2 The 17C~18C continental philosophy 1) Social and cultural role shifted.The rising of middle classThe invention of printingNew taste not just for poetry and fictionbut for comment and criticism
3 The 17C~18C continental philosophy 2) A striking different aesthetic☆ Empiricist: (Locke) & Rationalist: (Descartes)☆Experience of art and beauty are personal and matter of taste,so they need no correction.☆To find the rule that would guide the practice.☆Creativity became a value in itself.
4 KantImmanuel Kant, 1724~184022 April Kōnigsberg in East Prussia ( after 1945, Kaliningrad)12 February 1804 (aged 79) --Kōnigsberg
5 Parents were pietistic. ( Immanuel ---God with us)以马内利 Kōnigsberg KaliningradRussian exclave of Kaliningrad OblastSt. Petersburg――Leningrad
6 Pietism (the Lutheran Church): individual religious,devotional sincerity,biblical study,practice.
7 Experience of Kant: the University of Königsberg 16（1740）: student in University, studied science, mathematics, philosophy31（1755）: lecturer on logic, metaphysics, natural science, physical geography, mathematics.46（1770）: Professor of logic and metaphysics
8 His Mark: Kantianism, enlightenment philosophy His Major: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ethics, LogicHis Concept: Categorical imperative, Transcendental Idealism, Synthetic a priori, Noumenon, Sapere aude, Nebular hypothesis
9 Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: The starry heavens above me and the moral law within me.taken fromthe conclusion of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason
10 1781 the Critique of Pure Reason 1788 the Critique of Practical Reason1790 the Critique of Judgment
12 FIRST PART CRITIQUE OF AESTHETIC JUDGEMENTSECTION I. ANALYTIC OF AESTHETIC JUDGEMENT.BOOK
13 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the 4 Moments. The object of such a delight （apart from any interest ） is called beautiful.The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally.Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end.The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight.
14 I. Analytic of the Beautiful. FIRST MOMENT.Of the Judgement of Taste*:Moment of Quality.
15 1. The Judgment of Taste is Aesthetical 2. The Satisfaction which Determines the Judgment of Taste is Disinterested3. The Satisfaction in the Pleasant (Agreeable ) Is Bound Up with Interest4. The Satisfaction in the Good Is Bound Up with Interest
16 5. Comparison of the Three Specially Different Kinds of Satisfaction 6. The Beautiful Is That Which Apart from Concepts Is Represented as the Object Of a Universal Satisfaction
17 7. Comparison of the Beautiful with the Pleasant and the Good By Means of the Above Characteristic 8. The Universality of the Satisfaction Is Represented in a Judgment of Taste Only as Subjective9. Investigation of the Question Whether in the Judgment of Taste the Feeling of Pleasure Precedes or Follows the Judging of the Object
18 1. The Judgment of Taste is Aesthetical to discern whether anything is beautiful or notNot by the understanding to the object for cognition(认知[including sense, but no emotion]but by the imagination (perhaps in conjunction with the understanding) to the subject and its feeling of pleasure or pain.Not cognitive, not logical, but aestheticalThe determining ground is no other than subjective
19 2. The Satisfaction which Determines the Judgment of Taste is Disinterested Interest: the satisfaction which combine with the representation of the existence of an object.☆Satisfaction ----desire☆Beautiful: not depend on the existence of the thing, judge it by mere observation (intuition, reflection)
20 ☆Judgment: Not depend on the existence of the object, But with the representation in myself.Not be in the least prejudiced in favor of the existence of the things,But be quite indifferent in this respect.☆Pure disinterested satisfaction
21 3. The Satisfaction in the Pleasant Is Bound Up with Interest ☆pleasant: that which please the senses in sensation.Other pleasant sensation: agreeable, lovely, delightful, enjoyable, etc.☆All the operation of our faculties must issue in the practical and unit in it as their goal. So, men could blame one another for stupidity and indiscretion, but never for baseness and wickedness. For each according to his own way of seeing things, seek one goal, that is gratification.
22 Describe something as pleasant express an interest in it Describe something as pleasant express an interest in it. Not mere assent, but inclination.☆Two sensationsDetermination of the feeling of pleasure or pain // Representation of a thingSubjective sensation, Simply to the subject // Objective sensation, ObjectPleasantness of meadow // the green color of meadow
23 4. The Satisfaction in the Good Is Bound Up with Interest Good: through the mere concept, by means of ration.The object of will.
