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Presented by John G. Learned University of Hawaii at Manoa with thanks for help from many colleagues at UH, in KamLAND, and others Hanohano Particle Physics Capabilities

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW2 Hanohano Origins Started as an exercise in 03 investigating future potential for world reactor and weapons testing monitoring, inspired by DTRA inquiry on future use of neutrinos. Workshop in 1/04 concluded that such will be possible, with giant detectors, and technology just being developed. –http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~jgl/nacw.html Plan to get experience with remote monitoring with a detector that can be built today. Aim for ~10x KamLAND, needed for geology 1yr runs. Discussed science goals at geology & physics workshops in 05 @ UH and 06 @ AGU Baltimore, NOW06 Italy, NNN06 Seattle…. Initially geology and then physics –UH 12/05 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~sdye/hnsc.html –AGU 5/06 http://www.agu.org/meetings/sm06/sm06sessions/sm06_U41F.html –Italy 9/06 http://www.ba.infn.it/~now2006/ –Seattle 9/06 http://neutrino.phys.washington.edu/nnn06/

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW3 Nuclear Monitoring Requires Enormous Detectors Single detector Nuclear Monitoring Requires Enormous Detectors Single detector, LE = Low Energy ~>MeV, HE = High Energy ~ >GeV 10 MWt 1GWt Size for 25% measurement of reactor flux, 1 yr, no background. Practical now (HyperK) Future Under water Surface Present(KamLAND) Present HE Nu Detectors (ICECUBE) Proposed(Hanohano) 1 KT Bomb (Future Array)

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW4 1-10 Megaton Module Not Outlandish 1-10 Megaton units similar to sizes proposed for slightly higher energy, and much smaller than ICECUBE under construction. Kamland exists SuperK exists 1 km 3 under construction Proposed Megaton Hyper-Kamiokande

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW5 Planetary Defense Spinoff, Planetary Defense: Type II Supernova Early Warning Silicon burning during last ~2 days prior to collapse detectable from whole galaxy! Sudden increase in single neutron appearance Odrzywolek, et al., astro-ph/0311012

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW6 Particle Physics Big Questions: Neutrino Properties Non-zero neutrino mass and oscillations between flavors established. Filling in MNS-P mixing matrix needed. Need precise (few %) values. Quest for θ 13, need various approaches. Hierarchy of masses? (m 1

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW7 Neutrino Oscillation Physics Precision measurement of mixing parameters Determination of mass hierarchy (newly proposed method)

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW8 P ee = 1-{ cos 4 (θ 13 ) sin 2 (2θ 12 ) [1-cos(Δm 2 21 L/2E)] + cos 2 (θ 12 ) sin 2 (2θ 13 ) [1-cos(Δm 2 31 L/2E)] + sin 2 (θ 12 ) sin 2 (2θ 13 ) [1-cos(Δm 2 32 L/2E)]}/2 Each of 3 amplitudes cycles (in L/E ~ t) with own periodicity (Δm 2 ~ ω) - amplitudes 13.5 : 2.5 : 1.0 above - wavelengths ~110 km and ~4 km at reactor peak ~3.5 MeV ½-cycle measurements can yield –Mixing angles, mass-squared differences Multi-cycle measurements can yield –Mixing angles, precise mass-squared differences –Potential for mass hierarchy –Less sensitivity to systematics 3- ν Mixing: Reactor Neutrinos } wavelength close, 3%

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW9 ν e Mixing Parameters: Present Knowledge KamLAND combined analysis: tan 2 (θ 12 ) = 0.40( + 0.10/ – 0.07) Δm 2 21 =(7.9 ± 0.7) × 10 -5 eV 2 Araki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 081801. CHOOZ limit: sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 0.20 Apollonio et al., Eur. Phys. J. C27 (2003) 331-374. SuperK and K2K: Δm 2 31 =(2.5 ± 0.5) × 10 -3 eV 2 Ashie et al., Phys. Rev. D64 (2005) 112005 Aliu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 081802

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW10 12 Suggested ½-cycle θ 12 measurement with Hanohano Reactor experiment- ν e point source P(ν e ν e ) 1-sin 2 (2 θ 12 )sin 2 (Δ m 2 21 L /4 E ) 60 GW·kT·y exposure at 50-70 km –~4% systematic error from near detector –sin 2 ( θ 12 ) measured with ~2% uncertainty Bandyopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. D67 (2003) 113011. Minakata et al., hep-ph/0407326 Bandyopadhyay et al., hep-ph/0410283 oscillation maximum at ~ 60 km

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW11 Energy Spectra, Distance and Oscillations 50 km study Constant L/E First return of solar oscillation Log(Rate) vs Energy and DIstance E L

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW12 Rate versus Distance and θ 13 No osc Osc Max suppression near 57 km Note shift in total rate due to θ 13 Rate versus Distance Rate Variation with θ 13 sin 2 (2θ 13 ) Message: cannot measure θ 12 well without measuring θ 13.

