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Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because.

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Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because."— Presentation transcript:


2 Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." * * Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Nanci Smith Educational Consultant Curriculum and Professional Development Cave Creek, AZ

3 Differentiated Instruction Defined Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to get at and express learning. Carol Ann Tomlinson

4 Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. Assessment and instruction are inseparable. The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile. All students participate in respectful work. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. Assessment and instruction are inseparable. The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile. All students participate in respectful work. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD

5 Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.) Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Preassessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.) Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile. Assessments are part of teaching for success. Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth. Assessment MAY be differentiated. Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades. Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.

6 Two Views of Assessment -- Assessment is for: Gatekeeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to others Use with single activities Assessment is for: Nurturing Guiding Self-Reflection Information Comparison to task Use over multiple activities

7 FLEXIBLE GROUPING Students are part of many different groups – and also work alone – based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills-based or interest-based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random. 13579 8642 Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or concept Students and teacher come together to share information and pose questions The whole class reviews key ideas and extends their study through sharing The whole class is introduced to a skill needed later to make a presentation The whole class listens to individual study plans and establishes baseline criteria for success Students engage in further study using varied materials based on readiness and learning style Students work on varied assigned tasks designed to help them make sense of key ideas at varied levels of complexity and varied pacing In small groups selected by students, they apply key principles to solve teacher- generated problems related to their study Students self-select interest areas through which they will apply and extend their understandings A differentiated classroom is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class preparation, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small-group exploration, sense-making, extension, and production

8 Differentiation of Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasksFlexible groupingContinual assessment Teachers Can Differentiate Through: Content ProcessProduct According to Students ReadinessInterestLearning Profile

9 for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers

10 Flexible Grouping Students are part of many different groups (and also work alone) based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills – based or interest – based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.

11 A Differentiated Classroom in Balance FLEXIBLEFLEXIBLE Sense Of Community Time Groups Resource Approaches to teaching and learning Concept- based Inviting Product Oriented Focused Safe Respect for individual Respect For Group Shared goals Shared responsibility Shared Vision On-going assessment to determine need Feedback and grading ZPD Target Tomlinson-oo Affirming Shared Challenge

12 How Does Research Support DI? Differentiated Instruction is the result of a synthesis of a number of educational theories and practices. Brain research indicates that learning occurs when the learner experiences moderate challenge and relaxed alertness –readiness Psychological research reveals that when interest is tapped, learners are more likely to find learning rewarding and become more autonomous as a learner.

13 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms B rain organization and B uilding safe environments: Do students feel safe to risk and experiment with ideas? Do students feel included in the class and supported by others? Are tasks challenging enough without undo distress? Is there an emotional hook for the learners? Are there novel, unique and engaging activities to capture and sustain attention?

14 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms R ecognizing and honoring diversity: Does the learning experience appeal to the learners varied multiple intelligences and learning styles? May the students work collaboratively and independently? May they show what they know in a variety of ways? Does the cultural background of the learners influence instruction?

15 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms A ssessment: Is there enough time to explore, understand and transfer the learning to long term memory (grow dendrites)? Is there time to accomplish mastery? So they have opportunities for ongoing, just in time feedback? Do they have time to revisit ideas and concepts to connect or extend them? Is metacognitive time built into the learning process? Do students use logs and journals for reflection and goal setting?

16 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms I nstructional Strategies: Are the expectations clearly stated and understood by the learner? Will the learning be relevant and useful to the learner? Does the learning build on past experience or create a new experience? Does the learning relate to their real world? Is it developmentally appropriate and hands on? Are the strategies varied to engage and sustain attention? Are there opportunities for projects, creativity, problems and challenges?

17 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms N ew Models: Do students work alone, in pairs and in small groups? Do students work in learning centers based on interest, need or choice? Are some activities tiered to provide appropriate levels of challenge? Is compacting used to provide enrichment and challenge? Is integrated curriculum, problem based and service learning considered? Are contracts negotiated to provide appropriate learning activities for students?

18 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in Americas Schools Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

19 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Within these recommendations, growth does not necessarily mean moving from one practice to another, discarding a previous instructional approach and replacing it forever. Instead, teachers add new, effective alternatives to a widening repertoire of choices, allowing them to alternate among a richer array of activities, creating a richer and more complex balance of instruction.

