Presentation on theme: "What is Culture? Culture is the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life."— Presentation transcript:
1What is Culture?Culture is the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life.
2Types of Culture Non-material culture – intangible human creations Material culture – tangible creations of a societyShapes what we doHelps form our personalitiesInforms our definition of what is‘normal ‘
3Culture ShockPersonal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.It is the inability to read meanings in a new surroundings.
4Components of Culture Symbols Language Values and Beliefs Norms Ideal and Real Culture
6Components of culture Symbols: A symbol is anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture (a flag, a word, a flashing red light, a raised fist, an animal etc).* non-verbal gestures can be very “symbolic” and diverse.-Diverse meanings can be given to different variations of the same object, for example, the winking of an eye.
7Language Sick Dope Bomb For Schizzle my Snizzle Fo sho Whack My bad Dawg or is it Dog, or is it Dogg (Snoop)Give me 5 more words that carry significance in teenage vernacular.
8Components of culture (contd’) LanguageA system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.Function of language:-Enhances communication (“lets make sure we’re on the same page”)-Ensures continuity of culture (story telling)-Identifies societies or groups (group specific words)-Determines how a person is perceived by others (proper grammar vs slang)
9Components of culture (contd’) Values and Beliefs-VALUES are culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.BELIEFS are specific statements that people hold to be true (e.g. The possibility that the US will one day have a female president - based on the shared value of equal opportunity)
10Beauty – what are our values in America “Peek-a-boo”Are these beautiful people by America’s standards??
12American Beauty – what do we value as beauty today
13Components of culture (contd’) - Norms are the agreed-upon expectations and rules by which a culture guides the behavior of its members in any given situation.TYPESPROSCRIPTIVEShould nots, prohibitedPRESCRIPTIVEShoulds, prescribed like medicine
14Types of NormsThere are four basic types of norms that sociologists commonly refer to: folkways, mores, taboos, and laws.Folkways, sometimes known as “conventions” or “customs,” are standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significant.For example, belching loudly after eating dinner at someone else's home breaks an American folkway.Mores are norms of morality. Breaking mores, like attending church in the nude, will offend most people of a culture.Certain behaviors are considered Taboo, meaning a culture absolutely forbids them, like incest in U.S. culture.Finally, Laws are a formal body of rules enacted by the state and backed by the power of the state. Virtually all taboos, like child abuse, are enacted into law, although not all mores are.For example, wearing a bikini to church may be offensive, but it is not against the law.
15Folkways Folkways are often referred to as "customs." They are standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significant.They are norms for everyday behavior that people follow for the sake of tradition or convenience. Breaking a folkway does not usually have serious consequences.Cultural forms of dress or food habits are examples of folkways. In America, if someone belched loudly while eating at the dinner table with other people, he or she would be breaking a folkway. It is culturally appropriate to not belch at the dinner table, however if this folkway is broken, there are no moral or legal consequences.
16Mores Mores are strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior. Mores are norms based on definitions of right and wrong.Unlike folkways, mores are morally significant. People feel strongly about them and violating them typically results in disapproval.Religious doctrines are an example of mores. For instance, if someone were to attend church in the nude, he or she would offend most people of that culture and would be morally shunned.Also, parents who believe in the more that only married people should live together will disapprove of their daughter living with her boyfriend. They may consider the daughter’s actions a violation of their moral guidelines.
17TaboosA taboo is a norm that society holds so strongly that violating it results in extreme disgust.Often times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society.For instance, in some Muslim cultures, eating pork is taboo because the pig is considered unclean.At the more extreme end, incest and cannibalism are taboos in most countries.
18LAWSLaws are a formal body of rules enacted by the state and backed by the power of the state.Virtually all Taboos, like child abuse, are enacted into law, some Mores are, but not all. Folkways are never laws.For example, wearing a bikini to church may be offensive, but it is not against the law.Many laws (unlike mores) do not have a moral evaluation connected to them. Not stopping completely at a stop sign is against the law, but you will not be judged “immoral” for doing it.Definition - A body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
19SOCIAL CONTROLVarious means by which members of society encourage conformity to normsGUILTA negative judgment we make about ourselves i.e. “internal compass”SHAMEThe painful sense that others disapprove of our actionsi.e. must value their opinion to feel shame
20Cultural Diversity High culture Popular culture Subculture Cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elitePopular cultureCultural patterns that are widespread among society’s populationSubcultureCultural patterns set apart some segment of society’s populationCountercultureCultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
25CULTURAL CHANGES -This takes place in 3 ways: INVENTION - creating new cultural elementsTelephone or airplaneDISCOVERY – recognizing and understanding somethingalready in existenceX-rays or DNADIFFUSION – the spread of cultural traits from one societyto anotherJazz music or much of the English language
26Other Concepts: Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own cultureCultural relativismThe practice of judging a culture by its own standards