2We Will be clarify in this survey study of packaging materials commonly used in the our plant through the following points : -Packaging DefinitionMaterial Description“ definition , composition , …., etc. “Material Properties“ general mechanical & physical properties “Definition Related to Packaging SystemMaterial Selection and Applications Map
3PackagingThe general terms for the functions, materials and overall concept of a coordinated system of preparation of goods for handling, shipment, storage, marketing, distribution and use at optimum cost, and compatible with The requirements of the product.
4Material Description Aluminum : Paper : Polyethylene (PE) : A metal refined from bauxite or into ingots by electrolysis. The ingots are rolled into thin sheets of foil or drawn and formed into can bodies. Foil may range in thickness from 7 to 150 microns.Paper :The general name for a wide variety of fiber based materials primarily made from vegetable or wood fiber base , formed from a water suspension by with-drawing the moisture through a fine wire screenPolyethylene (PE) :A plastic resin of high molecular weight resulting from the polymerization of ethylene gas. The resin can be converted into film, sheet, bottles and injection molded containers. It represents the largest volume of all plastic resins produced, with approximately 50% used in packaging applicationsPolypropylene (PP) :Plastic resin derived from the polymerization of propylene. Extremely versatile material in the packaging industry. The resin is noted for its clarity and excellent ability to withstand frequent flexing, relatively high melting point and good strength. Pp oriented [opp] and biaxial oriented [BOPP] films have excellent properties and wide applications in cigarette warps and snack food pouches.Polyester (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) :A plastic resin formed by the reaction of ethylene glycol with terephthalic acid. The resin is extruded into films or bottles in which the material is then oriented to produce the desired properties of strength, temperature resistance and permeability
5General Mechanical Properties Material PropertiesGeneral Mechanical Properties
6General Mechanical Properties Material PropertiesGeneral Mechanical Properties
7General Physical Properties Material PropertiesGeneral Physical Properties
8Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Air Bubble Film :Is usually made of two polyethylene film joined together so that air bubbles are formed between the layers. Delivered in rolls for wrapping and cushioning.Anti-foaming agent :A substance which is added to a liquid to reduce the tendency to foam or “bubble ”during processing.Anti-oxidant :A substance which reduces the rate of oxidation [rancidity] resulting form exposure to oxygen.Aseptic packaging :The bringing together of a sterilized product and a Sterilized packaging material and combining them under sterile condition. As long as the package remains sealed, the product has an extended shelf – life without being refrigeratedBarcode :A numerical identification symbol, whose value is encoded in a sequence of highly, contrasted rectangular bars and spaces, The relative widths of these and spaces contain the information. Identification is by visual or electronic means.
9Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Barrier material :A material designed to with stand, to a specified degree, the penetration of water oils greases, water vapor and gases. The material may serve to exclude or retain the elements outside or with- in the package.Blocking :An undesired adhesion between touching layers of a material. A common problem with adhesive coated or printed labels, tape, films and papers, particularly when stored at elevated temperatures. Can be due to inadequate drying of printing inks.Blown film :A thermoplastic resin is extorted through a circular die into a conditions tube into which air is blown under controlled conditions to expand the tube to the desired dimensions of width and thickness. The tube is flattened by rollers and either slit into two rolls of flat film or wound into a single roll of continuous tubing.Breathing package :A package designed so that air may enter or leave under varying condition, such as temperature changesCast film :Plastic film manufactured by extruding a hot semi-liquid plastic resin onto a highly polished And chilled cylinder where it cools and sets.
10Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Cellophane :Film made of regenerated cellulose which is treated to form a clear transparent film. It must be coated to be heat sealable and moisture proof.Coating :A covering or a layer of a substance which has been deposited on the surface of a material while in fluid form, and which then hardens and bonds with the surface.Co-extrusion :Combining two or more layers of the same or different thermoplastic materials within the same extrusion die, to form a multilayer film, sheet or plastic package.Cold-seal :An adhesive system in which surface are pre-treated with an adhesive activated by pressure and not needing external heat. Commonly used for heat sensitive products, e.g. chocolate candyCorona treatment :Exposure of a plastic to electrical discharge to increase the polarity of the surface making it more receptive to ink and coatings.
11Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Corrosion :The gradual destruction of a material by another substance, as for example rusting. Corrosion inhibitors can be incorporated inside the package or within the packaging material [bags] itself to retread or inhibit corrosion, e.g. vapor phase inhibitors.Crimped seal :A method of sealing with pressure applied by knurled wheels or bars having a serrated surface. Generally stronger than a similar seal without crimping.Cushioning material :Resilient material used to absorb shocks and pressure caused by external forces. Examples excelsior, shredded paper, creped paper, foamed plastic, rubberized hair, entrapped air bubbles in plastic film and many others.Dehumidify :To dry out or absorb moisture by means of heating, ventilating or the use of a desiccantDelamination :Separation of layers of a composite material arising from lack of adhesive, poor manufacturing technique or mechanical damage
12Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Density :Weight per unit volume of a material expressed in kg/m3 [g/cm3].Deposit :An amount of money added to the price of a product to encourage re- turn of the package after use. .Doctor blade (roll) :A stationary blade which regulates the amount of ink or coating to be applied to a web of material or surface by scraping off the excess. A doctor roll is a roller mechanism revolving in the opposite direction to the flow of the web provides a wiping action which controls the thickness and thus of coating applied.Drop test :Dropping of a filled container from a known height to determine its resistance to rupture leakage or damage.Drying tunnel or oven :A device attached to a printing press, coater or laminator designed to remove solvents from inks or adhesive and to cure the inks or adhesive if necessary.
13Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” EAN :European article Numbering system, a bar coding system, originating in Europe, for product identification.Elastic limit :The point beyond which a material breaks or is subject to non-elastic de-formation when stretchedElastomer :A substance having rubber - like elastic qualities.Elmendorf test (tear test) :A method for testing the tear strength [ resistance to tearing ] of a packaging material .Elongation :The increase length of a material under tensile stress [stretching]. Data is expressed in terms of percentage increase in length to the breaking pointExterior package :A container designed to support or contain one or more smaller packages, usually retail packages
14Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) :A high-barrier plastic resin normally used in combination with other plastics in making film, coatings and adhesivesExtrusion :The forcing of material [rubber, thermoplastics, etc], generally by means of heating to fluid state and pumping by a continuous screw through a shaping die into continuous lengths of profiles, rods, pipe, film, tubing and sheeting.Fin seal :Type of seal resulting from bonding together, usually by heat, the edges of two sheets, resulting in a fin- like joint.Gauge :The unit of measurement of the thickness Of film and foils. Expressed in microns or mils. [1 mil = 25 microns; 100 gauge = 1 mil] .2. An instrument for measuring thickness or lengthGravure “ ROTO “ :A printing process in which the design is etch-ed into the surface of a metal cylinder.
15Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Gusset :The bellow fold or truck in the side or bottom of a bag or sack.Halftone :Gradations of tones achieved by varying sizes of printed dots in the printing of a photographic reproductionHead space :The empty space inside a container between the top surface of the product and the inside supper surface of the container.Heat sealing :A method of joining two or more compatible heat sealable surfaces or material under controlled conditions of temperature , pressure and dwell time.Hermetic seal :An airtight seal
16Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” High density polyethylene (HDPE) :Polyethylene resin whose density exceeds g / cm3.Hot melt :An adhesive or coating based on thermoplastic polymer generally modified with resins or waxes, which is solid at room temperature. It is heated to fluidity the time of application, and is normally quick setting as it cools.Impulse sealing :The brief application of an electrically heated wire to heat seal and cut thermoplastic films.Infusion bag :A porous bag, unaffected by water, which permits water to flow into the product, absorb the desired component and flow out again e.g. a tea bag.Lacquer :Coatings of metal cans or other packaging to prevent changes of taste, discoloration and other alterations in the product. Most import-ant types are epoxy-phenolics, acrylic, vinyl, phenolic, oleoresinous. Varnishes applied over printing to give it protection to the print or to give it a gloss finish. .
17Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Laminate :1.[Noun] A product made by bonding together two or more web sheets or layers of material or materials. .2.[Verb] To unite two or more layers or webs of material.Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) :A low density resin produced at low pressure by means of a catalyst. Offers greater strength and ease of processing, thus giving economic advantages over conventional low density polyethylene made by the high pressure process.Low density polyethylene (LDPE) :Polyethylene resin having a density below 0.925g/cm3, so called conventional polyethylene, the most common type having high gloss, high flexibility but relatively low performance.Logo :An abbreviation for “logo type” A logotype is an identification name, symbol or mark, including a trade mark or brand-mark.Melt index :A measure of the viscosity of a molten thermoplastic resin, defined as the quantity of product that will flow through a defined orifice in 10 minutes under controlled pressure and temperature.
18Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Metallizing :Applying a thin coating of metal, usually aluminum, by vacuum deposition onto a non-metallic film or paper surface in a vacuum chamber.Micron :One thousandth of a millimeter. = 1 / 1000 mmMigration :The movement or transfer of a chemical component of the packaging material to the product or a component of the product to or through packaging material.Mil :One thousandth of an inch [25 microns]. = 1 / 1000 inchNozzle :A round fitting or advice, forming part of a container and closure to facilitate filing, dispensing or pouring.
19Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Nylon film :A thermoplastic film made from polyamide resins; highly transparent, good water vapor trans-mission rate [WVTR ] , good resistance to grease and oil and wide temperature range. Can be deep- drawn by thermoformingOpacity :Resistance of a material to the transmission of light. The degree of non-transparency of a material.Perforations :Holes or slots in a film or sheet, usually small in size, to facilitate opening of a package, by tearing along the line of perforations or to allow ventilation.Permeability :Property of a packaging material or container which allows the diffusion of gases or liquids through them.Pilfer proof seal :A seal which is resistant to pilfering generally with some indication that pilfering has occurred.Ply :1.One of the layers in a lamination. 2.One of the walls in a multi-wall paper sack. 3.One of the layers in a special wound can .
20Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Porosity :The property of material to allow air to pass through. May be expressed as the rate at which air flows through given area under specified conditions.Pouch :A generally small, flat bag normally pre-made either sealed on three sides, or folded and sealed on two sides, prior to filling.Printability :The extent to which the properties of a substrate allow good reproduction of a design [good quality print] by the printing process used.Printing ink :A substance used for printing usually consisting broadly of coloring pigments dispersed in a liquid medium, drying methods may be absorption, oxidation /polymerization , evaporation, precipitation, or radiation curing.Promotional package : “ product motion “A special package used to introduce a new product or stimulate sale of an existing product. May be of special design and may contain a premium gift, or special offer. Usually produced in limited quantities.
21Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Puncture resistance :A measure of the ability of a material to resist puncture or penetration.Register :In multicolor printing, the extent to which each color is laid in the correct position relative to the others and to the dimensions of the material on which it is printed.Reusable package : “ different Recyclable “A container which, when emptied, can be used to package either the same or different products.Reverse printing :Printing on the inside surface of a transparent film so that the printing is visible in reversed form when it is viewed from the out side. Result in a high-gloss print appearance and protection of the ink from scuffing and abrasion.Roll :A quantity of material supplied in web form, such as paper, film or aluminium foil when wound into cylindrical form on a shaft or core .
22Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Sachet :A small flat bag containing for example single portions of products, and generally produced by sticking two rectangular pieces of sheet or film material along their edges.Self-opening (SOS) :A term describing a bag closure which can be opened by a simple hand movement.Self-sealing :The property of certain adhesives to adhere to themselves on contact, even after evaporation of solvents, and when they are dry to the touch. The property of certain plastic films which permits them to seal either to themselves or to other surfaces.Shelf life :The length of time that the product, usually packed, will remain saleable under defined conditions of storage.Shrink film :A film which has been oriented in one or two directions and after being wrapped around a product or package, shrinks to its original dimensions when heated and forms a tight contoured fit.
23Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Static electricity :Surface charges of electricity which may develop during handling and machine operations, particularly on plastics. Can lead to undesirable attraction of dust and may cause sparking and affect print quality. For this reason discharging devices are normally used.Static eliminator :A device attached to a machine at one or more points to discharge the static electricity from the material being processed.Sterilizable :The ability of a material or package to withstand contact with steam at approximately 5kg/m3 for 30minutes or contact with dry air at 200o C for 15minutes, and is there-fore suitable for use with sterilized products .U.P.C :The universal product Code, also described as Uniform product Code. The principle United States numeric bar coding system for product identification.Vacuum packaging :Packaging in containers from which virtually all the air has been removed prior to final sealing. Often. Used to achieve a low oxygen level in the package, and therefore in the product, as this is normally the major factor determining shelf life of foodstuffs. The container must provide a sufficient gas barrier to preserve the vacuum.
24Definition Related to Packaging System “ Arranged by alphabetical ” Varnish :A liquid preparation which, when spread onto a surface, dries to form a hard glossy coating. Used both to protect another coating or printing and to enhance the appearance of the surface.Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) :Formerly known [incorrectly] as moisture of vapor transmission rate. A measure of the permeability of a material to the passage of moisture in the gaseous state [water vapor], not as liquid. Expressed in g/m2/24 hours at 38oC and 90% relative humidity [ RH].Yield point :The point beyond which the stress applied to a material will cause perm-anent deformation.Zip-lock closure :A patented method of closure whereby ridges and slots which have been molded into the material, usually polyethylene, can be locked to one another by pressing them together