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1 THE CRITIQUE OF JUDGEMENT by Immanuel Kant 1790.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE CRITIQUE OF JUDGEMENT by Immanuel Kant 1790."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE CRITIQUE OF JUDGEMENT by Immanuel Kant 1790

2 2 The 17C~18C continental philosophy 1) Social and cultural role shifted. The rising of middle class The invention of printing New taste not just for poetry and fiction but for comment and criticism 1) Social and cultural role shifted. The rising of middle class The invention of printing New taste not just for poetry and fiction but for comment and criticism

3 3 The 17C~18C continental philosophy 2) A striking different aesthetic Empiricist: (Locke) & Rationalist: (Descartes) Experience of art and beauty are personal and matter of taste, so they need no correction. To find the rule that would guide the practice. Creativity became a value in itself. 2) A striking different aesthetic Empiricist: (Locke) & Rationalist: (Descartes) Experience of art and beauty are personal and matter of taste, so they need no correction. To find the rule that would guide the practice. Creativity became a value in itself.

4 4 Kant Immanuel Kant, 1724~ April Kōnigsberg in East Prussia ( after 1945, Kaliningrad) 12 February 1804 (aged 79) --Kōnigsberg Immanuel Kant, 1724~ April Kōnigsberg in East Prussia ( after 1945, Kaliningrad) 12 February 1804 (aged 79) --Kōnigsberg

5 5 Parents were pietistic. ( Immanuel ---God with us) Kōnigsberg Kaliningrad Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast St. PetersburgLeningrad Parents were pietistic. ( Immanuel ---God with us) Kōnigsberg Kaliningrad Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast St. PetersburgLeningrad

6 6 Pietism (the Lutheran Church): individual religious, devotional sincerity, biblical study, practice. Pietism (the Lutheran Church): individual religious, devotional sincerity, biblical study, practice.

7 7 Experience of Kant: the University of KönigsbergUniversity of Königsberg Experience of Kant: the University of KönigsbergUniversity of Königsberg : student in University, studied science, mathematics, philosophy : lecturer on logic, metaphysics, natural science, physical geography, mathematics : Professor of logic and metaphysics : student in University, studied science, mathematics, philosophy : lecturer on logic, metaphysics, natural science, physical geography, mathematics : Professor of logic and metaphysics

8 8 His Mark: Kantianism, enlightenment philosophyKantianismenlightenment philosophy His Major: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ethics, LogicEpistemologyMetaphysicsEthics Logic His Concept: Categorical imperative, Transcendental Idealism, Synthetic a priori, Noumenon, Sapere aude, Nebular hypothesisCategorical imperative Transcendental IdealismSynthetic a priori NoumenonSapere audeNebular hypothesis His Mark: Kantianism, enlightenment philosophyKantianismenlightenment philosophy His Major: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ethics, LogicEpistemologyMetaphysicsEthics Logic His Concept: Categorical imperative, Transcendental Idealism, Synthetic a priori, Noumenon, Sapere aude, Nebular hypothesisCategorical imperative Transcendental IdealismSynthetic a priori NoumenonSapere audeNebular hypothesis

9 9 Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: The starry heavens above me and the moral law within me. taken from the conclusion of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: The starry heavens above me and the moral law within me. taken from the conclusion of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason

10 the Critique of Pure Reason 1788 the Critique of Practical Reason 1790 the Critique of Judgment 1781 the Critique of Pure Reason 1788 the Critique of Practical Reason 1790 the Critique of Judgment

11 11 ( ), ( ),

12 12 FIRST PART CRITIQUE OF AESTHETIC JUDGEMENTSECTION I. ANALYTIC OF AESTHETIC JUDGEMENT.BOOK

13 13 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the 4 Moments. The object of such a delight apart from any interest is called beautiful. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight. The object of such a delight apart from any interest is called beautiful. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight.

14 14 I. Analytic of the Beautiful. FIRST MOMENT. Of the Judgement of Taste*: Moment of Quality.

