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Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence Petri Nokelainen School of Education University of Tampere Finland.

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Presentation on theme: "Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence Petri Nokelainen School of Education University of Tampere Finland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modeling the Characteristics of Vocational Excellence Petri Nokelainen School of Education University of Tampere Finland

2 Finnish research team: Prof. Dr. Petri Nokelainen, Prof. Dr. Pekka Ruohotie, Dr. Kari Korpelainen, MA Laura Pylväs, MA Mika Puukko, MA Reija Palttala. International research team: University of Oxford (UK): Prof. Dr. Ken Mayhew, Dr. Cathy Stasz, Dr. Susan James. RMIT University (Australia): Prof. Dr. Helen Smith, MA Mohammad Rahimi. Acknowledgements

3 Finnish supporters: Veijo Hintsanen, Eija Alhojärvi, Hannu Immonen, Immo Pylvänen, Heikki Saarinen, Atte Airaksinen, Juha Minkkinen, Matti Kauppinen, Pekka Matikainen, Tuomas Eerola, Martti Majuri and Finnish Helsinki, Sitzuoka, Calgary and London competitors. The research was funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. International supporters: Tjerk Dusseldorp, David Hoey, Simon Bartley Acknowledgements

4 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

5 Introduction International vocational competitions in different skill areas (e.g., plumbing, hair dressing) are gaining increasing interest around the world. What started in 1947 as a small regional competition in Spain has now become the WorldSkills Competition (WSC), a world-renowned event that draws competitors and visitors from all over the world.

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7 Introduction The competition rules document define the resolutions and rules for the organisation and execution of the WorldSkills Competition incorporating all skill competitions. –Each country may enter one competitor or team per skill. –Competitors must not be older than 22 years (in some skill areas 25 years) in the year of the competition.

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9 Introduction International panel of judges assign a score ( points) for each competitor or team after four competition days. Three best competitors for each skill area are awarded with gold, silver and bronze medals. –Other competitors who score 500 points or more are awarded with Medallion for Excellence.

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12 Introduction Finnish WSC teams have been studied since 2006 in three research projects: MoVE = Modelling Vocational Excellence ( ) AVE = Actualizing Vocational Excellence ( ) PaVE = Pathways to Vocational Excellence (2012- ) Projects were funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture.

13 Major goal in these mixed-method studies is to investigate the role of WorldSkills competitors natural abilities, intrinsic characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to their talent development. Introduction

14 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

15 Theoretical Framework Bloom: Talent development taxonomy (1985). Ericsson: Development of expertise (1993, 2006). Gagné: Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004, 2010). Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993, 1999). Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner: Cognitive and social skills on talent development (2004). Pintrich: Intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations, control and efficacy beliefs (2000). Midgley et al.: Patterns of adaptive learning (2000). Zimmerman: Sociocognitive approach to self-regulation (1998, 2000). Weiner: Attributions for success and failure (1986).

16 Differentiated Model for Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) (Gagné, 2004)

17 C.GIPE - Causal order of components in DMGT (Gagné, 2004, see also Nokelainen, in press; Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009; Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011)

18 Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983, for operationalization, see Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011) (1) Linguistic intelligence (2) Logical-mathematical intelligence (3) Musical intelligence (4) Spatial intelligence (5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (6) Interpersonal intelligence (7) Intrapersonal intelligence (8) Spiritual intelligence (9) Environmental intelligence

19 Adaptation of Zimmermans Self-regulation Model (Zimmerman, 2000; Nokelainen, 2008)

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23 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

24 Interview (n = 30) and survey (n = 110) data was collected from 2005 Helsinki, 2007 Shizuoka and 2009 Calgary competitors, their trainers, working life representatives and parents. Design

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26 Finnish WSC team selection Finnish WSC team training WorldSkills competition DATA INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS SURVEY... ANALYSESANALYSES ANALYSESANALYSES Working life INTERVIEWS 1. PHASE 2. PHASE 3. PHASE

27 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

28 First phase research questions (interviews) 1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors? 2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life? 3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill? 4. What characteristics are specific to the employers of WSC competitors?

29 Design Finnish WSC team selection Finnish WSC team training WorldSkills competition DATA INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS SURVEY... ANALYSESANALYSES ANALYSESANALYSES Working life INTERVIEWS 1. PHASE 2. PHASE3. PHASE

30 Method Four Finnish WSC 2005 and four WSC 2007 competitors (n = 8) were interviewed. –Six males (M age =21 years) and two females (M age =20 years). Also their trainers, working life representatives and parents (n = 22) were interviewed.

