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Bibliography of 18 th century theories of taste. 16.06.2006The Century of Taste The Century of Taste - Bibliography Longinus Peri Hypsus. Traité du Sublime.

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Presentation on theme: "Bibliography of 18 th century theories of taste. 16.06.2006The Century of Taste The Century of Taste - Bibliography Longinus Peri Hypsus. Traité du Sublime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bibliography of 18 th century theories of taste

2 The Century of Taste The Century of Taste - Bibliography Longinus Peri Hypsus. Traité du Sublime et du Merveilleux dans le Discours traduit du Grec du Longin, John Locke. An essay concerning human understanding, Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury. Characteristics of men, manners, opinions, times, Francis Hutcheson. An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, 1725.Francis Hutcheson. An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, 1725.

3 The Century of Taste The Century of Taste - Bibliography David Hume. A treatise on Human Nature, William Hogarth. The Analysis of Beauty, David Hume. Of the Standard of Taste, 1757.David Hume. Of the Standard of Taste, Edmund Burke. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, 2nd edition, 1759.Edmund Burke. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, 2nd edition, 1759.

4 The Century of Taste The Century of Taste - Bibliography Alexander Gerard. Essay on Taste, Archibald Alison. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste, Uvedale Price, Essays on the Picturesque, Sir Richard Payne Knight, The Landscape. A Didactic Poem, 1794.

5 The Century of Taste

6 Francis Hutcheson David Hume Edmund Burke

7 The Century of Taste Francis Hutcheson ( ) An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725) Francis Hutcheson ( ) An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725)

8 The Century of Taste An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty -simple ideas vs. complex ideas -The only Pleasure of Sense, which our Philosophers seem to consider, is that which accompanys the simple Ideas of Sensation: But there are vastly greater Pleasures in those complex Ideas of Objects, which obtain the Names of Beautiful, Regular, Harmonious. Thus every one acknowledges he is more delighted with a fine Face, a just Picture, than with the View of any one Colour, were it as strong and lively as possible; [...]. So in Music, the Pleasure of fine Composition is incomparably greater than that of any Note, how sweet, full or swelling soever. (7)

9 The Century of Taste An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty internal sense (of beauty) -beauty does not lie in the object itself but in a perceiving mind -gives pleasure -pleasure is felt immediately -independent of will -independent of knowledge -independent of advantage or usefulness

10 The Century of Taste An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty -the beauty of theorems -people might be able to see but receive relatively little pleasure out of beautiful sights -men of genius own a finer taste, have a better developed internal sense

11 The Century of Taste An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty Let every one here consider, how different we must suppose the Perception to be, with which a Poet is transported upon the Prospect of any of those Objects of natural Beauty, which ravish us even in his Description; from that cold lifeless Conception which we imagine in a dull Critick, or one of the Virtuosi, without what we call a fine Taste. This latter Class of Men may have greater Perfection in that Knowledge, which is deriv´d from external Sensation; they can tell all the specifick Differences of Trees, Herbs, Minerals, Metals; they know the Form of every Leaf, Stalk, Root, Flower, and Seed of all the Species, about which the Poet is often very ignorant: And yet the Poet shall have a vastly more delightful Perception of the Whole; and not only the Poet but any man of fine Taste. (9-10)

12 The Century of Taste -neg. associations can keep people from seeing the beauty of certain objects -common taste, universal agreement -internal sense universal An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty

13 The Century of Taste uniformity amidst variety deformity is the absence of beauty, or deficiency in the beauty expected in any species An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty

14 The Century of Taste An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty If we descend to the minuter Works of Nature, what vast Uniformity among all the Species of Plants and Vegetables in the manner of their Growth and Propagation! [...] In the almost infinite Multitude of Leaves, Fruit, Seed, Flowers of any one Species, we often see an exact Uniformity in the Structure and Situation of the smallest Fibres. This is the Beauty which charms an ingenious Botanist. Nay, what vast Uniformity and Regularity of Figure is found in each particular Plant, Leaf, or Flower! In all Trees and most of the smaller Plants, the Stalks or Trunks are either Cylinders nearly, or regular Prisms; the Branches similar to their several Trunks, arising at nearly regular Distances, when no Accidents retard their natural Growth [...]. (22-23)

