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Pelletisation- A way Forward for sustainable steel Making…
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 2 Steel Production…………….
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 3 Indian Steel Industry On High Growth Phase Million tons (MT)
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 4 Per Capita Steel Consumption……………. World- 150 Kg Developed World- 350 Kg INDIA – 50 Kg CHINA – 250 Kg The estimated India per capita consumption is expected to reach approximately 165 kg in
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 5 Requirement for Iron making… Fe %-> 65 % SiO2 %- 1.5 % Al2O3 %- 1 % LOI % 1 % P %-< % S %-<0.003 % Effect:- Slag rate in Iron making ~ 200 kg/T of Hot Metal
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 6 Chemical properties of Iron Ore (Hematite) mostly available Cause:-Typical Fe %-61 – 63 % SiO2 %-3.5 % - 4.5% Al2O3 %-2.5% % LOI % % P %-< % S %-<0.005 % Effect:- Slag rate in Iron making = kg/T of Hot Metal
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 7 Types of Indian iron Ore Deposit »Hematite »Magnetite Hematite is the main producing iron ore in India. Hematite ores are found in the form of hard massive, hard laminated, semi friable / soft laminated, powdery type. Goethite, limonites and laterites are also found in the form of associated with Hematite minerals.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 8 Types of Indian iron Ore Deposit Our Iron ore is fragile in nature and contain good amount of goethite and kaolinite in association with hematite ore. During beneficiation of these low grade hematite iron ore goethite enriches along with hematite, which remain associated with the iron ore concentrate even after beneficiation. As the liberation of iron phase mineral is below 200 microns, the generation of fines are more during size reduction which causes high Blaine number Causes high LOI and high Blaine number in iron ore concentrate after beneficiation.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 9 Types of Indian iron Ore Deposit The presence of deleterious gangue mainly Alumina and Silica are highly undesirable as they adversely increase the cost of hot metal produced. SiO % will reduce Slag volume - 65 kg / Tonne Al2O3 – 1.0 %, will reduce Slag rate - 30 kg / Tonne Coke / Flux rate reduced - 6 kg / Tonne Productivity (Hot metal) increased – 2.75 % Reduction of 1 Tonne of Alumina load through Washing / Beneficiation from ore will give savings of Rs.1 Lakh in steel making process Note :1 % reduction of Alumina, benefit is around 100 crores per annum for 3.0 MTPA steel plant.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 10 Iron Ore Demand-Supply Matrix For the year Demand* (in million tonnes) 102 MT Note: For producing 1 Tonne of crude steel/ sponge iron, 1.6 tonnes of iron ore consumption has been assumed. Supply Production of iron ore 226 Mine-head stocks 73 (IBM Nagpur) Total = 299 Surplus Demand-Supply matrix= = Exports = *** Surplus available (including stocks at mine- heads)= 79.63
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 11 Resource……………. India has 25 billion tons of iron ore reserve India produces 222 MT with avg. lump ore Huge fines/ultra fines generation More than 60% of good quality ore is exported By 2020 –200 MT Steel –480 MT Iron ore Low grade Lumpy ore Low grade Fines/Slimes BHJ/BHQ/BMQ LOW GRADE RESOURCE Beneficiation/ Agglomeration Low grade iron ore, iron ore fines and iron ore tailings/slimes accumulated over the years at mine heads and generated during the existing washing processes, need to be beneficiated to provide concentrates of required quality to the Indian steel plants.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 12 Agglomeration Use of Pellets - Conservation of mineral by use of fines / ultra fines to agglomerate, making it usable in the steel industry. Pellet making through ………….. Innovative Technology Coal Gasification SinterBriquettePellet
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 13 Different Ore Types Iron Ore Pellets are made from a variety of different ores.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 14 Purpose of Pelletising…… Why Pelletising….? Why not used fines directly ??? The design and operation of Blast Furnace makes it necessary to agglomerate the fines by either Sintering or Pelletising….