31 Method WSC competitors in this study represent four skill categories, which are linked to the Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983): –IT/Software Applications (logical- mathematical). –Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical). –Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial). –Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodily- kinesthetic, spatial).

32 Interview measurement model DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic VOLITION PerseveranceTime management SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility HomeSociety RelativesMediaFriends MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility VOLITION PerseveranceTime managementWorkplace FriendsTeachers Skill trainers Mental trainers Artefacts Other persons WORK LIFE EXPECTATIONS Challenge Responsibility Leadership Life-long learning Salary Intellectual Socioaffective Sensori-motorical RQ 1,2,3 RQ 3 RQ 4

33 Results: Interview 1. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors?

34 Self-reflection (stress tolerance) Mental training Volition (perseverance, time management) Total mastery of work skills Cognitive skills (development potential) Shift from uncontrollable to controllable attributions Extrinsic goal-orientation (competitiveness, ambition) Promotion of advances of competitions for future career Intrinsic goal-orientation (interest towards work) Meaningful training tasks, interesting artifacts, home/teacher support Social skills Collaborative tasks during training Results: Interview

35 VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Working life MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic VOLITION PerseveranceTime management SELF-REFLECTION Stress tolerance INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS INTELLECTUAL SOCIOAFFECTIVE SENSORIMOTOR NATURAL ABILITIES 2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors differ during the training period, competitions, and working life? Results: Interview

36 1. Perseverance and self-reflection alongside with intellectual and sensorimotorical abilities were important in all three career stages. 2.The role of social skills was strongest in working life. 3.Results showed only minor differences between intrinsic and extrinsic goal-orientations. Results: Interview

37 3. What characteristics are specific to WSC competitors' initial interest in the field, perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and mastery of that skill? Results: Interview

38 1. Institutional and trainers support are important throughout the three skill acquisition stages. 2.Intrinsic goal-orientation is more important at the initial stage than extrinsic goal-orientation, but the roles change during training process (perseverance). Results: Interview

39 3.Importance of future work security and possibilities increase towards the mastery level. 4.Role of social motivation (importance of friends and WSC team members) stay quite small and stable throughout the process. Results: Interview

40 4. What characteristics specify WSC competitors employer? 1.Challenging work tasks 2.Freedom and responsibility 3.Logical and fair leadership 4.Acknowledgement of life long learning 5.Competitive salary Results: Interview

41 Interview measurement model DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic VOLITION PerseveranceTime management SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility HomeSociety RelativesMediaFriends MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility VOLITION PerseveranceTime managementWorkplace FriendsTeachers Skill trainers Mental trainers Artefacts Other persons WORK LIFE EXPECTATIONS Challenge Responsibility Leadership Life-long learning Salary Intellectual Socioaffective Sensori-motorical RQ 1,2,3 RQ 3 RQ 4

42 Interview outcome model NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NATURAL ABILITIES VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic VOLITION PerseveranceTime management SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility HomeSociety RelativesMediaFriends MOTIVATION IntrinsicExtrinsic SELF-REFLECTION EffortAbility VOLITION PerseveranceTime management Workplace FriendsTeachers Skill trainers Mental trainers Artefacts Other persons WORK LIFE EXPECTATIONS Challenge Responsibility Leadership Life-long learning Salary Intellectual Socioaffective Sensori-motorical

43 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

44 Second phase research questions (survey) 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self- regulatory abilities? 7. What is the influence of domain-specific and non- domain-specific factors on the talent development of WSC competitors?

45 Design Finnish WSC team selection Finnish WSC team training WorldSkills competition DATA INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS SURVEY... ANALYSESANALYSES ANALYSESANALYSES Working life INTERVIEWS 1. PHASE 2. PHASE 3. PHASE A vs. C

46 Method A combined sample of 2007 (Shizuoka, Japan), 2009 (Calgary, Canada) and 2011 (London, UK) teams contain 110 competitors. The response rate was 75 per cent of the total target population (N = 147). The sample consists of 76 male (69%) and 34 female (31%) competitors. Male respondents age average was 20.9 years (SD = 1.676) and female respondents 20.8 years (SD = 1.735).

47 Method The participants of the survey study represent 23 WSC categories covering most of the MI theorys intelligence areas. The concepts of expertise and excellence were operationalized as follows: –World Skills competitors were considered to be vocational experts and they were coded into group B (positions 8 – 11 in international competitions) or group C (positions 12 – ). –Only the most successful competitors were coded into group A (positions 1 – 7), representing vocational excellence in the study.

