Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey"— Presentation transcript:
1 Differentiating Instruction: Beginning the Journey "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." ** Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Nanci SmithEducational ConsultantCurriculum and Professional DevelopmentCave Creek, AZ
2 Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.”Carol Ann Tomlinson
3 Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.Assessment and instruction are inseparable.The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.All students participate in respectful work.Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
4 Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Preassessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.)Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.Assessments are part of “teaching for success.”Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.Assessment MAY be differentiated.Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
5 Two Views of Assessment -- Assessment is for:GatekeepingJudgingRight AnswersControlComparison to othersUse with single activitiesAssessment is for:NurturingGuidingSelf-ReflectionInformationComparison to taskUse over multiple activities
6 Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or concept FLEXIBLE GROUPINGStudents are part of many different groups – and also work alone – based on thematch of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may createskills-based or interest-based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneousin readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachersselect them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.13579Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or conceptStudents and teacher come together to share information and pose questionsThe whole class reviews key ideas and extends their study through sharingThe whole class is introduced to a skill needed later to make a presentationThe whole class listens to individual study plans and establishes baseline criteria for successStudents engage in further study using varied materials based on readiness and learning styleStudents work on varied assigned tasks designed to help them make sense of key ideas at varied levels of complexity and varied pacingIn small groups selected by students, they apply key principles to solve teacher-generated problems related to their studyStudents self-select interest areas through which they will apply and extend their understandings2468A differentiated classroom is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class preparation, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small-group exploration, sense-making, extension, and production
7 Differentiation of Instruction Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs guided by general principles of differentiationRespectful tasksFlexible groupingContinual assessmentTeachers Can Differentiate Through:ContentProcessProductAccording to Students’ReadinessInterestLearning Profile
9 Flexible GroupingStudents are part of many different groups (and also work alone) based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills – based or interest – based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.
10 A Differentiated Classroom in Balance Teacher-StudentPartnershipsFLEXIBSolid CurriculumSharedVisionSharedgoalsInvitingSharedresponsibilityFocusedConcept-basedA GrowthOrientationProductOrientedSenseOfCommunityResourceOn-goingassessmentto determineneedFeedbackandgradingTimeGroupsRespectForGroupZPDTargetApproachesto teachingand learningSafeRespect forindividualAffirmingSharedChallengeTomlinson-oo
11 How Does Research Support DI? Differentiated Instruction is the result of a synthesis of a number of educational theories and practices.Brain research indicates that learning occurs when the learner experiences moderate challenge and relaxed alertness –readinessPsychological research reveals that when interest is tapped, learners are more likely to find learning rewarding and become more autonomous as a learner.when the learner experiences neither boredom or anxiety and when the learner is neither over- nor underchallenged.
12 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Brain organization andBuilding safe environments:Do students feel safe to risk and experiment with ideas?Do students feel included in the class and supported by others?Are tasks challenging enough without “undo distress?”Is there an emotional “hook” for the learners?Are there novel, unique and engaging activities to capture and sustain attention?
13 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Recognizing and honoring diversity:Does the learning experience appeal to the learners’ varied multiple intelligences and learning styles?May the students work collaboratively and independently?May they “show what they know” in a variety of ways?Does the cultural background of the learners influence instruction?
14 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Assessment:Is there enough time to explore, understand and transfer the learning to long term memory (grow dendrites)?Is there time to accomplish mastery?So they have opportunities for ongoing, “just in time” feedback?Do they have time to revisit ideas and concepts to connect or extend them?Is metacognitive time built into the learning process?Do students use logs and journals for reflection and goal setting?
15 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms Instructional Strategies:Are the expectations clearly stated and understood by the learner?Will the learning be relevant and useful to the learner?Does the learning build on past experience or create a new experience?Does the learning relate to their real world?Is it developmentally appropriate and hands on?Are the strategies varied to engage and sustain attention?Are there opportunities for projects, creativity, problems and challenges?
16 Checklist for Brain Based Classrooms New Models:Do students work alone, in pairs and in small groups?Do students work in learning centers based on interest, need or choice?Are some activities tiered to provide appropriate levels of challenge?Is compacting used to provide enrichment and challenge?Is integrated curriculum, problem based and service learning considered?Are contracts negotiated to provide appropriate learning activities for students?
