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The Legal Information Landscape aims to introduce you to the most popular information sources & help you to see how each might be useful in the course.

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Presentation on theme: "The Legal Information Landscape aims to introduce you to the most popular information sources & help you to see how each might be useful in the course."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Legal Information Landscape aims to introduce you to the most popular information sources & help you to see how each might be useful in the course of academic studies or legal practice. Click on text boxes to find out more. Wherever you are in the landscape clicking on the home button will always take you back the beginning. Click here to start. Statue of Justice, Old Bailey from Ronnie Macdonald's photostream


3 Conference Papers Academics present new ideas & research at Conferences. Papers are presented & usually written up & Published as Proceedings. There are opportunities for debates & discussions to progress new ideas too. Refer to these if your topic of interest is very new & little has been written about it in books & journals. If you want to find conference papers, Zetoc & the Social Science Citation Index in Web of Science are two key databases. Zetoc Web of Science Crowded Math Course by thowi, Flickr

4 Scholarly Journal Articles Use these when you know that you want very specific, academic information. They are published regularly, usually monthly or quarterly. They may be in printed or electronic format. If you are an undergraduate, you are unlikely to browse scholarly journals. They contain articles, written by academics. The sources used to write the articles are included at the end in a Reference List or Bibliography. You can use tools called databases to help you search the contents of these & other types of journal. Articles are peer reviewed, i.e. the quality of the article has been reviewed by an editorial board. You can find scholarly articles in any subject area by searching HeinonlineHeinonline, Lexis, WestlawLexisWestlaw Google Scholar

5 Practitioner Journals Use these journals to give a professional view point to your work. They contain information aimed at people working in a particular trade or profession. Articles vary in length, but are often fairly short & readable. They include product reviews, industry news, exhibition & competition adverts. Job adverts are also featured. Articles are not peer reviewed, but are usually written by people with a sound knowledge of the industry. You might want to regularly browse some trade journals relating to your industry. Find them in the library. They may be printed or electronic. You can search their contents by using tools called databases. They are published regularly, usually weekly or monthly. Lexis,Lexis, Westlaw & Business Source CompleteWestlaw Business Source Complete are good sources of articles published in legal practitioner journals.

6 Newspapers As well as providing information on current affairs, newspapers are useful sources of public opinion & include reviews. They can be useful for historical research, providing primary evidence from the period in which they were published. Newspapers may be local or national, tabloid or broadsheet, they may also be specialist, e.g. The Stage. Tabloids & broadsheets are written for different audiences. Compare news stories from tabloids, or red tops, such as the Sun & the Mirror with broadsheets such as the Times & the Guardian. Find & read full text newspaper articles from all over the world using Nexis UK database. Nexis UK Times Digital Archive Times Digital Archive & 19 th Century British Library Newspapers Newspapers are two historical news databases. You might also look at facsimiles of recent tabloids at Ukpressonline.Ukpressonline Find UK broadsheets which have regular law sections which can be read free of charge using the News section of Lexis.Lexis

7 Textbooks They present well established ideas & theories & usually cover a broad topic area in considerable detail. Use these when you want an introduction to a topic area. You are unlikely to read a book from cover to cover. Use the contents page & index to help you locate what you want to find out about. Textbooks are reviewed by an editorial board so you can trust that the content is reliable & accurate. The book may be edited & divided into chapters which are written by different authors but relate to the main theme. Format may be printed or electronic. Use your reading lists to find books recommended by your lecturer. Find out what books are available by searching the Discovery Service or COPAC.Discovery Service COPAC. You may find some online e-books, using Ebrary, Dawsonera & MyiLibrary. Ebrary, Dawsonera MyiLibrary Textbooks Contact Learning Support Tutors or ASK for help to develop active reading skills.Learning Support TutorsASKactive reading skills Beauty of Reading from Law8r photostream

8 Reference Sources Use these to find quick facts. They are useful to consult at the planning stage of your research & can provide you with keywords to help you search the web or library catalogues & databases effectively. The Library has a Law. Reference Collection in which you will find things like encyclopaedias, dictionaries, directories & yearbooks. Resources may be printed or electronic For in depth research use Strouds Judicial Dictionary from the Law Reference Collection or the Index of Legal Terms in Westlaw. Use Halsburys Laws of England& from the Law Reference Collection or in Lexis.Strouds Judicial Dictionary WestlawHalsburys Laws of England& Lexis. Initially do look for the range of legal dictionaries & books on legal skills available in print for loan in the library. We also have e-versions to use for quick reference online. For puzzling abbreviations use the Cardiff Index of Legal Abbreviations.Cardiff Index of Legal Abbreviations.

