2Terms, People, and Places to Know Humanism PatronHumanities PerspectivePetrarch Leonardo da VinciFlorence MichelangeloRaphael Baladassare CastiglioneNiccolo Machiavelli
3A New Age Expression in thought Remarkable artist and thinkers Renaissance means “rebirth”1300’s-1500s
4Renaissance Time of creativity and great change Change in politics, social, economics and cultureAgricultural society to urban societyTrade is more important nowReawakened interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.Latin was the language of the churchRenaissance thinkers explored the richness and variety of human experience in the here and now.Individual achievementRenaissance Man: someone who was talented in many fields.
5Expressing Humanism Intellectual movement known as humanism. Studied classical culture of Greece and Rome.Focus more on worldly objects and not religious issues.Education should stimulate the individuals creative powers.Humanities: grammar, rhetoric, poetry and history.Francesco Petrarch (PEE trahrk), Florentine who lived in the 1300’s, was a humanist, poet, and scholar. He is known as the father of Humanism.
6What were the main characteristics of the Renaissance? CheckPointWhat were the main characteristics of the Renaissance?
7Italy Renaissance began in Italy. Italy was the center for the Roman Empire so the reawakening took place here.Architectural remains, statues, and coins were all available for people to study.Rome was also the seat of the Roman Catholic Church- patron of the arts-and as the center of Catholicism Rome also served as an inspiration for religious themes used by artist and writers.
8Location of Italy Encouraged Trade Extensive banking, manufacturing, and merchant workers developed to support trade.
9City States Italy was divided into many small city states. Each city state was controlled by a powerful family and was dominated by wealthy and powerful merchant class.
10Medici FamilyMedici family of Florence was the richest merchants and bankers in Europe.Cosimo de’ Medici gained control of the Floretine government in Lorenzo, grandson of Cosimo, is known as “the Magnificent” was a clever politician. He was also a generous patron of the arts.Patron of the arts: financial supporter.Florence came to symbolize the energy and brilliance of the Italian Renaissance.
11Why was Italy a favorable setting for the Renaissance? CheckPointWhy was Italy a favorable setting for the Renaissance?
12Renaissance Art Renaissance art reflected the ideas of humanism. Portrayed religious themes-however they often set religious figures such as Jesus and Mary against classical Greek or Roman backgrounds.Portraits: individual achievementSculptor Donatello created a life size statue of a soldier on horse back. First time any figure like this was done.
13Techniques Realism Perspective: allowed artist to create realistic art 3 DimensionalShadingNew oil paints to reflect lightStudied human anatomyDrew while observing live models
14Social Art Architecture Meant to blend beauty with utility and improvement of society.Columns, arches, domes
15Leonardo Da Vinci Curious Sketches of nature and models Dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work.Mona LisaThe Last Supper (experimented with new paint)ArtistBotany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineeringFlying machines, undersea boats
16Michelangelo Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Melancholy Genius: b/c of his work reflecting his many life long spiritual and artistic struggle.David, Pieta (captures the sorrow of the Biblical Mary as she cradles her dead son Jesus on her knees).Sistine Chapel
17Sistine Chapel 4 years to complete Partially crippled Depicted the biblical history of the world from the creation to the flood.Dome of St. Peters Cathedral in Rome.
18Raphael Had his own style that blended Christian and classical styles. Madonna, Mother of JesusThe School of Athens ( Raphael pictured an imaginary gathering of great thinkers and scientist, including Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and the Arab philosopher Averroes. Also included are the greatest artist of the time: Michelangelo, Leonardo, and Raphael.)
19CheckpointHow were Renaissance ideals reflected in the arts?
20WritingCastiglioneMost widely read handbook was The Book of the Courtier.Baldassare Castiglione: describes the manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have.Was educated, well mannered and a master in many fields from poetry to music to sports.
21Castiglione Men Women Athletic but not overactive Good at games but not a gamblerPlays a musical instrumentKnows literature and history but is not arrogant.Offers a balance to menShe is graceful and kindLively but reservedShe is beautiful, “for outer beauty is the true sign of inner goodness.”
22Machiavelli’s PrinceNiccolo Machiavelli wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. He did not discuss leadership in terms of high ideals like those before him.The Prince looked real rulers in an age of ruthless power politics. The end justifies the means.Use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals.Deceit in politics is now referred to as “Machiavellian tactics.”
23CheckpointHow did Renaissance writings express realism?
24The Renaissance in the North Terms, People, and Places:Johann Gutenberg ErasmusFlanders Thomas MoreAlbrecht Durer UtopianEngraving ShakespeareVernacular
25Printing Revolution1455 Johann Gutenberg of Germany printed the 1st complete edition of the Bible using the printing press.Before the PP only a few 1,000 booksBy million volumes procedureCheaper and easierMore people learned to read.Knowledge about medicine, law, and miningBooks exposed educated Europeans to new ideas and new places.
26CheckpointWhat was the impact of the printing press?
27Northern Renaissance artists Began in the prosperous cities of Flanders, a region that included parts of present day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.From here the Renaissance spread to Spain, France, Germany, and England.
28Flemish PaintersJan Van Eyck in the 1400’s was one of the most important Flemish painters.Portrayed townspeople as well as religious scenes around rich, realistic detail.1500’s Pieter Brugel used vibrant colors to portray lively scenes of peasant life. Nickname: Peasant Bruegel.Drew religious and classical themes but set them against common people back ground.1600s Peter Paul Rubens blended realistic traditions with classical themes and artistic freedom of the Italian Renaissance.Knowledge of mythology, the bible, and classical history.
29Leonardo of the North German painter Albrecht Durer Interested in many things like Leonardo which earned him the nickname Leonardo of the North.EngravingPortray religious upheaval
30CheckpointWhat themes did Northern Renaissance artist explore?
31Northern Humanists and Writers Stressed education and classical learning to bring about religious and moral reform.Many wrote in LatinMany began writing in vernacular-everyday language of ordinary people.
32Erasmus Dutch Priest Born 1466 Important scholar of his day Greek addition to the bible.Translation of the bible.Open minded, show good will toward others.Disturbed by the corruption of the church.
33Sir Thomas More Wanted social reform Utopia: ideal society in which men and women live in peace and harmony.All are educatedJustice is used to end crime not to get rid of the criminal.
34Shakespeare Writes for All Time : he wrote 37 playsComplexity of the individual and the importance of the classics.Common language1,700 words appeared for the 1st time
35CheckPointWhat Renaissance ideas did Shakespeare’s work address?