48 Survey measurement model

49 Success in middle school did not predict vocational skill competition success. Middle school GPA Vocational studies GPA WSC success Success in vocational studies did predict vocational skill competition success. + Results: Survey

50 Multiple Intelligences theorys relation to skill areas: (1) Linguistic (e.g., Caring, Hair Dressing) (2) Logical-mathematical (e.g., IT/Programming, Web Design) (3) Musical (4) Spatial (e.g., Web Design, Beauty Therapy) (5) Bodily-kinesthetic (e.g., Plumbing and Heating, Caring) (6) Interpersonal (e.g., Beauty Therapy, Catering) (7) Intrapersonal (8) Spiritual (9) Environmental 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? Results: Survey

51 1.Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence - Dominant in most skill areas. 2.Mathematical-logical intelligence 3.Interpersonal intelligence 4.Spatial intelligence 5.Intrapersonal intelligence Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.Linguistic intelligence (A higher) 2.Interpersonal intelligence (A higher) Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.Linguistic intelligence (A higher) 2.Interpersonal intelligence (A higher) 5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural abilities? Results: Survey

52 Motivational factors: (1) Internal goal orientation, (2) External goal orientation, (3) Meaningfulness of studies, (4) Control beliefs, (5) Efficacy beliefs, (6) Test anxiety. Motivational factors: (1) Internal goal orientation, (2) External goal orientation, (3) Meaningfulness of studies, (4) Control beliefs, (5) Efficacy beliefs, (6) Test anxiety. Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales: (1) Mastery Goal Orientation, (2) Performance-Approach Goal Orientation, (3) Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation. Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales: (1) Mastery Goal Orientation, (2) Performance-Approach Goal Orientation, (3) Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation. Results: Survey 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?

53 1. Meaningfulness of studies (studies will benefit future work career) 2. Extrinsic goal orientation (need for positive feedback from others, ambition) 3. Intrinsic goal orientation (mastery of a skill is a satisfying experience) 4. Efficacy beliefs (success due ability) 5. Control beliefs (success due effort) Results: Survey 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?

54 Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.All motivational factors, except test anxiety, were higher in the A group. 2.A group preferred effort over ability as an explanation for their success. 3.Test anxiety was higher in the C group. 4.Predictive modeling showed meaningfulness of studies to be the most important predictor for success in skills competitions. Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.All motivational factors, except test anxiety, were higher in the A group. 2.A group preferred effort over ability as an explanation for their success. 3.Test anxiety was higher in the C group. 4.Predictive modeling showed meaningfulness of studies to be the most important predictor for success in skills competitions. Results: Survey 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?

55 1. Mastery Goal Orientation (development of competence is important, learning is interesting, focus is on the task) 2. Performance-Approach Goal Orientation (show others, focus is on the self) 3. Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation (avoidance of embarrassment, focus is on the self) Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.The A group was more performance- approach oriented than the C group. 2.The C group was clearly more performance-avoidance oriented than the A group. Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.The A group was more performance- approach oriented than the C group. 2.The C group was clearly more performance-avoidance oriented than the A group. Results: Survey 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?

56 Volitional aspects of talent development were investigated through two dimensions, perseverance and time management. Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.The A group had better time management skills. Where the A group differs from the C group: 1.The A group had better time management skills. 1.Perseverance 2.Time management Results: Survey 6. What are WSC competitors' most essential self-regulatory abilities?

57 Results: Survey 7. What is the influence of domain and non- domain specific factors to the WSC competitors talent development?

58 1. Conducive home atmosphere (non-domain specific factor) 2. Interest towards work field (domain specific intrinsic motivation) 3. Interest in competing with others in vocational skills (domain specific extrinsic motivation) All these factors were positively connected with international skills competition success. Results: Survey 7. What is the influence of domain and non- domain specific factors to the WSC competitors talent development?

59 Measurement model of Vocational Talent Development NON-DOMAIN DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS NON-DOMAIN DOMAIN SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS MOTIVATION Intrinsic Extrinsic MAP PAP PAV VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT VOCATIONAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT Home Friends Teachers Work/empl. Artefacts Team mates Trainers Linguistic Logical- mathematical Logical- mathematical Spatial Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Spiritual Environmental NATURAL ABILITIES INTELLECTUAL SOCIOAFFECTIVE Bodily-kinesthetic SENSORIMOTOR CREATIVITYCREATIVITY CREATIVITYCREATIVITY

60 Outcome model of Vocational Talent Development (expertise vs. excellence)

61 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

62 Third phase research questions (interview) 8. What characteristics specify WSC competitors in the working life? 9. What life management skills specify WSC competitors in the working life? 10. What characteristics specify WSC competitors employer?

