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CC 3.0 CC 3.0 1. Religious Life in the Middle Ages 1, 633, 1054, 1517 2.

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Presentation on theme: "CC 3.0 CC 3.0 1. Religious Life in the Middle Ages 1, 633, 1054, 1517 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 CC 3.0 CC 3.0 1

2 Religious Life in the Middle Ages 1, 633, 1054,

3 3

4 1.1-2 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

5 Pope Archbishop Bishop Archdeacon (Parish) priest Deacon, sub-deacon … Abbot (/ Prior) Monks Benedictine Cluniac Cistercian Friars Dominican (OP) Franciscan (OFM) 5

6 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

7 St Augustine – Adam and Eve and original sin – Predestination God would be purely just if he condemned all humans to hell, but he is also merciful so he elected to save a few – Grace, free will and the church: the Pelagian Controversy Pelagius ( ) – Human race is composed of two societies, the City of Earth and the City of God 7

8 Pope Archbishop Bishop Archdeacon (Parish) priest Deacon, sub-deacon … Abbot/ abbess (Prior) Monks/ nuns Benedictine Rule; St Benedict (c ) Cluniac Cistercian Communal and private prayer (8 canonical hours); study; manual labour Friars Dominican (OP) Franciscan (OFM) 8

9 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

10 Conversion of the Franks, Anglo-Saxons and Germans St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans c

11 11 Pope Archbishop Bishop Archdeacon Parish priest Deacon, sub-deacon … Friars Dominican (OP) Franciscan (OFM) Abbot (/ Prior) Monks Benedictine Cluniac Cistercian

12 12 The popular cult of saints – Hagiography; relics; pilgrimages (Rome; Jerusalem; Santiago de Compostela; Canterbury) – Pre-12 th c: small communitys values were projected onto the local saint –saint as mediator in human conflicts – assistance in day-to-day life – Later in the 12 th c: saints provided a human face for the Holy

13 13

14 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

15 15 Ring and Staff Ottonian church system – Otto I ( ) Papal election decree 1059 Concordat of Worms 1122

16 16 Pope Archbishop Bishop Archdeacon (Parish) priest Deacon, sub-deacon … Friars Dominican (OP) Franciscan (OFM) Abbot/ abbess (Prior) Monks/ nuns Conversi Benedictine Cluniac – elaborate liturgy Cistercian – wool

17 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

18 18 1)More emotionally charged, more merciful The Crucifixion – Christs redemptive suffering The Virgin Mary – compassionate intercessor for sinners – Eastern Orthodox – St Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercians The purgatory – Frightful; intellectual dimension; reassurance the Gero Cross c. 970

19 19 Ave Maria Gratia plena Maria Gratia plena Maria Gratia plena Ave, ave dominus Dominus tecum Benedicta tu in mulieribus Et benedictus Et benedictus fructus ventris tui Ventris tui Jesus Ave Maria Ave Maria Mater dei Ora pro nobis pecatoribus Ora, ora pro nobis Ora ora pro nobis pecatoribus Nunc et in hora mortis In hora mortis, mortis nostrae In hora mortis nostrae Ave Maria! Hail Mary, full of Grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinner now, and in the hour of our death

20 20 2)Heresies and the new mendicant orders Heresy = the obstinate adherence, by a professed Christian, to a freely chosen opinion that deviates from the defined teaching of the church The Waldensians: – Peter Waldo, merchant of Lyons c.1173 started a life of apostolic poverty and preaching in towns The Cathars: 1130s-1170s-mid-13 th c – Dualism; no Passion, no Resurrection. An alternative church – Albigesian Crusade The mendicant orders: – St Dominic ( ) Education inquisition: preaching – evidence from neighbours – use of torture – St Francis of Assisi (c ) 1209 the Franciscan order. common touch: birds and the beauty of the material world

21 21 Pope Archbishop Bishop Archdeacon (Parish) priest Deacon, sub-deacon … Abbot (/ Prior) Monks Benedictine Cluniac Cistercian Friars Dominican (OP) Franciscan (OFM) Fra Angelico ( ) Perugia Altarpiece Tempera Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria, Perugia GIOTTO di Bondone ( ) Legend of St Francis: 15. Sermon to the Birds Fresco, 270 x 200 cm. Upper Church, San Francesco, Assisi St Francis of Assisi St Dominic