17 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s SchoolsZemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
18 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Within these recommendations, growth does not necessarily mean moving from one practice to another, discarding a previous instructional approach and replacing it forever. Instead, teachers add new, effective alternatives to a widening repertoire of choices, allowing them to alternate among a richer array of activities, creating a richer and more complex balance of instruction.
19 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Physical FacilitiesFrom:Set-up for teacher-centered instruction (separate desks)Rows of desksBare, unadorned spaceTextbooks and handoutsTo:Set-up for student-centered instruction (tables or groupings)Clusters, centers, etc.Student work, friendlyPurposeful materials
20 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Classroom Climate / ManagementFrom:Punishment and rewardsTeacher-created and enforced rulesPassive learningSolely ability groupingRigid scheduleTo:Engagement and communityStudents help set and enforce normsPurposeful engagementFlexible groupingFlexible time based on activity
21 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Voice and InvolvementBalanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assessSome themes / inquiries are built from students’own questionsStudents assume responsibility and take rolesin decision making
22 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Activities and AssignmentsFrom:Teacher presentationWhole-class instructionUniform curriculumShort-term lessonsMemorization and recallShort responses, fill-in-the-blankSame assignmentsTo:Students experiencing conceptsCenters, groups, varietyTopics by students’ needs or choiceExtended activitiesApplication and problem solvingComplex responses, evaluations and writingMultiple intelligences, cognitive styles
23 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Language and CommunicationFrom:Forced constant silenceShort responsesTeacher talkFocus on factsTo:Noise, conversation alternates with quietElaborated discussionsStudent-teacher, student-studentSkills, concepts, synthesis, evaluation
24 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Student Work and AssessmentFrom:Products for teacher / gradingNo student work displayedIdentical, imitative productsFeedback = scores or gradesSeen / scored only by teacherTeacher grade bookStandards set during gradingTo:Products for real events / audienceHigh quality / all studentsVaried and original productsSubstantive, varied, formative feedbackPublic displays and performancesStudent-maintained portfolios, assessmentsStandards co-developed with students
25 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Teacher Attitude and Initiative Toward Students:From Distant, negative, fearful or punitive To Positive, respectful, encouraging and warmFrom Blaming students to Reasoning with StudentsFrom Directive to Consultative
26 Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Teacher Attitude and Initiative Toward Self:From Helpless victim To Risk taker, experimenter, creative agentFrom Solitary adult To Member of team within school and network beyond schoolFrom Staff development recipient To Directingown professional growthFrom Role of expert or presenter To Coach,mentor, model and guide
27 Have you ever said … ’I just don’t know what to do with that kid’ Have you ever said … ’I just don’t know what to do with that kid’? (Remember, don’t overgeneralize. There’s great diversity in all groups!!!)Persistent UnderachievementHelp the student accept control over his/her decisions and life.Be clear and specific about tasks and requirements.Use appropriate consequences for work done/not done.Break tasks into small segments.Check in with the student often.Be firm but warm.Don’t tell him/her you know he/she can do the work.Coordinate approaches with a counselor and parents when possible.All Learners in Academically Diverse ClassroomsHelp students understand that everyone has strengths and weaknesses.Celebrate and understand student learning differences.Help students learn the power of controlling what they can in their lives.Help them understand our shared needs for success, to belong, to trust, the future, etc.Help them see that each person is irreplaceable – uniqueness is a plus.Help students learn to set their own goals and chart their progress.Teach in varied readiness levels, interest and ways of learning;
28 Students with Learning Disabilities Students with Retardation or (Remember, don’t overgeneralize. There’s great diversity in all groups!!!)Students with Learning DisabilitiesEmphasize strengths.Develop ways to compensate for weaknesses so they don’t inhibit what the student can do.Help the student distinguish between and explain both strengths and weaknesses, as well as plans for both.Shoot high and then scaffold the weakness.Be clear about what the student should know, understand, and be able to do – but offer options for explanation, expression and assessment.Students with Retardation orSimilar StrugglesFocus on essential concepts and principles as a context for applying IEP skills.Use IEP goals in ways that integrate students with their peers rather than isolating them.Whenever possible, teach for meaning rather than rote – uild frameworks of meaning.Spotlight the student’s legitimate successes and contributions.Use small groups for teaching needed skills, re-teaching by need.