9 Audio-Visual Information Often this type of material sparks an initial interest in a subject which students later research in depth. It can also be used it to illustrate particular points within presentations. This can include television & radio broadcasts on legal issues. It might also be images, video clips, or podcasts from legal websites. Images may be from printed or electronic sources. The library has some good quality streamed images & videos for educational use. You will find TV & radio programmes in Box of Broadcasts. For images try the JISC Media Hub. You could also expand your mind with Learnmore.streamed images & videosBox of BroadcastsJISC Media HubLearnmore Images, just like other information sources, will be subject to copyright even if they are available on the web. Something old, Something new from John Watsons photostream

10 Websites Use the web to find quick facts, current information, information about companies & organisations & information from the government. This page looks at the internet in general, not as a medium for accessing the Librarys online scholarly books & journals. Always evaluate the information that you find on the web. Visit the Internet Detective for further information.Internet Detective Use more than one search engine. Use the advanced search options to find what you need more quickly & easily. Search by domain name, if appropriate, UK academic non profit making companies Use Internet Gateways like Infolaw,Infolaw LawboreLawbore, or Lawlinks to find information that has already been evaluated.Lawlinks Find good quality websites using the Intute gateway.Intute

11 Personal Communications You may use these to add a personal, research element to your work. They could be letters, emails or they could be opinions gathered from a survey or interview. You should always ask permission prior to including personal details in your work. Contributors may prefer to remain anonymous. If you are considering this type of research you need to consider Research ethics. Consult your supervisor early in the proposal process. They could be letters, emails or they could be opinions gathered from a survey or interview.

12 You should always ask permission prior to including personal details in your work. Contributors may prefer to remain anonymous. Social Media Useful for finding out what others are thinking. These include blogs, & tools for sharing photos & information amongst friends & groups. Use with caution in your research. How reliable is the information? Peoples thoughts & feelings can change too! Take a look at some popular law blogs to identify what is available; contribute to the pool of information on Wikipedia; find your friends (& the University Library) on Facebook; share photos on blogsWikipediaFacebook;Flickr

13 Books Format may be printed or electronic. Sometimes a number of academics contribute papers to a collection relating to the main theme. When researching in depth you will need to go beyond textbooks. Single themed books sometimes called monographs are authored by academics who have researched the subject thoroughly. These can be really useful as starting points for your own research & will point towards further reading. The largest collection of legal monographs can be found In the Oxford Scholarship Online collection. However you will find other individual via the Discovery Service either in print on the shelves or Oxford Scholarship Online In Ebrary, Dawsonera & MyiLibrary.Ebrary, Dawsonera MyiLibrary Read actively, make notes & remember to note relevant referencing information.

14 UK Legislation The Union Flag 'Union Jack' UK Flag 326 from Ree Saunders photostream Acts & Statutory Instruments are Primary law sources referred to collectively as legislation. BAILIIBAILII & are not as reliable for current legislation as they are still at varying stages of revision. The latter however helpfully provides a pdf of the original act so is useful for historic Acts are Primary legislation passed by Parliament. Statutory Instruments are Secondary legislation. Every new piece of legislation impacts on previous legislation in the same area, Therefore you need to be absolutely clear whether you are looking at law as passed (historic law) or law as now enforced (current law) or law under discussion or scheduled for amendment (proposed law). LexisLexis, & Westlaw are good sources for current legislation as they incorporate changes in law as soon as possible & highlight if there are amendments pending. The latter also has a feature which can roll bank amendments but this stops at 1992.Westlaw

15 EU Legislation European Union from motiquas photostream Westlaw Westlaw has a specific area dedicated to EU Law which is easy to use if you are familiar with the database. Lexis has a specific source search for EU materials which is useful for business topics.Lexis To access the official sources of EU law as passed it is useful to be able to use a focussed advanced Google search on.Google search Eur-Lex Eur-Lex. It is easier to view treaties on Europa. Europa Secondary European Law covers Regulations passed by the Commission, Council & Parliament & Directives which need to be brought into force internally by individual member states. Some Secondary European Law is of more local/limited relevance as it also covers EU agreements with non members & agreements between member states, some non-binding resolutions & conventions. Primary European Law only covers the Treaties which provide the Framework for European co-operation.

16 Reports 009 Feltron report from jakeprzespos photostream They can be written by consultants, companies, charities, lobbyists & are likely to reflect the Author or sponsors view of matters. Government reports fall into the category of Official Publications.Official Publications They are likely to include a lot of facts, figures & evidence to support their conclusions. These are sources where you need to exercise your skills in evaluation & critical thinking. Reports come in all shapes & forms. They can be about finance, research, policy, proposals or a single incident, topic or controversy. They often are part of a series or have specific reference number. Find reports on organisation websites or track them from references in your other reading. You often find links to them in news websites.

