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Ethel Puffer Howes Sara Hardin Joe Tomlins Ben Schwartz AKA: The Naughty Nuns.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethel Puffer Howes Sara Hardin Joe Tomlins Ben Schwartz AKA: The Naughty Nuns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethel Puffer Howes Sara Hardin Joe Tomlins Ben Schwartz AKA: The Naughty Nuns

2 Childhood and Family Life Born October 10, 1872 Eldest of four sisters Father, George Respected railroad station agent Mother, Ella Received college education, as did younger sister Taught high school until marriage Family history of higher education for women (Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987) Age 3

3 Education 1891 – graduated from Smith College at age 18 Taught mathematics at Smith for 3 years Became interested in study of Psychology Fall 1895 – moved to Germany to study psychology atUniversity of Berlin Faced many struggles as female student Interview with Hugo Münsterberg University of Berlin (Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987)

4 Education 1896 – Attended University of Freiburg Studied under Münsterberg Supervised her research Allowed use of his private laboratory at his home Encouraged Puffer to earn doctorate 1897 – Followed Münsterberg to Harvard Denied Ph.D., appealed to Radcliffe College Result: 4 women granted Ph.D.s, Puffer one of 2 who accepted Hugo Münsterberg (Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987)

5 Aesthetics Beauty - pleasure in the senses; discriminatory Aesthetics - all that can be aesthetically contemplated; inclusive of the ugly (Howes, 1914)

6 The Psychology of Beauty General principles of Beauty: Excellence Standard Value Religious, domestic, and commercial influences Synthesis of theory and objective tests via: Music Literature Pictures (Puffer, 1905)

7 Defining Beauty: Methodology Methodology (physiological responses & introspection): Select a salient characteristic of the mental state during exposure to beauty (e.g. art) Use introspection to analyze the transformation of the physiological response of beauty translates into the mental state Relation of senses to the colors, lines, compositions, and other elements Zeitgeist - Structuralism & Elementism (Puffer, 1905)

8 Conclusions Nature of beauty: Auditory, motor, visual, and other physiological responses. Beauty is not perfection: Perfect moments (i.e. positive affect). Union of stimulation (senses) and repose (emotion): Aesthetic experience (Howes, 1914; Puffer, 1905)

9 Howes Research: Strengths and Weaknesses Methodological Weaknesses: Large population Definition of an aesthetic feeling Subjective and implicit value judgments Exposure to many types of beauty Strengths: Attempt at using empirical methods of psychology to define concept of beauty Historically, beauty part of abstract philosophical theory Beauty provides a sense of unity and totality - self- completeness - creating an aesthetic experience (a reflection of the infinite) (Howes, 1905)

10 The Role of the Zeitgeist: Career vs. Family Suppose every man had to cheese between marrying the woman of his choice and instantly becoming a janitor for life, or remaining a bachelor and following the work he loved best – Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 1906 Zeitgeist of Early 20 th Century: Gender roles: 1.Woman as mother, domestic, socialite 2.Man as provider, works outside home Married women not considered for academic positions (Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987)

11 Career vs. Family 1908 – Married Benjamin Howes Extreme difficulty managing academic career and a home 1910 Letter to Mother Gave birth to daughter (1915) and son (1917) Early 1920s – Women had the vote, WWI over, children reached school age Published works reflect experience of the intolerable choice (Scarborough, 1991)

12 Accepting the Universe Womens role in the universe - childbirth the only contribution? Psychological Disability - inconsecutiveness of the mind Mental conflicts - Attention for child vs. work (Howes, 1922)

13 Continuity for Women Women cannot balance marriage and a career simultaneously Rejected idea that women make full use of abilities as a domestic Discontinuity: educated woman who marries abandons career Solution: structure flexible work schedule around role as wife and mother (Howes, 1922b)

14 Later Theory Previous solutions aimed at resolving the intolerable choice involved centering career around role as wife and mother Mutually exclusive, sacrifice within career The meaning of progress in the woman movement (1929) Solution: create new definition of marriage and motherhood (Howes, 1929)

15 References Howes, E. (1922). Accepting the universe. Atlantic Monthly 129, Howes, E. (1914). Æsthetics. Psychological Bulletin, 11(7), doi: /h Howes, E. Puffer (1922b). Continuity for women. Atlantic Monthly, 130, Howes, E. Puffer (1929). The meaning of progress in the women movement. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 143, Puffer, E. D. (1905). The psychology of beauty. Boston, MA US: Houghton Mifflin and Company. doi: / Scarborough, E., & Furumoto, L Untold Lives: The First Generation of American Women Psychologists. New York: Columbia University Press Scarborough, E Continuity for women: Ethel Puffer's struggle. In G. A. Kimble, M. Wertheimer & C. White Eds., Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology pp Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


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