29 Students with Behavior Problems (Remember, don’t overgeneralize. There’s great diversity in all groups!!!)Advanced LearnersEmphasize quality of thought and expression vs. accuracy.Balance student choice and teacher choice tasks to allow independence but still ensure encounters with rigor.Help the student learn to compete against him/herself.Necessitate and commend intellectual risk and perseverance.When “raising the ceiling,” support the climb! Teach for success.Be flexible. Invite student imput.Use small groups to extend thought and skills levels.Students with Behavior ProblemsCoordinate efforts and strategies with specialists.Help the student articulate difficult areas and learn to look for signs of them.Be sure the student has an easy “way out” of tough spots.Provide “safe” spaces to be alone / work alone.Acknowledge successes.Allow choices when feasible.Be flexible about movement.
30 Second Language Learners Culturally Diverse Learners (Remember, don’t overgeneralize. There’s great diversity in all groups!!!)Second Language LearnersLink classroom & ESL resource work.Ensure that the student has useful tasks at all times andis accountable for them (listening/reading with tapes, writing, translating, vocabulary practice).Don’t let the student sit idle and isolated.Use students who can bridge the two languages.Plam specific ways each day to involve the student in coversation & contribution.Chart growth vs. only comparisonUse small groups for teaching next-step skills.Culturally Diverse LearnersHelp build peer-support systems.Be sure you offer varied working arrangements and modes of expression.Invest time in the student in ways that communicate your berlief in his/her success.Help the student develop “school skills” that may be weak.Teach from whole to part.Be clear about expectations and that students both understand and know how to achieve them. Don’t let work slide.Emphasize contextualized learning.
31 THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCESJournal entryShort answer testOpen response testHome learningNotebookOral responsePortfolio entryExhibitionCulminating productQuestion writingProblem solvingTEACHER DATA MECHANISMSAnecdotal recordsObservation by checklistSkills checklistClass discussionSmall group interactionTeacher – student conferenceAssessment stationsExit cardsProblem posingPerformance tasks and rubrics
33 Curriculum & Instruction Some Traits of Quality Differentiation Promotes understandingEngaging (mentally and affectively)Focuses on Knowledge, concepts, understandings, & skills valued by experts in a disciplineRich, deals with profound ideasTightly focused goals & componentsJoyful / satisfyingCoherent (sensible to the learner, organized to promote retention & use)Seems real (is real) to the studentHelps learner feel more powerful & purposeful in his/her worldRequires high level thinkingFresh, surprising, curiosity-provoking, interestingProvides choicesClear in expectationsAllows meaningful collaborationFocused on products meaningful to students & othersConnects with students’ lives & worldCalls on students to use what they learn in interesting & important ways.Involves students in setting goals for their learning & assessing progress toward those goalsStretches the studentRooted in student needan extension of high quality curriculumDerived from on-going assessmentRespectful of each learnerBuilds communityInvolves students as decision –makersDemonstrates teacher-students partnerships in teaching & learningGrowth focusedScaffolds growth for each learnerSupports successful collaborationStretches each learnerPromotes & rewards individual excellenceAddresses readiness, interest, & learning profileAttends effectively to gender & cultureSpans content, process, & productEffective & varied use of instructional approachesTeaches students to take responsibility for own learningFlexible use of time, space, materials, groupingsMaximizes opportunity to “show what you know”Balances student & teacher choicePlanned (proactive) plus tailoringOccurs when either teacher or student is on center stageIncludes whole class, small group, & individual instructionSupports success for each learner & the class as a wholeBuilds collaborations with parentsTomlinson/UVa/2000
34 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity AboutWhat Students Should:KnowFacts (Columbus cam to the “New World”Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy)Concepts (exploration, change)Principles/Generalizations (Change can be both positive and negative. Exploration results in change. People’s perspectives affect how they respond to change).SkillsBasic (literacy, numeracy)Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning)Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies)Planning (goal setting; use of time)SocialProductionUnderstandBe Able to DoAs a Result of a Lesson, Lesson Sequence, Unit, and yearIn general, these are held steady as a core for nearly all learners in a differentiated classroom**Exception--linear skills and information which can be assessed for mastery in the sequence (e.g. spelling)
35 KnowThese are the facts, vocabulary, dates, places, names, and examples you want students to giveyou.The know is massively forgettable.“Teaching facts in isolation is like trying to pump water uphill.” Carol Tomlinson
36 Understand Major Concepts and Subconcepts These are the written statements of truth, the core to the meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what connect the parts of a subject to the student’s life and to other subjects.It is through the understanding component of instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the “point” of the lesson or the experience.Understandings are purposeful. They focus on the key ideas that require students to understand information and make connections while evaluating the relationships that exit within the understandings.