15 15 1. The Judgment of Taste is Aesthetical 2. The Satisfaction which Determines the Judgment of Taste is Disinterested 3. The Satisfaction in the Pleasant (A greeable ) Is Bound Up with Interest 4. The Satisfaction in the Good Is Bound Up with Interest 1. The Judgment of Taste is Aesthetical 2. The Satisfaction which Determines the Judgment of Taste is Disinterested 3. The Satisfaction in the Pleasant (A greeable ) Is Bound Up with Interest 4. The Satisfaction in the Good Is Bound Up with Interest

16 16 5. Comparison of the Three Specially Different Kinds of Satisfaction 6. The Beautiful Is That Which Apart from Concepts Is Represented as the Object Of a Universal Satisfaction 5. Comparison of the Three Specially Different Kinds of Satisfaction 6. The Beautiful Is That Which Apart from Concepts Is Represented as the Object Of a Universal Satisfaction

17 17 7. Comparison of the Beautiful with the Pleasant and the Good By Means of the Above Characteristic 8. The Universality of the Satisfaction Is Represented in a Judgment of Taste Only as Subjective 9. Investigation of the Question Whether in the Judgment of Taste the Feeling of Pleasure Precedes or Follows the Judging of the Object 7. Comparison of the Beautiful with the Pleasant and the Good By Means of the Above Characteristic 8. The Universality of the Satisfaction Is Represented in a Judgment of Taste Only as Subjective 9. Investigation of the Question Whether in the Judgment of Taste the Feeling of Pleasure Precedes or Follows the Judging of the Object

18 18 1. The Judgment of Taste is Aesthetical to discern whether anything is beautiful or not Not by the understanding to the object for cognition( [including sense, but no emotion] but by the imagination (perhaps in conjunction with the understanding) to the subject and its feeling of pleasure or pain. Not cognitive, not logical, but aesthetical The determining ground is no other than subjective to discern whether anything is beautiful or not Not by the understanding to the object for cognition( [including sense, but no emotion] but by the imagination (perhaps in conjunction with the understanding) to the subject and its feeling of pleasure or pain. Not cognitive, not logical, but aesthetical The determining ground is no other than subjective

19 19 2. The Satisfaction which Determines the Judgment of Taste is Disinterested Interest: the satisfaction which combine with the representation of the existence of an object. Satisfaction ----desire Beautiful: not depend on the existence of the thing, judge it by mere observation (intuition, reflection) Interest: the satisfaction which combine with the representation of the existence of an object. Satisfaction ----desire Beautiful: not depend on the existence of the thing, judge it by mere observation (intuition, reflection)

20 20 Judgment: Not depend on the existence of the object, But with the representation in myself. Not be in the least prejudiced in favor of the existence of the things, But be quite indifferent in this respect. Pure disinterested satisfaction Judgment: Not depend on the existence of the object, But with the representation in myself. Not be in the least prejudiced in favor of the existence of the things, But be quite indifferent in this respect. Pure disinterested satisfaction

21 21 3. The Satisfaction in the Pleasant Is Bound Up with Interest pleasant: that which please the senses in sensation. Other pleasant sensation: agreeable, lovely, delightful, enjoyable, etc. All the operation of our faculties must issue in the practical and unit in it as their goal. So, men could blame one another for stupidity and indiscretion, but never for baseness and wickedness. For each according to his own way of seeing things, seek one goal, that is gratification. pleasant: that which please the senses in sensation. Other pleasant sensation: agreeable, lovely, delightful, enjoyable, etc. All the operation of our faculties must issue in the practical and unit in it as their goal. So, men could blame one another for stupidity and indiscretion, but never for baseness and wickedness. For each according to his own way of seeing things, seek one goal, that is gratification.

