4 Kilim Weaving Centers Western Balkans and Western Bulgaria: Urban and Organized Pirot (Serbia)Vojvodina (Serbia but more rural than Pirot)Chiprovtsy (Bulgaria)MacedoniaThe above are collectively known as Sarkoy in the trade and among collectorsRomania (Oltenia and Moldavia)Romania (Maramures,Banat, Hunedora: these Areas more Rural)Bessarabia (Moldova and Ukraine)Bosnia-Herzegovia (especially after 1878)
5 Production Types Eastern Bulgarian Weaving Manastir (Bulgaria) Rural, individual weaversPomaks (Bulgaria/Turkey) Rural, individual weaversKotel (Bulgaria) Urban and organizedWeaving design, technique, and motifs have more Anatolian influences
9 Religious Background Of The Weavers Orthodox and Roman Catholic in Romania, Bessarabia, Western Bulgaria and SerbiaAreas of mixed religious practice and ethnicity in the BalkansMuslim in Eastern Bulgaria, Macedonia, and BosniaMostly SunniIn Eastern Bulgaria a significant number were Bektashi and Alevi
10 THE MANASTIR WEAVING CULTURE The Manastir Heartland was Eastern BulgariaThe weavers were descendants of Yoruk and Turkman (Kizyl Bash) immigrants from Anatolia, resettled to this area by the OttomansMany Bektashi and AleviRe-immigration to Western and Central Anatolia probably began in the late 1870’sMay have begun as early as the mid-1850’s (Russo-Turkish war)
11 THE MANASTIR WEAVING CULTURE Manastir weaving occurred in both Bulgaria and in several areas in AnatoliaIn Bulgaria, production of flatweaves was the norm:Prayer kilimsGeometric ‘eye-dazzler’ and striped kilimsBlanket-weave covers (striped)Non-directional kilims (various sizes)Kilim yastiks in prayer and non-directional formatsBags and trappings not knownEarliest West Bulgarian kilims were geometric. Sarkoy group began late 17th and 18th centuryEarliest Manastir weavings known are early- to mid-19th Century (per Velev and Stankov)
12 MANASTIR WEAVING TECHNIQUE Blanket weavePlain weaveTapestrySlit tapestryBrocadingOnly occasional use of eccentric wefting which was much more common elsewhere in the BalkansWefts sometimes of different diameters in a single pieceWarp threads are wool or cotton but always very tightly spun. Goat hair known in Sarkoy weavingsWeft threads always wool, some cotton after turn of the 20th Century.Vertical loomsEastern Bulgarian weaving is distinctive. Differs from that of western Bulgaria and the urban weaving centers
13 MANASTIR WEAVING MOTIFS AND DESIGNS StripesPrayer arches (often floating)Protective amuletsHands of FatimaMultiple compartmentsGenerally sparsely filled open fields of solid colorsDesigns are often austere and somewhat archaicPre-1925 kilims were not the product of organized weaving
14 Manastir Weaving Color Schemes Manastir weavings from Bulgaria and Anatolia have similar colors, but probably have different dyestuffsBulgarian production may feature:Red from Balkan kermes or cochinealWoad blueYellow (weld or fustic)Anatolian production seems to utilize colors typical of the areas to which the weavers relocated:Red from madderBlue from indigoYellows from one of several yellow dyestuffsMore contemporary weavings from this group are synthetic versions of the original color scheme
15 Manastir Weaving Color Schemes Generally fields in Manastir kilims are yellow, red, or blueManastir kilims made in Balkans use woad rather than indigo. The actual dye chemical indigotin is the sameGreens are woad blue overdyed onto yellowMany shades of red ranging from pale pinks, purple reds, to brick red. Possible use of beet root, rose root, cherry skinsYellows are mustard through wheatYellow not used in weaving by Slavic BulgariansLight sensitivity and color fastness vary considerablyWefts are white wool, or cotton and warps are white and brown wool and cotton (or a mix) – cotton generally indicates later productionGoat hair Warps? Sometimes in Sarkoy pieces from West Bulgaria
16 Mosques in the Manastir Heartland Ali Pasha Mosque in RazgradTombul Mosque in ShumenIn Razgrad small Manastir prayer kilims were observed in use in the Women’s GalleryThese are two of the three largest mosques in the BalkansArea is known to be populated by non-orthodox Muslims even today
17 The two slides that follow are of the images of the Bulgarian countryside in the Balkan mountains north of Pirot, Serbia and Chiprovsty, Bulgaria. This is the landscape which supported the original Yoruk and Kizlbash Turkmen during the period of Ottoman dominance (pre-1878).
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