37 A Student who UNDERSTANDS Something can… Explain it clearly, giving examplesUse itCompare and contrast it with other conceptsRelate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and personal life experiencesTransfer it to unfamiliar settingsDiscover the concept embedded within a novel problemCombine it appropriately with other understandingsPose new problems that exemplify or embody the conceptCreate analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the conceptPose and answer “what-if” questions that alter variables in a problematic situationGenerate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge and further inquiriesGeneralize from specifics to form a conceptUse the knowledge to appropriately assess his or her performance, or that of someone else.Adopted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies
38 Able to DoSkillsThese are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method.The skill portion encourages the students to “think” like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to “be like” a doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist.
39 to Differentiate Content Waysto Differentiate ContentReading Partners / Reading BuddiesRead/SummarizeRead/Question/AnswerVisual Organizer/SummarizerParallel Reading with Teacher PromptChoral Reading/Antiphonal ReadingFlip BooksSplit Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)Books on TapeHighlights on TapeDigests/ “Cliff Notes”Notetaking OrganizersVaried TextsVaried Supplementary MaterialsHighlighted TextsThink-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-PostviewTomlinson – ‘00
40 TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS WAYSTO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESSFun & GamesRAFTsCubing, Think DotsChoices (Intelligences)CentersTiered lessonsContracts
41 USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES. The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research:Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude.Lecturing, a common teaching strategy, is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presentedHands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement.Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics.Despite the research supporting hands-on activity, it is a fairly uncommon instructional approach.Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world.
42 RAFT RAFT is an acronym that stands for Role of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object?Audience. Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object?Format. What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song?Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
43 RAFT Activities Role Audience Format Topic Semicolon Middle Schoolers Diary entryI Wish You ReallyUnderstood Where I BelongN.Y.TimespublicOp Ed pieceHow our Language DefinesWho We AreHuck FinnTom SawyerNote hidden in a tree knotA Few Things You Should KnowRain DropFuture DropletsAdvice ColumnThe Beauty of CyclesLungOwnerOwner’s GuideTo Maximize Product LifeRain ForestJohn Q. CitizenPaste Up “Ransom” NoteBefore It’s Too LateReporterPublicObituaryHitler is DeadMartin Luther KingTV audience of 2010SpeechThe Dream RevisitedThomas JeffersonCurrent Residents of VirginiaFull page Newspaper AdIf I Could Talk to You NowFractionsWhole NumbersPetitionTo Be Considered A Part of the FamilyA word problemStudents in your classSet of DirectionsHow to Get to Know MeLanguage Arts& LiteratureScienceHistoryMathFormat based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
44 Developing a Tiered Activity 12Select the activity organizerconceptgeneralizationThink about your students/use assessmentsreadiness rangeinterestslearning profiletalentsEssential to buildinga framework ofunderstandingskillsreadingthinkinginformation3Create an activity that isinterestinghigh levelcauses students to usekey skill(s) to understanda key idea4Chart the complexity of the activityHigh skill/ComplexityLow skill/complexity5Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, inmaterials – basic to advancedform of expression – from familiar to unfamiliarfrom personal experience to removed from personal experienceequalizer6Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements
45 The Equalizer Foundational Transformational Concrete Abstract 3. Simple Complex4. Single Facet Multiple Facets5. Small Leap Great Leap6. More Structured More Open7. Less Independence Greater Independence8. Slow QuickInformation, Ideas, Materials, ApplicationsRepresentations, Ideas, Applications, MaterialsResources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, GoalsDirections, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary ConnectionsApplication, Insight, TransferSolutions, Decisions, ApproachesPlanning, Designing, MonitoringPace of Study, Pace of Thought
46 Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract A Learning Contract has the followingcomponentsA Skills ComponentFocus is on skills-based tasksAssignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readinessStudents work at their own level and paceA content componentFocus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings)Requires sense making and productionAssignment is based on readiness or interestA Time LineTeacher sets completion date and check-in requirementsStudents select order of work (except for required meetings and homework)4. The AgreementThe teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their timeStudents agree to use the time responsiblyGuidelines for working are spelled outConsequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineatedSignatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreementDifferentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997
47 to Differentiate Product Waysto Differentiate ProductChoices based on readiness, interest, and learning profileClear expectationsTimelinesAgreementsProduct GuidesRubricsEvaluation
48 Creating a Powerful Product Assignment Identify the essentials of the unit/studyWhat students must:Know (facts)Understand (concepts, generalizations)Be able to do (skills)As a result of the unit/studyIdentify one of more format or “packaging options” for the product:Required (e.g. poetry, an experiment, graphing, charting)HookExploratoryTalent/passion drivenDetermine expectations for quality in:Content (information, ideas, concepts, research materials)Process (planning, goal-setting, defense of viewpoint, research, editing)Product (size, construction, durability, expert-level expectations, part
49 Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student: Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, cont’dDecide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote success:Brainstorming for ideasDeveloping rubrics/criteria for successTimelinesPlanning/goal-settingStoryboardingCritiquingRevising-editingDevelop a product assignment that clearly says to the student:You should show you understand and can do these thingsProceeding through these steps/stagesIn this formatAt this level of qualityDifferentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on:Student readinessStudent interestStudents learning profileCoach for success!It is your job, as teacher, to make explicitThat which you thought was implicit
54 ASSESSING TEACHER CREATED PRODUCTS STRONG 1PRESENT 2MARGINAL 3ABSENT 41. Product designed to expand on all key concepts2. Product designed to expand on all key principles / generalizations3. Product designed to expand on all key skills.4. Product facilitates students use and extension of key knowledge.5. Product rationale is made clear to students.6. Clear directions are provided that are both thorough and open.7. Product provides clear criteria for successes at a high level of expectations for content, process and product.8. Product assignment necessitates creativity.9. Product assignment supports creativity.10. Product challenges a full range of readiness levels.11. Product allows/encourages pursuit of student interest.12.. A menu of product options and/;or working arrangements supports varied learning profiles.13. On going support is provided as needed throughout product assignment.14. Product uses timelines, check in dates or process logs.15. Product encourages varied forms of research, expressions, and technology.16. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by peers.17. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by self.18. Product provides formative and summative evaluation by teacher.