20 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Physical Facilities From: Set-up for teacher- centered instruction (separate desks) Rows of desks Bare, unadorned space Textbooks and handouts To: Set-up for student- centered instruction (tables or groupings) Clusters, centers, etc. Student work, friendly Purposeful materials

21 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Classroom Climate / Management From: Punishment and rewards Teacher-created and enforced rules Passive learning Solely ability grouping Rigid schedule To: Engagement and community Students help set and enforce norms Purposeful engagement Flexible grouping Flexible time based on activity

22 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Voice and Involvement Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities: Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc. Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assess Some themes / inquiries are built from students own questions Students assume responsibility and take roles in decision making

23 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Activities and Assignments From: Teacher presentation Whole-class instruction Uniform curriculum Short-term lessons Memorization and recall Short responses, fill-in-the- blank Same assignments To: Students experiencing concepts Centers, groups, variety Topics by students needs or choice Extended activities Application and problem solving Complex responses, evaluations and writing Multiple intelligences, cognitive styles

24 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Language and Communication From: Forced constant silence Short responses Teacher talk Focus on facts To: Noise, conversation alternates with quiet Elaborated discussions Student-teacher, student- student Skills, concepts, synthesis, evaluation

25 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Work and Assessment From: Products for teacher / grading No student work displayed Identical, imitative products Feedback = scores or grades Seen / scored only by teacher Teacher grade book Standards set during grading To: Products for real events / audience High quality / all students Varied and original products Substantive, varied, formative feedback Public displays and performances Student-maintained portfolios, assessments Standards co-developed with students

26 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Teacher Attitude and Initiative Toward Students: From Distant, negative, fearful or punitive To Positive, respectful, encouraging and warm From Blaming students to Reasoning with Students From Directive to Consultative

27 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Teacher Attitude and Initiative Toward Self: From Helpless victim To Risk taker, experimenter, creative agent From Solitary adult To Member of team within school and network beyond school From Staff development recipient To Directing own professional growth From Role of expert or presenter To Coach, mentor, model and guide

28 Have you ever said … I just dont know what to do with that kid? (Remember, dont overgeneralize. Theres great diversity in all groups!!!) Persistent Underachievement Help the student accept control over his/her decisions and life. Be clear and specific about tasks and requirements. Use appropriate consequences for work done/not done. Break tasks into small segments. Check in with the student often. Be firm but warm. Dont tell him/her you know he/she can do the work. Coordinate approaches with a counselor and parents when possible. All Learners in Academically Diverse Classrooms Help students understand that everyone has strengths and weaknesses. Celebrate and understand student learning differences. Help students learn the power of controlling what they can in their lives. Help them understand our shared needs for success, to belong, to trust, the future, etc. Help them see that each person is irreplaceable – uniqueness is a plus. Help students learn to set their own goals and chart their progress. Teach in varied readiness levels, interest and ways of learning;

29 (Remember, dont overgeneralize. Theres great diversity in all groups!!!) Students with Learning Disabilities Emphasize strengths. Develop ways to compensate for weaknesses so they dont inhibit what the student can do. Help the student distinguish between and explain both strengths and weaknesses, as well as plans for both. Shoot high and then scaffold the weakness. Be clear about what the student should know, understand, and be able to do – but offer options for explanation, expression and assessment. Students with Retardation or Similar Struggles Focus on essential concepts and principles as a context for applying IEP skills. Use IEP goals in ways that integrate students with their peers rather than isolating them. Whenever possible, teach for meaning rather than rote – uild frameworks of meaning. Spotlight the students legitimate successes and contributions. Use small groups for teaching needed skills, re-teaching by need.

30 (Remember, dont overgeneralize. Theres great diversity in all groups!!!) Advanced Learners Emphasize quality of thought and expression vs. accuracy. Balance student choice and teacher choice tasks to allow independence but still ensure encounters with rigor. Help the student learn to compete against him/herself. Necessitate and commend intellectual risk and perseverance. When raising the ceiling, support the climb! Teach for success. Be flexible. Invite student imput. Use small groups to extend thought and skills levels. Students with Behavior Problems Coordinate efforts and strategies with specialists. Help the student articulate difficult areas and learn to look for signs of them. Be sure the student has an easy way out of tough spots. Provide safe spaces to be alone / work alone. Acknowledge successes. Allow choices when feasible. Be flexible about movement.