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 15 Blast Furnace Operation 250 o C CO+N 2 Stack 1200 o C Bosh Tuyeres Hearth 1700 o C 1500 o C 1350 o C Chemical Reactions 3Fe 2 O 3 + CO 2Fe 3 O 4 + CO 2 Fe 3 O 4 + CO 3FeO + CO 2 FeO + C Fe + CO MnO + C Mn + CO P 2 O 3 + 5C P 2 + 5CO SiO 2 + 2C Si + 2CO Hot Blast Air C + O 2 CO 2 CO 2 + C 2CO Slag Tap Hole SiO 2, CaO, Al 2 O 3, MgO, MnO Process Charge Distribution Low Temperature Distribution Indirect Reduction Swelling and Softening Coke Solution/ Direct Reduction primary Slag Formation Flood Phenomena Effect of raceway conditions Pig Iron tap hole Fe, C, Si, S, P, Mn- 93% Iron
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 16 Pellets in Blast Furnace Gas to Solid Reactions Permeability of Furnace Burden Strength of Pellets Porosity of Pellets
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 17 Steps of Pelletising
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 18 Indurating Furnace Seven Processing Zones Drying SectionHeating Section Heat Recovery Section Pre-heating (Ramp) FiringAfter Firing First Cooling Second Cooling Updraft Drying (UDD) Down- draft Drying (DDD) Travel
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 19 Pelletisation Process Flow with Dry Grinding Iron Ore Bins Bentonite GrindingBall MillDryer Mixing Paddle Mixture Balling DiscsGreen PelletsOsciilating Conveyor Roller Screen Burners Thickener & ESP Fired PelletsPellet Discharge
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 20 Process Gas Flow
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 21 Key Equipment for Process Control
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 22 Indurating Machine Rails Top Strand Bottom Strand Burners Direct Recup Header Windbox Double Dump Valve Air Passage Downcomer Furnace Hood
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 23 Typical Arrangement of Pellet Bed of green pellets on pallets Hearth layer and side layer protects the pellets and ensures uniform pellet quality
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 24 Pellet Quality PELLET QUALITY COMPARISION FOR THE YEAR PARAMETERJSPLARYA JSWGIICVALE PHYSICAL CCS TUMBLER INDEX ABRASION INDEX POROSITY Not Available 8-16MM MM CHEMICAL Fe FeO0.58Not Available 0.7 Not Available SiO SiO2+Al2O3 = Al2O CaO MgO P S0.005Not Available 0.01 Degree of Metalisation Not Available Not Available Reductivity Not Available Not Available
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 25 Present Pellet Manufacturing Capacity SL NOCOMPANYCAPACITY 1ESSAR, VIZAG8 2JSW, VIJAYNAGAR4.5 3JSPL, BARBIL4.5 4KIOCL, MANGALORE4 5ARYA, BARBIL1.2 6MANDVI, GOA1.8 7BMM, HOSPET1.2 8CHOWGLEY & OTHERS4 9TOTAL28.6 Another 30 million ton under commissioning by 2013
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 26 Direct Cost reduction on Coke head For a 1mtpy plant Rs.3.8 Cr can be saved per annum
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 27 Benefits of using of Pellets……………. Good Reducibility: Because of their high porosity that is (25-30%), pellets are usually reduced considerably faster than hard burden sinter or hard natural ores/lump ores. Good Bed Permeability: Their spherical shapes and containing open pores, gives them good bed permeability. Low angle of repose however is a drawback for pellet and creates uneven binder distribution. Less heat consumption than sintering. Approx % less heat required than sintering. Uniform chemical composition & very negligible LOI: The chemical analysis is to a degree controllable in the concentration processing within limits dictated by economics. In reality no LOI makes them cost effective. Easy handling and transportation. Unlike Sinter, pellets have high strength and can be transported to long distances without fine generation. It has also good resistance to disintegration.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 28 Benefits Contd……. The other Advantages of using iron ore pellets are: 1. The rotary kiln can produce 20% more without any changes in the design. 2. Specific consumption of coal will come down by 10%. 3. Campaign life will increase to almost 60%. 4. Metallization will be better compared to lump ore. 5. Reduce the generation of fines to 5% in the finished product against 35 to 40%, when produced with lump ore. 6. There are no losses of handling iron ore, as pellets will not break during transport or handling because of high cold crushing strength. 7. Finally, we will have better environment to work.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 29 Benefits of Using Iron ore Pellets in JSPL coke / coal consumption - 25 %. Productivity of Sponge - > 20 %. carbon content - 20 %. Sulphur content %. Phosphorous content - 5 – 10 %. Iron content %. Porosity %. Direct cost saving around Rs.1800 / Tonne of pellet used in steel making process. Refractory repairing cost Stable blast furnace operation. Environmental conditions.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 30 JSPL-Barbil Pellet Plant
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 31 JSPL-Barbil Pellet Plant
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 32 JSPLs drives towards sustainable growth… Straight Grate Technology based Pelletising JSPL operating 4.5mtpy pelletizing plant at Barbil Gas based DRI JSPL has worlds largest coal-based sponge iron manufacturing facility, which uses indigenously developed rotary kilns. JSPL leads the Indian market in this sector and has the worlds largest coal-based sponge iron plant, with a capacity of producing 1.32 MTPA DRI. Pipe line transportation for slurry JSPL is laying 178km cross country pipeline from Barbil to Angul for transport of Pellet feed concentrate. Micro Pelletised Sinter JSPL- Patratu is Mapping Eirich and HPS technologies – Technology and process – On parameters like productivity, coke usage, power consumption, lime consumption etc.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 33 JSPLs drives towards sustainable growth… The DRI-BF-EAF route technology would be adopted for steel production at Angul. The DRI plant has a unique feature of using Syn Gas from the coal gasification plants as reductant. The DRI-Gasification route is being used for the first time in the world and has the advantage of using high ash coal which is predominantly available in the vicinity of the project site. JSPL has signed an agreement with Lurgi Sasol Technology Company, South Africa, for providing technology for coal gasification. Hot DRI charging in SMS Coal washery JSPL has 6.0 million TPA coal washery at Tamnar, where 47-48% ash coal is washed down to 26% ash. This washery meets the requirements of coal for the sponge iron plant and in addition produces middling's for generation of captive power of about 300 MW.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 34 JSPLs drives towards sustainable growth… Coal injection in BF to reduce the dependency of Coke Organic Binder used replacing Bentonite & resulting less gangue in Pellet High efficiency by high volume BF installation Pelletising with Zero waste generation at Barbil R&D & Institute,Industry partnership JSPL has developed Column Floatation technology for Iron recovery from Tailings with IMMT, Bhubaneswar & for recovery from BHJ, BHQ.. HESS m/c from Germany for making high quality fly ash brick at Angul Infrastructure development JSPL is setting up a captive port in Ganjam district. It involves a capital cost of Rs 1,424 crore, while the operational cost of running the port would be Rs 152 crore per annum. The first phase is scheduled to be operational by 2017.
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 35
Copyright © 2010 Jindal Steel & Power Ltd. 36
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