2“Modernism released us from the constraints of everything that had gone before with a euphoric sense of freedom. ” Arthur Erickson“War is the highest form of modern art.” Tommaso Marinetti, founder of Futurism“In general, modern art... has been inspired by a natural desire to chart the uncharted.” Herbert Read“On or about December 1910, human character changed….” Virginia Woolf“Modern music is as dangerous as cocaine.” Pietro Mascagni“The impulse of modern art is the desire to destroy beauty. ” Barnett Newman“And yet what is Modernism? It is undefined. ” John C. Ransom
3Science: An Indeterminate Universe Quantum Physics – Max PlanckEnergy is not continuous, but comes in small but discrete units. The elementary particles behave both like particles and like waves. The movement of these particles is inherently random. 3Principle of Uncertainty – Werner HeisenbergIt is physically impossible to know both the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time.Theory of Relativity – Albert EinsteinE=mc2Energy = mass x speed of light squared
4Psychology: Whither the Self? Sigmund FreudKarl JungPsychoanalysis and Dream Analysis – the Unconscious MindPsyche:IdEgoSuperegoOedipal ComplexRepression and SublimationCivilization and Its DiscontentsCollective UnconsciousPsyche:PersonaAnimus/AnimaShadowArchetypes: primal patternsThe HeroThe TricksterThe Great MotherThe SageMyth, dreams, folklore
5Motifs and Movements Fragmentation: Cubism Precision: Imagism Speed: FuturismAlienation/Angst: ExpressionismColor: FauvismTechnology: ConstructivismFunctionalism: Bauhaus/International StyleProtest/Propaganda: Social RealismChaos/Irrationality: DadaismThe Subconscious: SurrealismForm: Abstraction
6Fragmentation: C U B I S M Georges Bracque Woman with a Guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919
7Poetry: Imagism Abstract Open Verse Imagists: Ezra Pound Amy Lowell DiscordantAbstractOpen VerseImagists:Ezra PoundAmy LowellH.D.Heat by H. D. O wind, rend open the heat, cut apart the heat, rend it to tatters. Fruit cannot drop through this thick air– fruit cannot fall into heat that presses up and blunts the points of pears and rounds the grapes. Cut the heat– plough through it, turning it on either side of your path.
8IN A STATION OF THE METRO Imagism“It is essential to prove that beauty may be in small, dry things. The great aim is accurate, precise and definite description.” – T.E. HulmeIN A STATION OF THE METROThe apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet black bough.Ezra Pound
9William Carlos Williams “The Great Figure” Among the rain and lights I saw the figure 5 in gold on a red fire truck moving tense unheeded to gong clangs siren howls and wheels rumbling through the dark cityCharles Henry Demuth ( ), I Saw the Figure Five in Gold
10Speed: FuturismUmberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913“The cry of rebellion which we utter associates our ideals with those of the Futurist poets. These ideas were not invented by some aesthetic clique. They are an expression of a violent desire, which burns in the veins of every creative artist today. ... We will fight with all our might the fanatical, senseless and snobbish religion of the past, a religion encouraged by the vicious existence of museums. We rebel against that spineless worshipping of old canvases, old statues and old bric-a-brac, against everything which is filthy and worm-ridden and corroded by time. We consider the habitual contempt for everything which is young, new and burning with life to be unjust and even criminal.”Filippo Tomaso Marinetti, The Futurist Manifesto, 1909
11Vorticism The cover of the first edition of BLAST, 1914. The cover of the second edition of BLAST, 1915.
12Alienation Angst Expressionism Emil Nolde Maskenstilleben (Masks Still Life) 1911
13La femme au grand chapeau (Woman with large hat) by Kees van Dongen, 1906 Color: FauvismWoman with a Hat by Henri Matisse, 1905
14Fiction: Stream-of-Consciousness “Let us record the atoms as they fall upon the mind in the order in which they fall, let us trace the pattern, however disconnected and incoherent in appearance, which each sight or incident scores upon the consciousness. Let us not take it for granted that life exists more fully in what is commonly thought big than in what is small” – Virginia Woolf “Modern Fiction”
15Stream of Consciousness James JoyceWilliam FaulknerDorothy RichardsonVirginia Woolf
16Technology: Constructivism Ilya Golosov, Zuyev Workers' Club, 1927 MoscowConstructivist architecture emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism. Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective 'constructions' with a kinetic element. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 it turned its attentions to the new social demands and industrial tasks required of the new regime. Two distinct threads emerged, the first was encapsulated in Antoine Pevsner's and Naum Gabo's Realist manifesto which was concerned with space and rhythm, the second represented a struggle within the Commissariat for Enlightenment between those who argued for pure art and the Productivists such as Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir Tatlin, a more socially-oriented group who wanted this art to be absorbed in industrial production. (wikipedia)
17Functionalism: Bauhaus/International Style Walter Gropius,The Bauhaus Building in Dessau, Germany
20Chaos/Irrationality: Dadaism Photograph of Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain“.ready-madesChaos/Irrationality: DadaismMarcel Janco recalled, We had lost confidence in our culture. Everything had to be demolished. We would begin again after the "tabula rasa". At the Cabaret Voltaire we began by shocking common sense, public opinion, education, institutions, museums, good taste, in short, the whole prevailing order.Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism. -Marc LowenthalDada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, pop art, Fluxus and punk rock.For many participants, the movement was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist and colonialist interests which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and against the cultural and intellectual conformity — in art and more broadly in society — that corresponded to the war.
21The Subconscious: Surrealism Rene Magritte, Attempting the Impossible, 1928
23Abstraction Cycladic Influence on Modern Art The simplicity of the figures' forms has influenced modern artists, such as Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, and Constantin Brancusi, but has also attracted collectors, who over the years have encouraged secret or illegal excavations and have exported Cycladic art to private collections. Many figurines have been found in graves and were probably associated with funeral rites, but some of larger size likely came from settlements or shrines. The predominant female characteristics on the majority of the figures suggest that they represent a divinity related to the Mother Goddess, the Cycladic goddess thought to be a guardian of the dead.Constantin BrancusiCycladic StatueAmedeo Modigliani
24Music Sound Experimentation Ragtime, Blues and Jazz Arnold Schoenberg: Atonality12-tone system: serialismSong cycles: SprechstimmeIgor Stravinsky:Le Sacre du Printemps: dissonance and heavy rhythmEric Satie:Incorporation of “work” soundsAlban BergOperas: Wozzeck and LuluRoots in African-American work songs, gospel, drumming, parade musicMoved from New Orleans up the Mississippi to St. Louis and Kansas City on to Chicago, NYC and LA – wildy popular in EuropeRagtime: Scott JoplinOpera: TreemonishaBlues – emotive lamentation using blues scaleJazz – improvisational, ensemble