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© Boardworks Ltd of 29 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Product Design CAD/CAM These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates that an activity contains sound.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Learning objectives To understand that computers now play a major role in developing and testing new products within product design. To be able to use CAD software to create 2D and 3D designs. To recognize the advantages and disadvantages of CAD and CAM. To know how CNC machines are programmed and to be familiar with a range of CNC machines including milling machines, routers and cutters.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 When computers were first used by product designers, software was developed that enabled them to draw products. These products ranged from architectural models to car components. The main purpose of these drawings was for engineers and manufacturers to have the necessary information to make the product. Drawing packages enabled designers to quickly convert hand drawings of products into an electronic format for safer storage and easier communication. This is called computer aided draughting (drawing). Computer aided draughting
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Computer aided draughting led software engineers to create computer packages for product designers which would enable them to create designs, rather than just draw diagrams. Special tools and functions were developed so that designers could quickly create and change the features of a design. Various types of CAD software emerged, enabling designers to create and develop designs in 2D and 3D forms within an electronic environment. Computer aided designing
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Once product designers were able to create and develop products in an electronic format, they realized the great benefits this brought. Software engineers began to further develop the product information to give it mass and volume, enabling product designers to imitate various materials and conditions under which the product would function. This led to product testing. Product designers can now conceive, develop and test a product with a very short lead time. We can see products actually working before they are even made. This has reduced the cost of developing new products. Computer aided testing
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Conventional CAD packages
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 3D modelling Creates shapes in three dimensions (x, y and z). Uses intuitive tools such as dimensioning, extruding and rounding edges to create wireframe and solid models. Wireframe models show the product as a coat hanger model with no solid surfaces, so the features behind and on the rear of the product are visible. Solid modelling shows the product with a skin over the top of the wireframe. Solid models are easier to visualize because they look like the real product. Two-dimensional (2D) Create simple shapes in the X and Y directions. Does not show the Z direction (depth). Can be used for drawing, pattern draughting and for drawing images that appear to have three dimensions but are still in a 2D format. Types of CAD
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Photo realistic rendering
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Advantages and disadvantages of CAD
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) uses a computer to control manufacturing machinery. When combined with CAD, computer aided manufacturing is a very useful production process. CAD/CAM is the process of linking computers used to aid design with computers used to aid manufacture. A CAD drawing is essentially visual information. When this information is changed into numerical data to control the operation of a machine, it is called computer numerical control – C.N.C. Computer aided manufacturing
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Computer aided manufacturing
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Advantages & disadvantages of CAM
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 CNC CAM machines interpret the information provided by CAD software. Many CNC machines use a special software language called FANUC. FANUC software reads the CAD file and then produces machine code for the CNC machine to use. Much of this special language is made up from information called G code and M code. G codes provide the CNC machine with information about the direction of movement of the cutting tool. M codes refer to miscellaneous functions such as starting the cutting tool and turning on the coolant. Programming a CNC machine
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Below is a list of selected G and M codes which are used in milling operations. If you have access to a CNC milling machine, see if you can spot some being used. G00 – rapid movement G01 – straight line cutting move G02 – clockwise cutting move G03 – anticlockwise cutting move G71 – metric units G81 – drilling cycle G90 – absolute programming G91 – incremental programming M03 – start spindle forwards M04 – start spindle reverse M05 – stop spindle M06 – tool change M08 – coolant on M09 – coolant off M39 – close automatic chuck When a CNC machine moves, it must have a datum so that it knows how far to move. Incremental and absolute are two types of programming which use the datum in a different way. Programming and coordinates
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Incremental programming determines each move in relation to the position of the last one. In other words, every move starts where the last one finishes. XY Datum (start) -y +y +x -x cutter Incremental programming
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Incremental programming task
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Absolute programming determines each move in relation to a single datum point (usually in the bottom left corner). In other words, every move starts from the same start point. Datum (start) -y +y +x -x XY cutter Absolute programming
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Absolute programming task
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 The work is clamped to a bed which moves in the X and Y directions. The cutting tool is placed in a chuck connected to a rotating spindle. The spindle moves in the Z direction. Types of CNC machinery – milling machine A milling machine uses a rotating cutting tool to shape a range of metals and plastics.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 The work is clamped to a bed. The cutting tool is placed in the router chuck connected to a high-speed rotating spindle. The router moves in three axes on a complex arrangement of mechanisms. Types of CNC machinery – router A router uses a rotating cutting tool to shape a range of timbers.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 A lathe is used to produce cylindrical objects. Materials are held in a chuck and rotated at different speeds. The cutting tool is held in the tool post and is inserted into the material as it rotates. It moves in the X and Y axes. The final shape of the material depends on the path taken by the cutting tool. Types of CNC machinery – lathe
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Laser cutters can cut several materials including wood, plastic, fabric, leather, paper and rubber. They will also mark glass, ceramic and stone. Lasers can perform the following functions: cutting, deep engraving, precision scribing and decorative etching. They are extremely fast and efficient to use. Types of CNC machinery – laser cutter A laser cutter uses a concentrated laser to cut or mark materials.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Images can be created using CAD software, taken from clipart or hand drawn and then scanned in. Machines can be driven directly from the PC. Types of CNC machinery – embroidery machine Computerized embroidery machines are capable of embroidering onto fabrics, paper, card and board.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Types of CNC machinery – vinyl cutter Vinyl cutters, like the one shown here, can cut and score paper, card and vinyl. They are available in various sizes from A5 to A0 and beyond. The video clip below shows how labels for sandwich packaging are designed on computer, and then cut out using a computer controlled vinyl cutter.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Resin based systems use a resin which sets hard when hit by a laser. Laminate systems build up a solid model from layers of material positioned on top of each other. Wax based systems are similar to an inkjet printer and squirt wax onto a moving platform. Types of CNC machinery – rapid prototyping These models have been produced using a rapid prototyping 3D printer, like the one pictured. There are three main types of rapid prototyping.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 CAD CAM working together When CAD and CAM are used together, it is often referred to as CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing). CIM incorporates all aspects of the design and make process. Product designers from different countries can work on all stages of the design and manufacture of a product. Computer integrated manufacturing
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 All aspects of the design and manufacture process are involved in CIM. CIM Design Marketing Research & development Production planning Quality control & assurance Manufacturing & production Logistics Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 CAD/CAM game
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 Key points © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Key points Computer aided designing allows product designers to create 2D and 3D designs, and view and test products before they are manufactured. Computer aided manufacturing uses a computer to control manufacturing machines. CAD drawings can be output as numerical data which CNC machines can read. When CAD and CAM are used together it is known as computer integrated manufacturing (CIM).
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Product Design CAD/CAM These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are.
© Boardworks Ltd of 29 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Product Design CAD/CAM These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are.
© Boardworks Ltd of 5 © Boardworks Ltd of 5 Product Design CAD/CAM These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are.
© Boardworks Ltd of 14 CAD and CAM These icons indicate that detailed teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. For.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Resistant Materials ICT in Resistant Materials These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 34 These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates the.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 29 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 18 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 9 CAD/CAM Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.
© Boardworks Ltd of 25 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.
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