55 Differentiated Report Cards On report cards, I need to find a way to show individual growth and relative standing to students and parentsA = Excellent GrowthB = Very Good GrowthC = Some GrowthD = Little GrowthF = No ObservableGrowth1 = The student isAbove GradeLevel2 = The student isWorking AtGrade Level3 = The student isWorking BelowGrade LevelTomlinson, 2001
56 Grades A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little GrowthF – No observable growth1 = Above grade level2 = At grade level3 = Below grade levelA = ExcellentB = Very GoodC = AverageD = PoorF – Unsatisfactory1 = Above grade level2 = At grade level3 = Below grade levelA-1 = Excellent performance; working above grade levelA-2 = Excellent performance; working at grade levelA-3 = Excellent performance; working below grade levelPersonal grade & Traditional grade:B = Personal gradeD = Traditional gradeC = Personal gradeA = Traditional gradeGrades are supposed to:1. Motivate students2. Report accurately to parents
57 Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep DifferentiationChoices of booksHomework optionsUse of reading buddiesVaried journal PromptsOrbitalsVaried pacing with anchor optionsStudent-teaching goal settingWork alone / togetherWhole-to-part and part-to-whole explorationsFlexible seatingVaried computer programsDesign-A-DayVaried Supplementary materialsOptions for varied modes of expressionVarying scaffolding on same organizerLet’s Make a Deal projectsComputer mentorsThink-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profileUse of collaboration, independence, and cooperationOpen-ended activitiesMini-workshops to reteach or extend skillsJigsawNegotiated CriteriaExplorations by interestsGames to practice mastery of informationMultiple levels of questionsHigh-Prep DifferentiationTiered activities and labsTiered productsIndependent studiesMultiple textsAlternative assessmentsLearning contracts4-MATMultiple-intelligence optionsCompactingSpelling by readinessEntry PointsVarying organizersLectures coupled with graphic organizersCommunity mentorshipsInterest groupsTiered centersInterest centersPersonal agendasLiterature CirclesStationsComplex InstructionGroup InvestigationTape-recorded materialsTeams, Games, and TournamentsChoice BoardsThink-Tac-ToeSimulationsProblem-Based LearningGraduated RubricsFlexible reading formatsStudent-centered writing formats
58 OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By ReadinessTo Differentiate Instruction By InterestTo Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profileequalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc.add or remove scaffoldingvary difficulty level of text & supplementary materialsadjust task familiarityvary direct instruction by small groupadjust proximity of ideas to student experienceencourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areasgive choice of mode of expressing learninguse interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peersgive choice of tasks and products (including student designed options)give broad access to varied materials & technologiescreate an environment with flexible learning spaces and optionsallow working alone or working with peersuse part-to-whole and whole-to-part approachesVary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)adjust for gender, culture, language differences.useful instructional strategies:- tiered activitiesTiered productscompactinglearning contractstiered tasks/alternative forms of assessmentinterest centersinterest groupsenrichment clustersgroup investigationchoice boardsMI optionsinternet mentorsmulti-ability cooperative tasksTriarchic options4-MATCA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
59 Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation Strategy for DifferentiationPrimarily Used to DifferentiatePositivesCautionsTiered AssignmentsReadinessMeat & Potatoes differentiationMust use as only part of a flexible grouping patternTiered ProductsReadiness, Interest, Learning ProfileCan be passion-producingMust provide coaching for qualityLearning ContractsEncourage student autonomyBe sure to blend skill and contentDrill-Focused Cooperative TasksLow End ReadinessDeals with coverage and mastery issuesMay aggravate have/have not statusThought/Production Focused Cooperative TasksInterest, Learning ProfileInvolves all students with high level tasksBe sure tasks call for varied intellectual skillsAlternative AssessmentsReadiness, Learning ProfileMore of a real-world way of measuring student learningBe sure assessment focus on essential understandings and skillsGraduated RubricsClear coaching for quality and successTake care to stress ideas and process more than mechanicsChoice BoardsReadiness, InterestBalances teacher choice and student choiceTeacher choice should target readinessLearning CentersCan target varied skills levels in a classDon’t send all students to all centers
60 Strategy for Differentiation Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation, cont’dStrategy for DifferentiationPrimarily Used to DifferentiatePositivesCautionsInterest CentersInterestCan link classroom topics to areas of student talent and interestBe sure centers provide depth or breadth (vs cute)Enrichment clustersInterest, Learning profilesStresses student choice and students as producers of useful productsLose their punch without teachers skilled in the cluster domainCompactingHigh End ReadinessCan reduce unnecessary redundancy for advanced or eager learnersLoses its punch unless Column 3 is rich and challengingPeer TutoringLow End ReadinessGives struggling learners additional explanation opportunitiesCan over-use high end learner in teacher role and may short change struggling learner if tutor is weakMulti Ability Options (MI, Triarchic Theory)Interest, Learning ProfileEncourages teachers to be flexible in planning routes to learningCan easily become just a learning style vs. intelligence approach4-MATLearning ProfileHelps teachers be more conscious of student learning style/modeCan become formula-like – does not address readinessIndependent StudyEncourages student autonomy in planning and problem-solvingStudents need an amount of independence suited to their readiness for itSmall Group Direct InstructionReadinessCuts down size of class and increases student participationStudents not being taught must be well anchored