31 (Remember, dont overgeneralize. Theres great diversity in all groups!!!) Second Language Learners Link classroom & ESL resource work. Ensure that the student has useful tasks at all times andis accountable for them (listening/reading with tapes, writing, translating, vocabulary practice). Dont let the student sit idle and isolated. Use students who can bridge the two languages. Plam specific ways each day to involve the student in coversation & contribution. Chart growth vs. only comparison Use small groups for teaching next-step skills. Culturally Diverse Learners Help build peer-support systems. Be sure you offer varied working arrangements and modes of expression. Invest time in the student in ways that communicate your berlief in his/her success. Help the student develop school skills that may be weak. Teach from whole to part. Be clear about expectations and that students both understand and know how to achieve them. Dont let work slide. Emphasize contextualized learning.

32 THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCES 1.Journal entry 2.Short answer test 3.Open response test 4.Home learning 5.Notebook 6.Oral response 7.Portfolio entry 8.Exhibition 9.Culminating product 10.Question writing 11.Problem solving TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS 1.Anecdotal records 2.Observation by checklist 3.Skills checklist 4.Class discussion 5.Small group interaction 6.Teacher – student conference 7.Assessment stations 8.Exit cards 9.Problem posing 10.Performance tasks and rubrics

33 Learner Profile Card Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic Modality Multiple Intelligence Preference Gardner Analytical, Creative, Practical Sternberg Students Interests Array Inventory Gender Stripe

34 Some Traits of Quality Curriculum & Instruction Some Traits of Quality Differentiation Promotes understanding Engaging (mentally and affectively) Focuses on Knowledge, concepts, understandings, & skills valued by experts in a discipline Rich, deals with profound ideas Tightly focused goals & components Joyful / satisfying Coherent (sensible to the learner, organized to promote retention & use) Seems real (is real) to the student Helps learner feel more powerful & purposeful in his/her world Requires high level thinking Fresh, surprising, curiosity-provoking, interesting Provides choices Clear in expectations Allows meaningful collaboration Focused on products meaningful to students & others Connects with students lives & world Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting & important ways. Involves students in setting goals for their learning & assessing progress toward those goals Stretches the student Rooted in student need an extension of high quality curriculum Derived from on-going assessment Respectful of each learner Builds community Involves students as decision –makers Demonstrates teacher-students partnerships in teaching & learning Growth focused Scaffolds growth for each learner Supports successful collaboration Stretches each learner Promotes & rewards individual excellence Addresses readiness, interest, & learning profile Attends effectively to gender & culture Spans content, process, & product Effective & varied use of instructional approaches Teaches students to take responsibility for own learning Flexible use of time, space, materials, groupings Maximizes opportunity to show what you know Balances student & teacher choice Planned (proactive) plus tailoring Occurs when either teacher or student is on center stage Includes whole class, small group, & individual instruction Supports success for each learner & the class as a whole Builds collaborations with parents Tomlinson/UVa/2000

35 Planning a Focused Curriculum Facts (Columbus cam to the New World Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy) Concepts (exploration, change) Principles/Generalizations (Change can be both positive and negative. Exploration results in change. Peoples perspectives affect how they respond to change). Skills Basic (literacy, numeracy) Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning) Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies) Planning (goal setting; use of time) Social Production Means Clarity About What Students Should: Know Understand Be Able to Do As a Result of a Lesson, Lesson Sequence, Unit, and year In general, these are held steady as a core for nearly all learners in a differentiated classroom* *Exception--linear skills and information which can be assessed for mastery in the sequence (e.g. spelling)

36 These are the facts, vocabulary, dates, places, names, and examples you want students to give you. The know is massively forgettable. Teaching facts in isolation is like trying to pump water uphill. Carol Tomlinson

37 These are the written statements of truth, the core to the meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what connect the parts of a subject to the students life and to other subjects. It is through the understanding component of instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the point of the lesson or the experience. Understandings are purposeful. They focus on the key ideas that require students to understand information and make connections while evaluating the relationships that exit within the understandings. Major Concepts and Subconcepts

38 A Student who UNDERSTANDS Something can… Explain it clearly, giving examples Use it Compare and contrast it with other concepts Relate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and personal life experiences Transfer it to unfamiliar settings Discover the concept embedded within a novel problem Combine it appropriately with other understandings Pose new problems that exemplify or embody the concept Create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the concept Pose and answer what-if questions that alter variables in a problematic situation Generate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge and further inquiries Generalize from specifics to form a concept Use the knowledge to appropriately assess his or her performance, or that of someone else. Adopted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies

39 These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method. The skill portion encourages the students to think like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to be like a doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist. Skills

40 to Differentiate Content Reading Partners / Reading Buddies Read/Summarize Read/Question/Answer Visual Organizer/Summarizer Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading Flip Books Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry) Books on Tape Highlights on Tape Digests/ Cliff Notes Notetaking Organizers Varied Texts Varied Supplementary Materials Highlighted Texts Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview Tomlinson – 00

41 TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS Fun & Games RAFTs Cubing, Think Dots Choices (Intelligences) Centers Tiered lessons Contracts

42 USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES. The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research: Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude. Lecturing, a common teaching strategy, is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presented Hands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement. Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics. Despite the research supporting hands-on activity, it is a fairly uncommon instructional approach. Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world.