22 22 3)Elaboration of the sacramental system th Lateran Council. Ritual as miracle that conveys divine grace. – Baptism – Confirmation – The Eucharist Transubstantiation: Aristotle on the nature of existence: substance, accidents Luthers Consubstantiation – Penance 12 th c: sin guilt + punishment. 1) attrition + 2) confession, penalty, absolution. Purgatory Sense of shame constituted a punishment Indulgence Luthers Ninety-Five Theses – Extreme Unction – Holy Orders – Matrimony

23 23 Luther on the Eucharist – Consubstantiation: the real presence share the same time and space with the bread; God reveals himself there A Catholic priest celebrating the Eucharist

24 24

25 25 Indulgence: concessions by ecclesiastical authorities that cancelled all or part of the temporal penalties that had been imposed by the church upon the sinner to expiate his sin Given for – major pious acts at first: e.g. crusades; – and later for lesser pious acts, e.g Jubilee indulgences Mechanism – mid-13 th c: treasury of merits. Indulgence applies some of the merit from the treasury to a given person – Late 14 th c pardoners: indulgences applicable for the dead in purgatory Representing an overflow of Gods grace, mediated though the Christian community, past, present and future – great demand among the Christians

26 26 31 Oct 1517 Ninety-Five Theses at Wittenburg – Objection to the avowed object of the expenditure (St Peters Basilica) – The pope has no power over purgatory – Consideration for the welfare of the sinner Diverting charity, inducing a false sense of security November 1518: the bull Cum postquam – Indulgences apply only to penalty and not to guilt – Penalties on earth: the church has complete jurisdiction – Penalties in the purgatory: the church is only petitioning to God (presenting superfluous merits)

27 nd c: the clerics and Scripture th c: the Nicene Creed, St Augustine, the Benedictine Rule th c: missionaries, the cult of saints, rural parishes th c: the Investiture Contest, new monastic orders, the canon laws th c: new Christian piety, the mendicant orders and the sacramental system th c: new theory of salvation, anti-clericalism 7.Martin Luther

28 28 1)William of Ockham (c ) – Nominalist: all universal ideas, all general concepts, were mere names = concepts had no demonstrable connection with external reality – Authority of the papacy as head of the universal church could be exercised by an emperor Pope John XXIIs quarrel with Emperor Lewis of Bavaria ( ) – Potentia Dei, freedom of God: Instead of the church, God could have chosen other means for humans salvation

29 29 – Efficacy of the sacraments was not due to their intrinsically containing or conveying grace, but came from a covenant made by God – Salvation depended on whether God would keep his word Martin Luther ( ) – New theology of justification by faith – Good works (pilgrimage, cult of saints etc.) never contributed to ones salvation

30 30 2)Spiritual prestige of the papacy declined – Zenith: th c – Crusades; fighting the Staufens; Philip IV (and Edward I) and taxation The bull Unam Sanctum (1302), the popes supreme authority in both spiritual and temporal matters is absolutely necessary for salvation – Papacy in Avignon – The Great Schism – The Conciliar movement –The Italian territorial papacy By 1449: national churches – E.g France To reform or to replace the clerical order?

31 31 7. Martin Luther ( ) monk; 1507 first mass; failure at confession 1513 Tower experience: justification by faith alone – Justice: salvation; to justify: to save. Justice = enforcing the law; justification = suspending sentence, changing the offender – Faith causes reform (conversion); faith is Gods work in us – Faith: believe God is seeking to save, trust God will keep his promise and the Holy Spirit will regenerate the sinners soul – salvation is Gods free gift

32 32 31 Oct 1517 Ninety-Five Theses at Wittenburg Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz appealed to Pope Leo X November 1518: the bull Cum postquam October 1518: Luther met papal representative Cardinal Cajetan – Cajetan: the pope had the inalienable right to interpret the Bible (and need prove nothing) – Luther became a German folk hero (foreign papacy interested only in money and obedience) July 1519: disputation at Leipzig with John Eck – Forced Luther to take his theories to their logical conclusions: from testing one aspect of papal power against scripture to testing every aspect