61 Differentiated Schools Schools that promote and support DI include classrooms and programs that:Respond to variations in students’ readinessRespond to the myriad of students’ interestRespect the various students’ learning profilesRegard leadership as a cornerstone good instructionVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
62 Administrative Roles in Achieving Differentiation Introduce all teachers to conceptProvide opportunities for trainingEstablish expectationsProvide opportunities for teachers to demonstrate and shareProvide support – resources, time, expect teachers assistanceEncourage risk-takingObserve and evaluate (develop tools to do this for my site’s focus)Provide feedbackModel lessons and team teachingReward progressVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
63 Leadership in Differentiation To be effective in using differentiation, site administrators and central office should be:Consistent:Use vocabulary that is clear and commonly understood by the principal, the parent, the teacherArticulate the philosophy: Kids differ. Professional teachers act robustly to address the differences.State the expectations: all of us must g row in responsiveness. That we must change / grow / differentiate is non-negotiable; the path that we each may take is negotiable.Incorporate umbrella image – these are overarching goals, for everyone, and these can and do encompass other areas like literacy in technology or reading competency.Vera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
64 Leadership in Differentiation Persistent:State and follow long term goals at all levels: classroom, school site, districtState and follow short term goals at all levelsSet time-lines so that everyone knows these goals are not going awayConnect with all initiatives: standards, math assessment, technologyProvide on-going sharing of “how”Provide on-going sharing of results throughout the school and districtVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
65 Leadership in Differentiation Insistent:Require that differentiation be part of teacher plansRequire that differentiation be part of school plansRequire that differentiation be part of all staff developmentLink differentiation to observations, feedback, peer review, mentoring, evaluationsVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
66 PRINCIPALS SUPPORTING DI Capitalize on support from district-level administrators, curriculum supervisors or specialists, . . .Develop supervision techniques that motivate and recognize efforts to initiate and/or implement DI strategiesChoose professional development opportunities that provide follow-up coaching and allows time to practice new skillsVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
67 PRINCIPALS SUPPORTING DI Build professional learning communities: job-embedded learning, study groups, action research, peer coaching, collaborative planning and review of student workEffectively use faculty meetings and non-instructional timeServe as coach: provide/receive feedback, know role vs. evaluator, coaching practicesVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
68 To support differentiation, leaders should Establish clarity of definitionProvide an environment supportive of riskBalance “seeing the light” & “feeling the heat”Differentiate for teachersProvide guidance in beginning sensible and progressing steadilyProvide materials and timeExamine impact of current policies and practicesCommunicate with parentsBegin with those ready to startDevelop planning and teaching teams which routinely include g/t, remedial and special ed. PersonnelStart small, build local leadershipRe-focus / re-energize local leaders with expertsIntegrate differentiation into curriculum developmentMaintain long term commitment to changeUnderstand that differentiation is part of range of services – not a panacea!Carol Tomlinson
69 How to Assist Teachers in Professional Growth in Differentiation Provide building-level staff development that matches teacher / school goals (common experience)Provide time for on-going dialogue about differentiation – both site workdays, release time, faculty meetingsDevelop common understanding of differentiation and related termsObserve and support teachers’ growth with specific feedback (peer and admin)Tenured teachers set different goals than new teachersGive personal (yours, a specialist’s, an expert teacher’s) time and support for modeling, mentoring, consulting, collaborating, and discussingVera J. Blake, Ed.D.Sara Lampe
70 In learning to differentiate, teachers may need help with . . . A rationale for differentiationPre-assessing student readinessEffective work with classroom groupsFlexible groupingResolving issues regarding grading / report cardsRole of the teacher in a differentiated classroomAppropriate use of varied instructional strategiesUsing concept-based instructionDevelop carefully focused tasks and productsKnowing how to teach struggling learners without “remedial expectations”Carol Tomlinson
71 LOOK-FORS in the Classroom Learning experiences are based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile.Assessment of student needs is ongoing, and tasks are adjusted based on assessment data.All students participate in respectful work.The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than primarily a provider of group information.Students work in a variety of groups configurations. Flexible grouping is evident.Time use is flexible in response to student needs.The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to help target instruction to student needs.Clearly established criteria are used to help support student success.Student strengths are emphasized.