43 RAFT RAFT is an acronym that stands for R ole of the student. What is the students role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object? A udience. Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object? F ormat. What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song? T opic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?

44 RAFT Activities RoleAudienceFormatTopic SemicolonMiddle SchoolersDiary entryI Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong N.Y.TimespublicOp Ed pieceHow our Language Defines Who We Are Huck FinnTom SawyerNote hidden in a tree knotA Few Things You Should Know Rain DropFuture DropletsAdvice ColumnThe Beauty of Cycles LungOwnerOwners GuideTo Maximize Product Life Rain ForestJohn Q. CitizenPaste Up Ransom NoteBefore Its Too Late ReporterPublicObituaryHitler is Dead Martin Luther King TV audience of 2010SpeechThe Dream Revisited Thomas JeffersonCurrent Residents of Virginia Full page Newspaper AdIf I Could Talk to You Now FractionsWhole NumbersPetitionTo Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problemStudents in your classSet of DirectionsHow to Get to Know Me Language Arts & Literature Science History Math Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998

45 Developing a Tiered Activity Select the activity organizer concept generalization Essential to building a framework of understanding Think about your students/use assessments readiness range interests learning profile talents skills reading thinking information Create an activity that is interesting high level causes students to use key skill(s) to understand a key idea Chart the complexity of the activity High skill/ Complexity Low skill/ complexity Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, in materials – basic to advanced form of expression – from familiar to unfamiliar from personal experience to removed from personal experience equalizer Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements 1 3 5 2 4 6

46 Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Application, Insight, Transfer Solutions, Decisions, Approaches Planning, Designing, Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought The Equalizer 1.FoundationalTransformational 2.ConcreteAbstract 3.SimpleComplex 4.Single FacetMultiple Facets 5.Small LeapGreat Leap 6.More StructuredMore Open 7.Less IndependenceGreater Independence 8.SlowQuick

47 Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract A Learning Contract has the following components 1.A Skills Component Focus is on skills-based tasks Assignments are based on pre-assessment of students readiness Students work at their own level and pace 2.A content component Focus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings) Requires sense making and production Assignment is based on readiness or interest 3.A Time Line Teacher sets completion date and check-in requirements Students select order of work (except for required meetings and homework) The Agreement 4. The Agreement The teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their time Students agree to use the time responsibly Guidelines for working are spelled out Consequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineated Signatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreement Differentiating Instruction: Facilitators Guide, ASCD, 1997

48 to Differentiate Product Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile Clear expectations Timelines Agreements Product Guides Rubrics Evaluation

49 Creating a Powerful Product Assignment 1.Identify the essentials of the unit/study What students must: Know (facts) Understand (concepts, generalizations) Be able to do (skills) As a result of the unit/study 2. Identify one of more format or packaging options for the product: Required (e.g. poetry, an experiment, graphing, charting) Hook Exploratory Talent/passion driven 3.Determine expectations for quality in: Content (information, ideas, concepts, research materials) Process (planning, goal-setting, defense of viewpoint, research, editing) Product (size, construction, durability, expert-level expectations, part

50 4.Decide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote success : Brainstorming for ideas Developing rubrics/criteria for success Timelines Planning/goal-setting Storyboarding Critiquing Revising-editing 5.Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student : You should show you understand and can do these things Proceeding through these steps/stages In this format At this level of quality 6.Differentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on : Student readiness Student interest Students learning profile 7.Coach for success! Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, contd It is your job, as teacher, to make explicit That which you thought was implicit

51 Map Diagram Sculpture Discussion Demonstration Poem Profile Chart Play Dance Campaign Cassette Quiz Show Banner Brochure Debate Flow Chart Puppet Show Tour Lecture Editorial Painting Costume Placement Blueprint Catalogue Dialogue Newspaper Scrapbook Lecture Questionnaire Flag Scrapbook Graph Debate Museum Learning Center Advertisement Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention




