Presentation on theme: "Introduction The birth of Modern Aesthetics. German Philosopher Alexander Baumgerten (1714- 1762) gave us the name aesthetics. Doctrine of Mental Faculty:"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction The birth of Modern Aesthetics. German Philosopher Alexander Baumgerten (1714- 1762) gave us the name aesthetics. Doctrine of Mental Faculty: each behavior or mental phenomena (perception, memory, imagination, desire, etc.) corresponded to a specific mental faculty.
Baumgarten Art corresponds to the mental faculty BELOW the sensory faculty and, of course, the intellectual faculty. Artistic behavior, therefore, is at the lowest spectrum of the human mental faculties. Hence, TASTE/FEELINGS
What about Beauty?What about Beauty? Beauty is apprehended by this low-level mental faculty. Beauty then becomes a matter of TASTE/FEELING. What are the philosophical implications of this? How does this differ from Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine?
Beauty (Extreme Views) Objective Beauty is a something we discover. Beauty is a property of things exterior to us. Beauty (its existence) is independent of our minds Subjective Beauty is a pure invention of our minds. It is 100% mind dependent. The external world is irrelevant to beauty.
Subjectized Objectivism Beauty is NOT mind independent. Beauty is NOT 100% mind dependent Beauty is dependent on both mind and the external world. Beauty is a property that arises from our minds interaction with the external world.
Secondary QualitiesSecondary Qualities The power in objects to produce in us various sensations by the primary qualities. The sensations they produce exist only in the sensations and not in the objects. Examples of secondary qualities are sounds, colors, taste, warmth, cold, pain, etc. The existence of these sensations depends on a specific faculty and the external world.
Beauty as a SQBeauty as a SQ Homogeneous sensations depend on a unique and real external world (the same external world for all of us) and on an identical sense/faculty of beauty (like a sense of color or eye), (i.e., a faculty that detects beauty when it is there). If this theory is to work, then we must have some special Aesthetic Faculty
Shaftesbury (1671-1713) Characteristics The Moralists Miscellaneous Reflections Second Characters The beautiful is that which calms the desires, by being seen or known.
Works Characteristics The Moralists Miscellaneous Reflections Second Characters The beautiful is that which calms the desires, by being seen or known.
Shaftesbury-Beauty Platonic Theory (cognitive) Theory of faculty of taste (not intellectualist) Aesthetics Judgments – Ethical judgments share the same mental faculty- a faculty of taste and relish Sublime Disinterestedness
Disinterestedness In ethics, moral goodness is incompatible with interestedness. So if one acts rightly but is motivated only by self- interest, then there is no moral praiseworthiness in ones act. Hence, moral action requires disinterestedness.
Aesthetics The desire to possess… x (self-interest governs) The contemplation of … x (for the things sake) (1) These are distinct? (2) These are incompatible? (selfish or interested desire are destructive of the appreciation of beauty)