24 THIRD MOMENT. Of Judgements of Taste: the relation of the Ends brought under Review in such Judgements.
25 THIRD: Moment the relation of the Ends SS 10. Finality in general.define the meaning of “an end” in transcendental termsAn end is the object of a concept so far as this concept is regarded as the cause of the object (the real ground of its possibility); and the causality of a concept in respect of its object is finality (forma finalis).
26 The faculty of desire, so far as determinable only through concepts, i The faculty of desire, so far as determinable only through concepts, i.e., so as to act in conformity with the representation of an end, would be the Will.Finality, therefore, may exist apart from an endwe may at least observe a finality of form, and trace it in objects-though by reflection only-without resting it on an end
27 SS 11. The sole foundation of the judgement of taste is the form of finality of an object (or mode of representing it).the subjective finality in the representation of an objectexclusive of any end (objective or subjective)an object is given to us, so far as we are conscious of it as that which is alone capable of constituting the delight which, apart from any concept, we estimate as universally communicable, and so of forming the determining ground of the judgement of taste.
28 SS 12. The judgement of taste rests upon a priori grounds. × × × be feeling of pleasure or displeasure // utterly impossible // a causal relationfreedom // cross the border of experience, a causality resting on a supersensible attribute of the subjectmerely contemplative, not bring about an interest in the object
29 SS 13. The pure judgement of taste is independent of charm and emotion. SS 14 Exemplification.
30 SS 15. The judgement of taste is entirely independent of the concept of perfection. a finality apart from an end ( wholly independent of the representation of the good)the judgement of taste is an aesthetic judgement, one resting on subjective grounds. No concept can be its determining ground…affords absolutely no (not even a confused) knowledge …refers the representation solely to the subject, and brings to our notice no quality of the object
31 SS 16. A judgement of taste by which an object is described as beautiful, under the condition of a definite concept, is not pure.free beauty (no concept of what the object should be// no intrinsic meaning; they represent nothing-no object under a definite concept)estimate of a free beauty //pure judgement of taste appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection.appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection.the judgement of taste in respect of the latter delight is made dependent upon the end involved in the former delight as a judgement of reason, and is thus placed under a restriction, then it is no longer a free and pure judgement of taste.
32 SS 17. Ideal of beauty.the ideal of the beautiful, only to be sought human figure
33 Definition of the Beautiful Derived from this Third Moment. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end.*
34 FOURTH MOMENT.Of the Judgement of Taste:Moment ofthe Modality of the Delight in the Object.
35 SS 18. Nature of the modality in a judgement of taste. being such a necessity as is thought in an aesthetic judgement, it can only be termed exemplary （a necessity of the assent of all to a judgement regarded as exemplifying a universal rule incapable of formulation ）
36 The judgement of taste exacts agreement from every one SS 19. The subjective necessity attributed to a judgement of taste is conditioned.The judgement of taste exacts agreement from every oneWe are suitors for agreement from every one else, because we are fortified with a ground common to all.
37 Therefore they must have a subjective principle SS 20. The condition of the necessity advanced by a judgement of taste is the idea of a common sense.Therefore they must have a subjective principleuniversal validitysuch a principle, however, could only be regarded as a common sense.
38 SS 21. Have we reason for presupposing a common sense? we assume a common sense as the necessary condition of the universal communicability of our knowledge
39 to justify judgements containing an "ought.“ SS 22. The necessity of the universal assent that is thought in a judgement of taste, is a subjective necessity which, under the presupposition of a common sense, is represented as objective.to justify judgements containing an "ought.“The assertion is not that every one will fall in with our judgement, but rather that every one ought to agree with it.These are questions which as yet we are neither willing nor in a position to investigate.For the present we have only to resolve the faculty of taste into its elements, and to unite these ultimately in the idea of a common sense.
40 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the Fourth Moment. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight.
41 General Remark on the First Section of the Analytic. the concept of taste as a critical faculty by which an object is estimated in reference to the free conformity to law of the imagination.the imagination should be both free and of itself conformable to law
42 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the 4 Moments. The object of such a delight （apart from any interest ） is called beautiful.The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally.Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end.The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight.Empiricism （pleasure）//Rationalism (universal reason)transcendentlogical judgement // practical judgementsens(ibility)-universal