55 ASSESSING TEACHER CREATED PRODUCTS 1. Product designed to expand on all key concepts 2. Product designed to expand on all key principles / generalizations 3. Product designed to expand on all key skills. 4. Product facilitates students use and extension of key knowledge. 5. Product rationale is made clear to students. 6. Clear directions are provided that are both thorough and open. 7. Product provides clear criteria for successes at a high level of expectations for content, process and product. 8. Product assignment necessitates creativity. 9. Product assignment supports creativity. 10. Product challenges a full range of readiness levels. 11. Product allows/encourages pursuit of student interest. 12.. A menu of product options and/;or working arrangements supports varied learning profiles. 13. On going support is provided as needed throughout product assignment. 14. Product uses timelines, check in dates or process logs. 15. Product encourages varied forms of research, expressions, and technology. 16. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by peers. 17. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by self. 18. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by teacher. STRONG 1 PRESENT 2 MARGINAL 3 ABSENT 4

56 Differentiated Report Cards A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little Growth F = No Observable Growth 1 = The student is Above Grade Level 2 = The student is Working At Grade Level 3 = The student is Working Below Grade Level On report cards, I need to find a way to show individual growth and relative standing to students and parents Tomlinson, 2001

57 A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little Growth F – No observable growth 1 = Above grade level 2 = At grade level 3 = Below grade level A = Excellent B = Very Good C = Average D = Poor F – Unsatisfactory 1 = Above grade level 2 = At grade level 3 = Below grade level A-1 = Excellent performance; working above grade level A-2 = Excellent performance; working at grade level A-3 = Excellent performance; working below grade level Personal grade & Traditional grade: B = Personal grade D = Traditional grade C = Personal grade A = Traditional grade Grades are supposed to: 1. Motivate students 2. Report accurately to parents

58 Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Lets Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats

59 OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness To Differentiate Instruction By Interest To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile ٭ equalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc. ٭ add or remove scaffolding ٭ vary difficulty level of text & supplementary materials ٭ adjust task familiarity ٭ vary direct instruction by small group ٭ adjust proximity of ideas to student experience ٭ encourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areas ٭ give choice of mode of expressing learning ٭ use interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peers ٭ give choice of tasks and products (including student designed options) ٭ give broad access to varied materials & technologies ٭ create an environment with flexible learning spaces and options ٭ allow working alone or working with peers ٭ use part-to-whole and whole-to-part approaches ٭ Vary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract) ٭ adjust for gender, culture, language differences. useful instructional strategies: - tiered activities - Tiered products - compacting - learning contracts - tiered tasks/alternative forms of assessment useful instructional strategies: - interest centers - interest groups - enrichment clusters - group investigation - choice boards - MI options - internet mentors useful instructional strategies: - multi-ability cooperative tasks - MI options - Triarchic options - 4-MAT CA Tomlinson, UVa 97

60 Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation Strategy for Differentiation Primarily Used to Differentiate PositivesCautions Tiered AssignmentsReadinessMeat & Potatoes differentiationMust use as only part of a flexible grouping pattern Tiered ProductsReadiness, Interest, Learning Profile Can be passion-producingMust provide coaching for quality Learning ContractsReadinessEncourage student autonomyBe sure to blend skill and content Drill-Focused Cooperative Tasks Low End ReadinessDeals with coverage and mastery issues May aggravate have/have not status Thought/Production Focused Cooperative Tasks Interest, Learning Profile Involves all students with high level tasks Be sure tasks call for varied intellectual skills Alternative Assessments Readiness, Learning Profile More of a real-world way of measuring student learning Be sure assessment focus on essential understandings and skills Graduated RubricsReadinessClear coaching for quality and successTake care to stress ideas and process more than mechanics Choice BoardsReadiness, InterestBalances teacher choice and student choice Teacher choice should target readiness Learning CentersReadinessCan target varied skills levels in a classDont send all students to all centers

61 Strategy for Differentiation Primarily Used to Differentiate PositivesCautions Interest CentersInterestCan link classroom topics to areas of student talent and interest Be sure centers provide depth or breadth (vs cute) Enrichment clustersInterest, Learning profiles Stresses student choice and students as producers of useful products Lose their punch without teachers skilled in the cluster domain CompactingHigh End Readiness Can reduce unnecessary redundancy for advanced or eager learners Loses its punch unless Column 3 is rich and challenging Peer TutoringLow End Readiness Gives struggling learners additional explanation opportunities Can over-use high end learner in teacher role and may short change struggling learner if tutor is weak Multi Ability Options (MI, Triarchic Theory) Interest, Learning Profile Encourages teachers to be flexible in planning routes to learning Can easily become just a learning style vs. intelligence approach 4-MATLearning ProfileHelps teachers be more conscious of student learning style/mode Can become formula-like – does not address readiness Independent StudyInterestEncourages student autonomy in planning and problem-solving Students need an amount of independence suited to their readiness for it Small Group Direct Instruction ReadinessCuts down size of class and increases student participation Students not being taught must be well anchored Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation, contd