17 Official Publications Houses of Parliament from Dave Stokes photostream This term is used loosely to cover publications & reports issued by national governments, ministers, government departments, executive agencies, local government & international & inter-governmental bodies. Here we concentrate on UK Publications. There are official publications on everything from the annual spending review through to numbers in prison. They are very much of their time reflecting the policy of the government of the day & the concerns of their critics. Traditionally many government departments had their own websites & published their own research reports & annual statistical surveys. Recently all government departments have been subsumed into one website. This gives priority to giving simple answers to common questions so it can occasionally be difficult to track down more in depth material. You can find official publications online at Gov.UK website. It is also worth looking at the Office of National Statistics. Material from previous administrations can be found at the National Archive.Gov.UKOffice of National Statistics National Archive Learn use a focussed advanced Google search to dig beneath the surface of websites.Google search

18 Hansard Historic Plaque (Green) from LEOL30's photostream Hansard (the Official Report) is the edited verbatim report of proceedings of the House of Commons. Pepper v Hart [1992] UKHL 3, ruled that in some circumstances if primary legislation is ambiguous courts can use statements in both Houses to aid interpretation. Daily Debates are published on the Parliament website the next working day by 6 a.m. Find Hansard online from 1988 for the Commons & 1995 for the Lords.Hansard Help with referencing Hansard is available in Referencing@Portsmouth. Hansard has gained specific legal weight because Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart [1992] UKHL 3. Learn to use focussed advanced searches in Google to dig beneath the surface of websites.Google

19 Commentary Centre Court Commentary Box from gorgeoux's photostream Legal commentaries are usually found in established updated services such as Chitty on Contract. In print they are often referred to generically as loose-leaf services as this was the traditional method of updating. Commentaries are academically authoritative but whilst they are occasionally referred to in court they are reference not legal source. Commentaries offer explanations & interpretations of primary legal sources. They tend to be restricted to specific areas of law & are much more detailed than a standard textbook. Find commentaries in the Books section of Westlaw, under analysis in Lexis, you will find family law commentary in Jordan & historic commentary for English & American law in Heinonline.WestlawLexisJordanHeinonline Commentaries refer to primary sources you might wish to consult & in some cases are practically targeted at a specific groups of users e.g. Magistrates, Police Officers.

20 International Treaties/ Conventions International Treaties/ Conventions Signing the Arms Trade Treaty from Controlarms photostream Treaties & Conventions are agreements between countries or international organisations under International law. For a glossary of terms & concepts see United Nations Treaty Reference Guide.United Nations Treaty Reference Guide Check for Treaties in the UN TreatyUN Treaty CollectionCollection, World Trade Organisation, Council of Europe or UK Treaties Online.World Trade OrganisationCouncil of Europe UK Treaties Online It is important to understand treaties do not 'override' a States existing Civil/Criminal Codes/Laws except where measures are 'built in' to a particular treaty or convention. In such cases there would also be primary/secondary legislation adopted nationally, to make any necessary changes fitting the terms of a treaty or convention effecting Civil/Criminal laws. Where particular treaties/conventions are relevant to matters before a Court, the Court would take them into account in making a ruling.

21 Parliamentary Papers Parliament at Dusk from Berto Garcia's photostream This category covers Papers of both the House of Commons & the House of Lords, Select Committees & Command Papers. Sessional Papers (Bound Set) contain Bills, Reports of Committees (divided by House) & Accounts. They are referred to by Session & appropriate running number or volume number. To find recent Parliamentary Papers use a focussed advanced Google search on the Parliament website.Google search Parliament website For older material use our historic House of Commons Papers database which covers 1688-2008. House of Commons Papers Command Papers originate outside of Parliament but are submitted by command of Parliament. They exist as separate series & individual reports, inquiries will be given a number preceded by a specific abbreviation of the word command. This distinguishes them from general official documents.

22 Law Reports Law Reports from onshi's photostream Law Reports are Primary law sources for UK law but Secondary sources for EU law. UK Law Reports show the law in action & demonstrate how UK legislation is interpreted by the courts they can therefore influence later decisions. EU Law Reports may include:- Decisions which treat very specific cases & only bind those to whom they are addressed but may influence later legislation Recommendations & Opinions which have no binding force but do carry moral & political weight. BAILII BAILII is a useful source for official transcripts of cases so may have some information very quickly. Remember these are unedited & contain no helpful links to other cases or legislation nor do they indicate if a judgement has been overturned. Jordan'sJordan's, Lexis & Westlaw each provide a range of law reports (including some European series). These have a number of editorial features, which are preferred by judges (ICLR in particular).LexisWestlaw They also register later treatment of cases by judges. HeinonlineHeinonline provides access to the older English (or Nominate reports). These are a 178 volumes by named authors which cover cases back to 1220.

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