22 22 Describe something as pleasant express an interest in it. Not mere assent, but inclination. Two sensations Determination of the feeling of pleasure or pain // Representation of a thing Subjective sensation, Simply to the subject // Objective sensation, Object Pleasantness of meadow // the green color of meadow Two sensations Determination of the feeling of pleasure or pain // Representation of a thing Subjective sensation, Simply to the subject // Objective sensation, Object Pleasantness of meadow // the green color of meadow

23 23 4. The Satisfaction in the Good Is Bound Up with Interest Good: through the mere concept, by means of ration. The object of will. Good: through the mere concept, by means of ration. The object of will.

24 24 THIRD MOMENT. Of Judgements of Taste: Moment of the relation of the Ends brought under Review in such Judgements. Moment of the relation of the Ends brought under Review in such Judgements.

25 25 THIRD: Moment the relation of the Ends SS 10. Finality in general. transcendental define the meaning of an end in transcendental terms the object of a concept the causality of a concept forma finalis An end is the object of a concept so far as this concept is regarded as the cause of the object (the real ground of its possibility); and the causality of a concept in respect of its object is finality ( forma finalis ). SS 10. Finality in general. transcendental define the meaning of an end in transcendental terms the object of a concept the causality of a concept forma finalis An end is the object of a concept so far as this concept is regarded as the cause of the object (the real ground of its possibility); and the causality of a concept in respect of its object is finality ( forma finalis ).

26 26 faculty of desire Will The faculty of desire, so far as determinable only through concepts, i.e., so as to act in conformity with the representation of an end, would be the Will. Finality, therefore, may exist apart from an end Finality, therefore, may exist apart from an end we may at least observe a finality of form, and trace it in objects-though by reflection only-without resting it on an end faculty of desire Will The faculty of desire, so far as determinable only through concepts, i.e., so as to act in conformity with the representation of an end, would be the Will. Finality, therefore, may exist apart from an end Finality, therefore, may exist apart from an end we may at least observe a finality of form, and trace it in objects-though by reflection only-without resting it on an end

27 27 SS 11. The sole foundation of the judgement of taste is the form of finality of an object (or mode of representing it). the subjective finality in the representation of an object exclusive of any end (objective or subjective) an object is given to us, so far as we are conscious of it as that which is alone capable of constituting the delight which, apart from any concept, we estimate as universally communicable, and so of forming the determining ground of the judgement of taste. the subjective finality in the representation of an object exclusive of any end (objective or subjective) an object is given to us, so far as we are conscious of it as that which is alone capable of constituting the delight which, apart from any concept, we estimate as universally communicable, and so of forming the determining ground of the judgement of taste.

28 28 SS 12. The judgement of taste rests upon a priori grounds. × × × be feeling of pleasure or displeasure // utterly impossible // a causal relation freedom // cross the border of experience, a causality resting on a supersensible attribute of the subject merely contemplative, not bring about an interest in the object × × × be feeling of pleasure or displeasure // utterly impossible // a causal relation freedom // cross the border of experience, a causality resting on a supersensible attribute of the subject merely contemplative, not bring about an interest in the object

29 29 SS 13. The pure judgement of taste is independent of charm and emotion. SS 14 Exemplification. SS 13. The pure judgement of taste is independent of charm and emotion. SS 14 Exemplification.

30 30 SS 15. The judgement of taste is entirely independent of the concept of perfection. a finality apart from an end ( wholly independent of the representation of the good) the judgement of taste is an aesthetic judgement, one resting on subjective grounds. No concept can be its determining ground…affords absolutely no (not even a confused) knowledge …refers the representation solely to the subject, and brings to our notice no quality of the object a finality apart from an end ( wholly independent of the representation of the good) the judgement of taste is an aesthetic judgement, one resting on subjective grounds. No concept can be its determining ground…affords absolutely no (not even a confused) knowledge …refers the representation solely to the subject, and brings to our notice no quality of the object