33 33 Pamphlets of 1520 Justification by faith alone Sola scriptura – traditional authority: 1) the Bible, 2) the traditions and 3) the pope. Luther: not logically consistent In theory, the Holy Spirit and right reason would make the sense of the scripture plain to the believers Priesthood of all believers: in Gods eyes, all people were equal in the church and faith. The church = the believers – 5/7 Sacraments: no need, could not be proven by scripture Baptism: an introduction to the community of the faithful – impact on monasticism The Eucharist: not magical but mystical, not the performance of a rite but the experience of a presence. Consubstantiation

34 34 / 2 Resources Shop (http://www.historyonthenet.com/shop/history/posters/a3-a6-customisable- prints/religion-of-europe-after-the-reformation-laminated-print.html) prints/religion-of-europe-after-the-reformation-laminated-print.html visited The Popes: A History John Julius Norwich Published March 1st 2011 by Chatto & Windus The Goodreads(http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/ the-popes) visited http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/ the-popes 3 A History of Christianity-The First Three Thousand Years Diarmaid MacCulloch Allen Lane 24 Sep 2009 Penguin Book (http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,, ,00.html) visited http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,, ,00.html 5 Flickr / Catholic Church (England and Wales) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/catholicism/ /) visited. 5 Flickr / John Donaghy (http://www.flickr.com/photos/johndonaghy/ /) visited.

35 35 / 7 WIKIPAINTING (http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/sandro-botticelli/st-augustine) visited. 10 Ancient Rome (http://preslickahr3g1.wikispaces.com/) visited.http://preslickahr3g1.wikispaces.com/ 10 CDAs World History Wiki (http://cdaworldhistory.wikidot.com/charlemagne-unites-germanic-kingdoms) visited.http://cdaworldhistory.wikidot.com/charlemagne-unites-germanic-kingdoms 11 Flickr / pandrcutts (http://www.flickr.com/photos/panr/ /) visited. 12 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reliquaire_de_sainte_foy.jpg) visited.

36 36 / 13 Flickr / ian.crowther (http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian_crowther/ /) visited. 13 Flickr / Walwyn (http://www.flickr.com/photos/overton_cat/ /) visited. 13 Flickr / Art History Images (Holly Hayes) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/sacred_destinations/ /in/gallery- lauraelaine /) visited.http://www.flickr.com/photos/sacred_destinations/ /in/gallery- lauraelaine / 15 Flickr / Catholic Church (England and Wales) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/catholicism/ /in/photostream/) visited.http://www.flickr.com/photos/catholicism/ /in/photostream/ 16 Indiana University (http://www.indiana.edu/~dmdhist/sugerdebate.htm) visited

37 37 / 16 Flickr / VISION Vocation Guide visited. 18 Flickr / Art History Images (Holly Hayes) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/sacred_destinations/ /) visited. 18 Flickr / peterjr1961 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjr1961/ /) visited. 18 Flickr / IslesPunkFan (http://www.flickr.com/photos/islespunkfan/ /) visited. 21 WIKIPEDIA - Seal of the Order of Preachers (Dominican Order) / Source Copied from and copyright owned by Dominican Liturgyhttp://dominican-liturgy.blogspot.com (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seal_of_the_Dominican_Order.png) visited

38 38 / 21 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Perugia_Altarpiece,_Side_Panel_Depicting_ St._Dominic.jpg) visited.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Perugia_Altarpiece,_Side_Panel_Depicting_ St._Dominic.jpg 21 WIKIPAINTING (http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/giotto/st-francis-preaching-to-the-birds-1299) visited.http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/giotto/st-francis-preaching-to-the-birds Flickr / shioshvili (http://www.flickr.com/photos/vshioshvili/ /) visited. 24 Missouri State University (http://clio.missouristate.edu/chuchiak/HST% Lecture% Johann_tetzal_and_the_selling_of.htm) Johann_tetzal_and_the_selling_of.htm visited WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Luther46c.jpg) visited.

39 39 / 31 (http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83% AB:Luther1.jpg) visited.http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83% AB:Luther1.jpg


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