15 The Century of Taste David Hume ( ) Of the Standard of Taste (1757) David Hume ( ) Of the Standard of Taste (1757)

16 The Century of Taste Of the Standard of Taste The great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation.

17 The Century of Taste Of the Standard of Taste The great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation.

18 The Century of Taste Of the Standard of Taste It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another.

19 The Century of Taste Of the Standard of Taste It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another.

20 The Century of Taste sentiment = emotions sentiment about an object is in everyone of us Of the Standard of Taste

21 The Century of Taste Concept of Humes theory good critics beauties & blemishes standard of taste agree on

22 The Century of Taste Good critics I Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; [...]

23 The Century of Taste Good critics II practice comparison no prejudice strong sense/ judgementdelicate sentiment valuable character of a good critic

24 The Century of Taste Good critics III How will I recognize a good critic? Though men of delicate taste be rare, they are easily to be distinguished in society by the soundness of their understanding, and the superiority of their faculties above the rest of mankind.

25 The Century of Taste good critics beauties & blemishes agree on Of the Standard of Taste

26 The Century of Taste Beauties & blemishes I belong entirely to the sentiment they are feelings but: sentiment linked to certain qualities in objects objective judgement universal agreement

27 The Century of Taste Beauties & blemishes II good critics agree on some of them examples of possible beauties: –force of expression –harmony –luster of colours –exactness of imitation...

28 The Century of Taste beauties & blemishes standard of taste Of the Standard of Taste

29 The Century of Taste Of the Standard of Taste standard of taste = agreed beauties not specified by Hume objects can consist of various beauties and also of blemishes for an object to be beautiful the beauties have to predominate

30 The Century of Taste good critics beauties & blemishes standard of taste agree on Of the Standard of Taste

31 The Century of Taste What are the different values of common sentiment in the philosophical works of Hutcheson and Hume and what are their implications ? Brief summary

32 The Century of Taste How is beauty perceived according to Hutcheson? According to Hutcheson common sentiment is... the proof of the universal sense of beauty. triggered by a single principle of beauty caused by uniformity amidst variety, which is sufficient to explain the beauty of an aesthetic object. (causal) tantamount to positive judgement! Humes relativism contradicts each of the assumptions above!

33 The Century of Taste How is beauty perceived according to Hume? According to Hume common sentiment is... subjective (it is fruitless to dispute concerning taste) no proof of a universal sense of beauty. often general but not necessarily universal guided by a plurality of value characteristics. (contributive) not tantamount to positive judgement!

34 The Century of Taste How is beauty perceived according to Hume? The difference, it is said, is very wide between judgement and sentiment!

35 The Century of Taste How to find common agreement? David Humes prerequisites of judgement: objectivity the joint verdict of good critics experience and practice comparison reason (reflected explanations) agreement based on established standards

36 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of instances of judgement The following diagram illustrates three differences: 1. The relative ranking of instances of judgement according to Hume. 2. The low rank of common sentiment for Hume as opposed to Hutchesons absolute basis of common sentiment. 3. The difference between sentiment and judgement according to Hume.

37 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: I Verdict of posterity II Joint verdict of true critics III Standard of Taste IV Common sentiment of human nature Degree of normative force

38 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I

39 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: subjective and unjustified sentiments.subjective and unjustified sentiments. general principles of approbation and blame.general principles of approbation and blame. IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I

40 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I

41 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Established principles and models.Established principles and models. Universal beauties and blemishesUniversal beauties and blemishes III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I it is impossible men could ever agree in their sentiments and judgements, unless they chose some common point of view, from which they might survey their object, and which might cause it to appear the same to all of them.