31 31 SS 16. A judgement of taste by which an object is described as beautiful, under the condition of a definite concept, is not pure. free beauty (no concept of what the object should be// no intrinsic meaning; they represent nothing-no object under a definite concept) estimate of a free beauty //pure judgement of taste appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection. appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection. the judgement of taste in respect of the latter delight is made dependent upon the end involved in the former delight as a judgement of reason, and is thus placed under a restriction, then it is no longer a free and pure judgement of taste. free beauty (no concept of what the object should be// no intrinsic meaning; they represent nothing-no object under a definite concept) estimate of a free beauty //pure judgement of taste appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection. appendant beauty //presupposes a concept of the end that defines what the thing has to be, and consequently a concept of its perfection. the judgement of taste in respect of the latter delight is made dependent upon the end involved in the former delight as a judgement of reason, and is thus placed under a restriction, then it is no longer a free and pure judgement of taste.

32 32 SS 17. Ideal of beauty. the ideal of the beautiful, only to be sought human figure

33 33 Definition of the Beautiful Derived from this Third Moment. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end.*

34 34 FOURTH MOMENT. Of the Judgement of Taste: Moment of the Modality of the Delight in the Object. FOURTH MOMENT. Of the Judgement of Taste: Moment of the Modality of the Delight in the Object.

35 35 SS 18. Nature of the modality in a judgement of taste. exemplary being such a necessity as is thought in an aesthetic judgement, it can only be termed exemplary a necessity of the assent of all to a judgement regarded as exemplifying a universal rule incapable of formulation

36 36 SS 19. The subjective necessity attributed to a judgement of taste is conditioned. exacts The judgement of taste exacts agreement from every one We are suitors for agreement from every one else, because we are fortified with a ground common to all. exacts The judgement of taste exacts agreement from every one We are suitors for agreement from every one else, because we are fortified with a ground common to all.

37 37 a common sense SS 20. The condition of the necessity advanced by a judgement of taste is the idea of a common sense. a subjective principle Therefore they must have a subjective principle universal validity universal validity a common sense such a principle, however, could only be regarded as a common sense. a subjective principle Therefore they must have a subjective principle universal validity universal validity a common sense such a principle, however, could only be regarded as a common sense.

38 38 SS 21. Have we reason for presupposing a common sense? universal communicability we assume a common sense as the necessary condition of the universal communicability of our knowledge

39 39 a subjective necessity SS 22. The necessity of the universal assent that is thought in a judgement of taste, is a subjective necessity which, under the presupposition of a common sense, is represented as objective. to justify judgements containing an "ought. The assertion is not that every one will fall in with our judgement, but rather that every one ought to agree with it. These are questions which as yet we are neither willing nor in a position to investigate. the idea of a common sense For the present we have only to resolve the faculty of taste into its elements, and to unite these ultimately in the idea of a common sense. to justify judgements containing an "ought. The assertion is not that every one will fall in with our judgement, but rather that every one ought to agree with it. These are questions which as yet we are neither willing nor in a position to investigate. the idea of a common sense For the present we have only to resolve the faculty of taste into its elements, and to unite these ultimately in the idea of a common sense.

40 40 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the Fourth Moment. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight.

41 41 General Remark on the First Section of the Analytic. the concept of taste as a critical faculty by which an object is estimated in reference to the free conformity to law of the imagination. the imagination should be both free and of itself conformable to law the concept of taste as a critical faculty by which an object is estimated in reference to the free conformity to law of the imagination. the imagination should be both free and of itself conformable to law

42 42 Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the 4 Moments. The object of such a delight apart from any interest is called beautiful. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight. Empiricism pleasure //Rationalism (universal reason) transcendent logical judgement // practical judgement sens(ibility)-universal The object of such a delight apart from any interest is called beautiful. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, pleases universally. Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end. The beautiful is that which, apart from a concept, is cognized as object of a necessary delight. Empiricism pleasure //Rationalism (universal reason) transcendent logical judgement // practical judgement sens(ibility)-universal


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