63 Design Finnish WSC team selection Finnish WSC team training WorldSkills competition DATA INTERVIEWS WSC SUCCESS SURVEY... ANALYSESANALYSES ANALYSESANALYSES Working life INTERVIEWS 1. PHASE 2. PHASE 3. PHASE

64 Method 16 interviews were conducted in six Finnish small to medium size enterprises. Three participants were selected from each workplace: (W) Finnish WSC medalist from 2005 Helsinki or 2007 Calgary, who has more than two year work experience after the competition. (C) Control group member with similar age and work experience but no skills competition training (not available in all work places). (E) Employer representative.

65 8. What characteristics specify WSC competitors in the working life? Results: Interview

66 1.Self-reflection (stress tolerance) W C E 2.Volition (perseverance, time management skills) W C E 3.Cognitive skills (development potential) W C E Results: Interview W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer

67 9. What life management skills specify WSC competitors in the working life? Results: Interview

68 4.Bounce back from injustices W C E 2.Bounce back from failures W C E 5.Bounce back from success W C E 1.Do team work W C E 3.Manage conflict situations W C E Results: Interview W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer

69 10. What characteristics specify WSC competitors employer? Results: Interview

70 1.Freedom and responsibility W C E 2.Challenging work tasks W C E 3.Logical and fair leadership W C E Results: Interview W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer W = WorldSkills competitor C = Control group member E = Employer

71 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

72 This mixed-method study investigated the role of Finnish WorldSkills Competition (WSC) participants' natural abilities, intrinsic characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to their talent development with qualitative and quantitative samples. Conclusions

73 The results of the semi-structured interviews with competitors, their parents, trainers, and working life representatives showed that self-reflection (stress tolerance), volition (perseverance, time management skills), cognitive skills (development potential), and motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic) were considered the most important characteristics. Conclusions

74 Characteristics related to volition, self- reflection, and cognitive skills played an important role in all three developmental stages of vocational talent (initial interest, perseverance, and mastery of the skill). The role of both teachers and trainers was deemed important to the stages of vocational talent development. Conclusions

75 The results of the survey showed that the most successful competitors were characterized by their linguistic and interpersonal abilities. They also believed that effort was more important to their success than ability. The most successful competitors were more performance-approach goal oriented and less performance-avoidance oriented than were their less successful peers. Conclusions

76 A supportive home and school atmosphere positively affected the development of vocational talent. Future research directions regarding competitors characteristics should include examination of their mindsets, health (lifestyle), hobbies, safety, and media skills, and also focus more on those WSC skill areas requiring teamwork. Conclusions

77 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

78 One key to success is to encourage vocational training institutions to participate in skill competitions. This will inevitably lead teachers in participating organizations to seek higher competence in their field (professional development) through different roles (trainers, experts) in the process. Discussion

79 Their knowledge of new innovations in vocational training and skill-specific working methods would not only benefit the WSC competitors and non-participating students in vocational institutions, but would also challenge participating teachers colleagues to update their professional knowledge and, thus, create a more forceful transfer of knowledge. Discussion

80 Vocational education students and their teachers in various institutions around the world will also benefit from new ideas and support for their professional self-esteem by visiting both national and international competitions. Discussion

81 Further, I would like to emphasize the fact that all the characteristics of vocational expertise and excellence discussed in this presentation, except for natural abilities, are controllable, at least to some extent, and, thus, are manageable through educational policies. Discussion

82 Since the development of vocational talent is a life-long learning process, any of the competitors in low achieving group (C) may achieve the level of vocational excellence later in their work careers. The recognition of hindering factors to talent development in the early stages of formal education will help the future work force to fulfill its development potential. Discussion

83 Examples of such factors appeared in this presentation: –1) attributing success mainly to uncontrollable instead of controllable factors, –2) using maladaptive instead of adaptive patterns of learning, and –3) focusing on the self instead of focusing on the task. Discussion

84 Contents Introduction Theoretical framework Design Results –MoVE (First phase) –AVE (Second phase) –AVE (Third phase) Conclusions Discussion Current research –PaVE (Fourth phase)

85 Pathways to Vocational Excellence

86 An international research team was established to investigate London 2011 WorldSkills competitors and experts: University of Tampere, Finland SKOPE, Oxford University, UK RMIT University, Australia Research was funded by the WorldSkills Foundation. Report is available at: MoVE International

87 WorldSkills London 2011 Data from 38 countries (n=409) Team Finland Shizuoka, Calgary, London (n=110)

88 WorldSkills London 2011 Data from 38 countries (n=409) Team Finland Shizuoka, Calgary, London (n=110)

89 Thank you! For more information, please contact: –MoVE –project (2006 – 2008) –AVE –project (2009 – 2011) –PaVE –project (2011 – )

90 Next WorldSkills competition is Leipzig 2013


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