42 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I

43 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III normative judgements based on experience and reasoning.normative judgements based on experience and reasoning. II Verdict of posterity I

44 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I

45 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Durable admiration of works that have survived the test of time: all the caprices of mode and fashion. I

46 The Century of Taste Relative ranking of David Humes instances of judgement:

47 The Century of Taste Edmund Burke ( ) A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful (1757) Edmund Burke ( ) A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful (1757)

48 The Century of Taste Burke in contrast to Francis Hutcheson and David Hume: –beauty does not exist in our mind, but in the objects themselves A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

49 The Century of Taste Burke's text A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: general survey of passions, properties of things which make objects either beautiful or sublime and their effect on human beings A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

50 The Century of Taste Burkes main assumption for his inquiry: And my point in this enquiry is to find whether there are any principles, on which the imagination is affected, so common to all, so grounded and certain, as to supply the means of reasoning satisfactorily about them. And such principles of Taste, I fancy there are. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

51 The Century of Taste Burkes main assumption for his inquiry: And my point in this enquiry is to find whether there are any principles, on which the imagination is affected, so common to all, so grounded and certain, as to supply the means of reasoning satisfactorily about them. And such principles of Taste, I fancy there are. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

52 The Century of Taste three kinds of passion: 1.pleasure 2.pain 3.state of indifference/delight A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

53 The Century of Taste What is meant by sublime? Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant with terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime. […] When danger or pain press too nearly, they are incapable of any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

54 The Century of Taste What is meant by sublime? Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant with terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime. […] When danger or pain press too nearly, they are incapable of any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

55 The Century of Taste Created feelings when confronted with the sublime Astonishment, as I have said, is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior effects are admiration, reverence and respect. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

56 The Century of Taste Created feelings when confronted with the sublime Astonishment, as I have said, is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior effects are admiration, reverence and respect. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

57 The Century of Taste What is meant by beautiful? (…) where women and men, and not only they, but when other animals give us a sense of joy and pleasure in beholding them. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

58 The Century of Taste What is meant by beautiful? (…) where women and men, and not only they, but when other animals give us a sense of joy and pleasure in beholding them. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

59 The Century of Taste Created feelings when confronted with the beautiful By beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

60 The Century of Taste Created feelings when confronted with the beautiful By beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

61 The Century of Taste Objects have certain properties which make them either sublime or beautiful A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

62 The Century of Taste Terror Obscurity Privations: vacuity, darkness, solitude Vastness Infinity Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime Which properties of things are sublime?

63 The Century of Taste Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime

64 The Century of Taste Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime

65 The Century of Taste Smallness Smoothness Gradual Variation Delicacy Light colours Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty Which properties of things are beautiful?

66 The Century of Taste Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty

67 The Century of Taste Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty

68 The Century of Taste Secondary Literature Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque. Studies in a Point of View, (London, 1983). Denvir, Bernhard, The Eighteenth Century: Art, Design and Society, , (London & New York, 1983). Dickie, George, The Century of Taste: The philosophical odyssey of taste in the eighteenth century. (New York, 1996) Jones, Robert W., Gender and the Formation of Taste in Eighteenth- Century Britain, (Cambridge, 1998). Kivy, Peter (ed.), The Blackwell guide to aesthetics (Malden, 2004). Kivy, Peter, The seventh sense: Frances Hutcheson and eighteenth century British aesthetics. (Oxford, 2003). Norton, David (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hume. (Cambridge, 1993) Robert Zimmer, Burke zur Einführung. (Hamburg, 1995). Sambrook, James, The Eighteenth Century: The intellectual and cultural context of English literature, , (London & New York, 1986). The texts treated in our presentation are available as eTexts on the Internet! The respective links are listed on: ! The texts treated in our presentation are available as eTexts on the Internet! The respective links are listed on: !


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