Presentation on theme: "East Asia Ministerial Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene - Sustainable Urban Sanitation Planning Japan, November 30, 2007 Dr. Darren Saywell Development."— Presentation transcript:
East Asia Ministerial Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene - Sustainable Urban Sanitation Planning Japan, November 30, 2007 Dr. Darren Saywell Development Director, International Water Association
2 The good news… Direct [and indirect] benefits from sanitation increasingly recognized… Example: For every US$1 invested in providing improved sanitation, resulting societal economic benefits of between US$5 and US$23 will be realised, depending on the country [WHO, 2003]. Other non-health benefits…
3 …the bad news… Unprecedented situation 2.6 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Assuming business as usual, the world will miss the MDG target for sanitation by 1 billion. An increasingly urbanized world population -By 2035, 60% world will be urban -Of this proportion, 60% will be in informal urban settlements
WHO - UNICEF (2004) Faecal attraction…
5 Map showing the relative size of the MDG sanitation target for each country based on the number of installations required through to 2015
6 The problem with [urban] sanitation… Key contrasts with water provision… Sanitation is infrastructure heavy at the household level Sanitation services are not holistic - split between provision of facility, removal, treatment of waste Represents a different cost burden Sanitation sector is characterised by… Lack of political will Lack of sustainable and hygienic facilities and behaviour A high rate of abandonment of existing infrastructure Institutional fragmentation, legislative vacuum and weak capacity …
7 Inappropriate responses… [Urban] sanitation provision has historically been characterised by supply-driven approaches, often resulted in governments and donors investing in large infrastructure projects, with a tendency for low demand by communities. Beset by internal debates and beauty contests about which technology, system or approach is best…
8 Sanitation 21 Lack of coherent thinking on subject of urban sanitation [planning], particularly technologies, systems & approaches Sanitation 21: Convene thinkers and practitioners Establish analytical framework Commission work; peer review; publish; disseminate Some of this thinking reviewed here…
9 Why another framework? Conventional approaches to planning seem to fail because: objectives are distorted by special interests (lack of balance across the domains of the city) plans lack flexibility plans are based on unrealistic assessments of management capacities …a mismatch between technical proposals and institutional realities…
Sanitation failure? Mismatch in objectives Status Cleanliness Convenience Health Environment Econ. Dev. Utility cash flow W/F security EquityHOME CITY GAPGAP decisions HOME CITY
12 We wanted this….
13 …but what we got was this…
Future: Objectives & decision making matched?HOME CITY Status Cleanliness Convenience Health Environment Econ. Dev. Utility cash flow W/F security Equity decisions HOME CITY
15 How might we get there…? Sanitation 21 - nothing new – its not rocket-science, but it does suggest a change of mindset A simple conception of what is a complex process: Understanding the context (institutional and other realities across all domains of the city) Understanding how a sanitation system relates to the context across all domains of the city Checking whether the system meets objectives and can work across all domains of the city.
16 Part One: the context Key elements of the context Decision making domains Objectives External factors Capacity Understanding the context allows technical proposals to be assessed against institutional realities
17 Context (2): Objectives, external interests, capacities Objectives: what do stakeholders in each domain want from their sanitation system? External influencing factors: outside factors which influence decision making Capacities: Actors, mandates, manpower, budgets
20 Part Two: technical options Components mapped across domains: A toilet Collection mechanism Transportation mechanism Treatment process Disposal/ re-use mechanism/ process Management Requirements The system as a whole Management requirements across all domains
21 Part 3: Fit for Purpose? Ask the following crucial questions across all domains of the city Does it meet the objectives? Do the management requirements match in every domain? Does it/ will it work?
25 In summary The framework is a simplified representation of a complex planning process [deliberately so] It is meant to guide planners/ designers and help to build bridges between institutional analysis and technical planning It is not new – but new mindsets are needed !
26 Key messages Planners need to draw on well-established principles of good planning and design practice to: analyze the objectives of a sanitation system across all domains of the city, including the household analyze the external drivers and contexts which impact on behaviours in each domain analyze technical options in terms which relate elements of the system to these domains assess the management requirements in each domain; and then assess whether the proposed sanitation system will work and will result in services to people.
28 Cost-effectiveness of water, sanitation & hygiene as health interventions (US $ / DALY) Source: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2 nd edition 2006 (www.dcp2.org) – Chapter 41www.dcp2.org
29 Paradigm shift Recent trends in sanitation focus on demand driven approaches for low cost sanitation facilities. These include: Social marketing: Aimed at creating a desire to install household toilets through: advertising via mass media; demonstration latrines; time-limited special offers; credit sponsored by local traders; and mutual help schemes. Total sanitation: Community-wide efforts to eliminate open defecation using community pressure and dynamics. Sani-centers: UNICEF has promoted the creation of stores that sell sanitation hardware to individual customers. The benefits arising from investment in demand responsive approaches are likely to be greater due to more long run sustainability and increased capture of drivers of demand such as comfort and social status.
30 Sanitation 21 - continued Scope: limited to excreta, not drainage or solid waste Composition of task force: critical to success Key outputs: both technical and process
31 Structure of the framework Part One: The context Decision making domains Objectives External factors Capacity Part Two: Technical Options Elements of the system Management requirements Part Three: Fit for Purpose? Meeting Objectives Matching management requirements Assessing: will it/ does it work?