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW13 Reactor Anti-Neutrino Spectra at 50 km 1,2 oscillations with sin 2 (2θ 12 )=0.82 and Δm 2 21 =7.9x10 -5 eV 2 1,3 oscillations with sin 2 (2θ 13 )=0.10 and Δm 2 31 =2.5x10 -3 eV 2 no oscillation oscillations no oscillation oscillations Neutrino energy (MeV) L/E (km/MeV) Distance/energy,L/E Energy, E > 15 cycles suggests using Fourier Transforms

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW14 Fourier Transform on L/E to Δm 2 Fourier Power, Log Scale Spectrum w/ θ 13 =0 Δm 2 /eV 2 Preliminary- 50 kt-y exposure at 50 km range sin 2 (2θ 13 )0.02 Δm 2 31 =0.0025 eV 2 to 1% level Learned, Dye,Pakvasa, Svoboda hep-ex/0612022 Δm 2 32 < Δm 2 31 normal hierarchy Δm 2 (x10 -2 eV 2 ) 0.0025 eV 2 peak due to nonzero θ 13 Includes energy smearing Peak profile versus distance E smearing Fewer cycles 50 km

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW15 Measure Δm 2 31 by Fourier Transform Determine ν Mass Hierarchy Determination possible at 50 km range sin 2 (2θ 13 )0.05 and 10 kt-y sin 2 (2θ 13 )0.02 and 100 kt-y Δm 2 (x10 -2 eV 2 ) Plot by jgl Δm 2 31 > Δm 2 32 |Δm 2 31 | < |Δm 2 32 | normal inverted Learned, Dye, Pakvasa, and Svoboda, hep-ex/0612022 θ 12 <π/4! But do better than this using correlation function or matched filter

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW16 Comparing hierarchies Similar oscillations, different FT Similar FT, different oscillations Thanks Steve Parke

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW17 Beauty of Employing Fourier ( new realization, by us anyway) Normal statistical sqrt(n) Poisson errors apply to peak amplitude (mixing angle), but NOT to peak location… allows possibility for very precise measurement of Δm 2 (<1% by MC) (1/n?) Beats χ 2 and normal Max£. Employ signal processing tricks to maximize information extraction (ie. matched filter).

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW18 Suggested Mass Hierarchy Determination- via Reactor Neutrino Spectral Distortion Petcov and Piai, Phys. Lett. B533 (2002) 94-106. Schoenert, Lasserre, and Oberaurer, Astropart.Phys. 18 (2003) 565-579. Earlier suggestions

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW19 Distance variation: 30, 40, 50, 60 km Hierarchy Determination Ideal Case with 10 kiloton Detector off San Onofre Sin22θ13 Variation: 0.02 – 0.2 But ten years separates even at 0.02 Normal Hierarchy, 1000 experiments, several distances Inverted hierarchy Hierarchy tests employing Matched filter technique, for Both normal and inverted hierarchy on each of 1000 simulated one year experiments using 10 kiloton detector. Sensitive to energy resolution: probably need 3%/sqrt(E) to reach 0.02

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW20 Hanohano- Candidate Reactor Sites San Onofre- ~6 GW th Maanshan- ~5 GW th

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW21 Hanohano- 10 kT-y Exposure Neutrino Geophysics – anywhere in deep ocean –Mantle flux U/Th geo-neutrinos to ~25% –Measure Th/U ratio to ~20% –Rule out geo-reactor of P > 0.3 TW Neutrino Oscillation Physics- ~55 km from reactor –Measure sin 2 (θ 12 ) to few % w/ standard ½-cycle –Measure sin 2 (2θ 13 ) down to ~ 0.05 w/ multi-cycle –Δm 2 31 to less than 1% w/ multi-cycle –Mass hierarchy if θ 13 0 w/multi-cycle & no near detector; insensitive to background, systematic errors; complimentary to Minos, Nova –Lots to measure even if θ 13 =0 Much other astrophysics and PDK too….Much other astrophysics and PDK too….

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24 March 2007John G. Learned at DOANOW22 Hanohano Summary Proposal for new portable, deep-ocean, 10 kiloton, liquid scintillation electron anti-neutrino detector. Unique geophysics, particle physics and astrophysics, all at nuclear energies. Program under active engineering, Monte Carlo simulations, and studies in laboratory and at sea. Collaboration within a year, aimed at decade or more multi-disciplinary program between physics and geology. Need to get White Paper written soon with science goalsand project outline, and get proposals submitted to NSF, aiming towards MREFC program. It is a big program and we need your help!

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