62 Differentiated Schools Schools that promote and support DI include classrooms and programs that: Respond to variations in students readiness Respond to the myriad of students interest Respect the various students learning profiles Regard leadership as a cornerstone good instruction Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

63 Administrative Roles in Achieving Differentiation Introduce all teachers to concept Provide opportunities for training Establish expectations Provide opportunities for training Provide opportunities for teachers to demonstrate and share Provide support – resources, time, expect teachers assistance Encourage risk-taking Observe and evaluate (develop tools to do this for my sites focus) Provide feedback Model lessons and team teaching Reward progress Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

64 Leadership in Differentiation To be effective in using differentiation, site administrators and central office should be: Consistent: Use vocabulary that is clear and commonly understood by the principal, the parent, the teacher Articulate the philosophy: Kids differ. Professional teachers act robustly to address the differences. State the expectations: all of us must g row in responsiveness. That we must change / grow / differentiate is non-negotiable; the path that we each may take is negotiable. Incorporate umbrella image – these are overarching goals, for everyone, and these can and do encompass other areas like literacy in technology or reading competency. Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

65 Leadership in Differentiation Persistent: State and follow long term goals at all levels: classroom, school site, district State and follow short term goals at all levels Set time-lines so that everyone knows these goals are not going away Connect with all initiatives: standards, math assessment, technology Provide on-going sharing of how Provide on-going sharing of results throughout the school and district Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

66 Leadership in Differentiation Insistent: Require that differentiation be part of teacher plans Require that differentiation be part of school plans Require that differentiation be part of all staff development Link differentiation to observations, feedback, peer review, mentoring, evaluations Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

67 PRINCIPALS SUPPORTING DI Capitalize on support from district-level administrators, curriculum supervisors or specialists,... Develop supervision techniques that motivate and recognize efforts to initiate and/or implement DI strategies Choose professional development opportunities that provide follow-up coaching and allows time to practice new skills Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

68 PRINCIPALS SUPPORTING DI Build professional learning communities: job-embedded learning, study groups, action research, peer coaching, collaborative planning and review of student work Effectively use faculty meetings and non- instructional time Serve as coach: provide/receive feedback, know role vs. evaluator, coaching practices Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

69 To support differentiation, leaders should Establish clarity of definition Provide an environment supportive of risk Balance seeing the light & feeling the heat Differentiate for teachers Provide guidance in beginning sensible and progressing steadily Provide materials and time Examine impact of current policies and practices Communicate with parents Begin with those ready to start Develop planning and teaching teams which routinely include g/t, remedial and special ed. Personnel Start small, build local leadership Re-focus / re-energize local leaders with experts Integrate differentiation into curriculum development Maintain long term commitment to change Understand that differentiation is part of range of services – not a panacea! Carol Tomlinson

70 Provide building-level staff development that matches teacher / school goals (common experience) Provide time for on-going dialogue about differentiation – both site workdays, release time, faculty meetings Develop common understanding of differentiation and related terms Observe and support teachers growth with specific feedback (peer and admin) Tenured teachers set different goals than new teachers Give personal (yours, a specialists, an expert teachers) time and support for modeling, mentoring, consulting, collaborating, and discussing How to Assist Teachers in Professional Growth in Differentiation Vera J. Blake, Ed.D. Sara Lampe

71 A rationale for differentiation Pre-assessing student readiness Effective work with classroom groups Flexible grouping Resolving issues regarding grading / report cards Role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom Appropriate use of varied instructional strategies Using concept-based instruction Develop carefully focused tasks and products Knowing how to teach struggling learners without remedial expectations In learning to differentiate, teachers may need help with... Carol Tomlinson

72 LOOK-FORS in the Classroom Learning experiences are based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. Assessment of student needs is ongoing, and tasks are adjusted based on assessment data. All students participate in respectful work. The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than primarily a provider of group information. Students work in a variety of groups configurations. Flexible grouping is evident. Time use is flexible in response to student needs. The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to help target instruction to student needs. Clearly established criteria are used to help support student success. Student strengths are emphasized.

73 Whatever it Takes!

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