 5 Pages 5-21 to 5-22

31 MenuPreviousNext Domain Eukarya – Major Groups nEukaryotic cells are typically larger than prokaryote cells. nBesides having a distinct nucleus, eukaryotic cells also have a variety of complex internal membranes and structures that prokaryotes do not. nEukaryotic animal and plant cells also differ from each other. nPlant eukaryotic cells have a cell wall for rigid structural support and protection. Many have chlorplasts allowing them to perform photosynthesis. Animal Eukaryote cells do not have these structures. Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chapter 5 Pages 5-21 to 5-22

32 MenuPreviousNext Domain Eukarya – Major Groups Eukaryote Animal Cell Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chapter 5 Pages 5-21 to 5-22

33 MenuPreviousNext Domain Eukarya – Major Groups Major Eukaryote Groups Eukaryotes – Diversity of Body Forms Chapter 5 Pages 5-21 to 5-22

34 MenuPreviousNext Chromalveolates - Dinofagellates, Coccolithophores, Diatoms and Brown Algae Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-23 to 5-30

35 MenuPreviousNext Chromalveolates - Dinofagellates, Coccolithophores, Diatoms and Brown Algae Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-23

36 MenuPreviousNext Dinoflagellates nDinoflagellates are the second most productive group of primary producers, after diatoms. nDinoflagellates are: Mostly marine and unicellular. Have a flagella for swimming. Microplankton. Both autotophic and heterotrophic. nSome species are bioluminescent. nSome species can cause Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-23 to 5-25

37 MenuPreviousNext Dinoflagellates nSome are symbiotic organisms called zooxanthellate. These species live in the tissues of corals, anemones, giant clams and some species of sponges. Without these symbiotic species of dinoflagellates, most hard corals could not exist as we know it. They provide their hosts food via photosynthesis. The hosts provide the dinoflagellates with nitrogenous wastes. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-23 to 5-25

38 MenuPreviousNext Coccolithophores nCoccolithophores all live in the upper layers of the ocean. nCoccolithophores are: Unicellular. Autotrophic. Surrounded by extremely tiny plates made of calcium carbonate for protection - called coccoliths. Are numerous in some waters. A leading calcium carbonate producer in the ocean. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-25 to 5-26

39 MenuPreviousNext nDiatoms are: In the phylum Heterokontophyta that also includes brown algae. Single celled algae. The most productive phytoplankton. Basically dormant during winter months - in the spring they reproduce rapidly. Known for their cellular beauty and have a two-part silicon shell. A cause of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Diatoms Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-26 to 5-27

40 MenuPreviousNext Brown Algae nBrown algae: Are in the same group as diatoms, but are structurally complex. Are multicellular. Range in size, with some individuals being gigantic. Have adapted to a variety of habitats. Can be found in tidepools and deep, near-shore waters. Prefer predominately cold water with lots of nutrients. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-28 to 5-30

41 MenuPreviousNext Brown Algae nMany brown algae species have Holdfasts – anchor the algae to the bottom. Leathery stipes – provide support like plant stems, but with no vascular system. Blades – equivalent of leaves. Pneumatocysts – gas filled float structures that lift the algae off the bottom and keep the blades close to the surface and sun. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-28 to 5-30

42 MenuPreviousNext Brown Algae nGets its distinctive olive-green/brown color from the pigment fucoxanthin. nKelp is the largest of the brown algae. Kelp is important because it is the foundation for many temperate coastal ecosystems. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-28 to 5-30

43 MenuPreviousNext Brown Algae nSargassum, another brown algae can be found drifting in North Atlantic currents. Early mariners feared that sargassum could ensnare their ships, though such dense concentrations are rare. nThe Sargasso Sea exists in a relatively currentless portion of the Atlantic. Chromalveolates Chapter 5 Pages 5-28 to 5-30

44 MenuPreviousNext Marine Plants - Red Algae, Green Algae, Seagrasses and Mangroves Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-31 to 5-38

45 MenuPreviousNext Marine Plants – Red Algae, Green Algae, Seagrasses and Mangroves Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-31

46 MenuPreviousNext Phylum Rhodophyta – Red Algae nRed algae: Are in the Phylum Rhodophyta. Consists of freshwater and marine algae. Are multicellular macro algae. Have chlorophyll a, but not b. Has red pigments called phycoerythrins - they allow some red algae to live much deeper than any other algae. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-32 to 5-33

47 MenuPreviousNext Phylum Rhodophyta – Red Algae nRed algae species that live on coral reefs secrete a calcium carbonate shell. Their secretions bond coral colonies and debris together which in turn holds the reef together. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-32 to 5-33

48 MenuPreviousNext Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae nGreen algae: Is in the Phylum Chlorophyta. Is made up of the macro algae. Shares the same green color as land plants. Has Chlorophyll a – a pigment directly involved with photosynthesis. Has Chlorophyll b – assists chlorophyll a in capturing light for use in photosynthesis. Consists of approximately 7,000 species. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-33 to 5-34

49 MenuPreviousNext Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae nScientists think the presence of chlorophyll a and b has evolutionary significance. It may indicate that land plants evolved from green algae. nGreen algae and land plants also have other pigments in common and have cell walls made of cellulose. Sea Lettuce Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-33 to 5-34

50 MenuPreviousNext Marine Flowering Plants - Underwater Meadows and Shallow Nurseries nFew flowering plant species live in the marine environment - only about 200 species. nThese marine flowering plants play a surprisingly important role in the health of the ocean. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-34

51 MenuPreviousNext Plant Adaptation to the Marine Environment nSalinity in the water is the greatest challenge to which plants must adapt. Salt causes dehydration in plants. Marine plants resist dehydration through several adaptations such as waxy coverings or other protection that reduces water loss and prevention of dehydration. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-34

52 MenuPreviousNext Submergent and Emergent Plants nSubmergent plants live entirely underwater – seagrasses for example. nEmergent plants live with their roots underwater, but with a significant portion of the plant growing above the surface – mangroves for example. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-35

53 MenuPreviousNext Seagrasses nOther than producing food and oxygen, marine plants provide important habitats for other marine organisms. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-35 to 5-36

54 MenuPreviousNext Mangroves nMangrove swamps are important to the environment: They act as nurseries for adjacent marine ecosystems. They filter runoff water protecting sensitive offshore ecosystems that would be harmed or killed by settling sediment. They hold sediments in place. They slow waves and reduce erosion while retaining nutrients used by organisms living there. Marine Plants Chapter 5 Pages 5-37

55 MenuPreviousNext Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians Chapter 5 Pages 5-39 to 5-41

56 MenuPreviousNext Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians nRhizaria: Are a species-rich eukaryote supergroup that includes Foraminifera and Radiolaria. Are microscopic and amoeboid in form. Secrete external shells/skeletons. Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians Chapter 5 Pages 5-39 to 5-41

57 MenuPreviousNext Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians nForaminiferans: Live as plankton, most live on the sea bottom. Can be found in very deep water. Secrete elaborate external shells (tests) of calcium carbonate. Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians Chapter 5 Pages 5-39 to 5-41

58 MenuPreviousNext Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians nRadiolarians: Are exclusively marine zooplankton. Mostly live in the photic zone. Secrete intricate external skeletons. Rhizara - Foraminiferans and Radiolarians Chapter 5 Pages 5-39 to 5-41


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