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Failure Mechanisms in Twill-weave Laminates: FEM Predictions vs. Experiments by Gianni Nicoletto and Enrica Riva Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale Università di Parma Parma, Italy COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne, France Jan. 28, 2003

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Outline COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Introduction e motivation Related works Twill-weave laminate chacterization Finite element modeling Experimental observations and computational results Conclusions

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva CFRP Chassis Cooperation with Dallara Automobili F3 racing car IRL racing car Infinity Pro Motivation

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Woven Composites COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Definitions Yarns: bundle of thousands fibers Warp yarns: parallel to load direction Fill yarns: perpendicular to load direction Texture: plain weave, twill weave, etc. Crimp ratio: degree of yarn curvature Advantages With respect to unidirectional laminates: Easier handling and shaping Improved impact resistance Superior out-of-plane stiffness Balanced in-plane mechanical properties Cost competitive yarn

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Objectives of the work COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Develop a finite element-based modeling approach to the mechanics of woven laminate composites. Compare modeling results and experimental observations. Analyze the role of texture on mechanical performance. Develop tools for monitoring damage development in woven laminates.

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Related Modeling Work Analytical approach T.W. Chu et al (1983 - ) N.K. Naik et al (1991 - ) COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Models, such as mosaic, crimp and bridging models subjected to iso- strain or iso- stress conditions, predict adequately the stiffness of woven laminates. These models are less satisfactory for strength prediction and micromechanical stress determination. Convenient approach for texture design. The plain-weave texture has been mainly considered.

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Finite element approach J. Whitcomb et al. (1990-1998) V. Carvelli and C. Poggi (2001) D. Blackketter et al. (1993) COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Computational prediction of the mechanics of woven laminate composites. The finite element method is used to geometrically model an elementary cell of the woven laminate. Boundary conditions enforcing stress and strain periodicity are imposed to the representative volume (RV). Stress-based damage and stiffness discount technique to model damage progression. Most studies deal with the plain-weave texture.

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K. Schulte et al (1988 - ) J.C. Abry et al. (1998) Electrical resistance method applied to unidirectional composites COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Related Experimental Work

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en ChampagneG. Nicoletto & E. Riva Material and Experiments Fiber: Toray T-300 carbon fibers Fiber diameter: 7 μm Fiber volume fraction V f : 42% Density ρ: 1.76 g/cm 2 Strength u 3200 MPa Elastic modulus E: 228 GPa Matrix: Epoxy Hexcel 1990S Laminate Lay-up: 8-ply Texture: Twill-weave Yarns: 3k fibers Warp and fill yarns: Identical Laminate thickness: 2.4 mm Tensile tests according to: ASTM D3039 Servo-hydraulic testing machine: MTS 810 Resistance strain gages & Extensometer Electric resistance measuring apparatus 0° direction

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en ChampagneG. Nicoletto & E. Riva Geometrical Characterization of Twill-weave Texture Yarn shape: circular arcs Ply stacking: random abgRTRT RLRL 2.040.171.136.116.15 All dimensions in mm

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en ChampaignG. Nicoletto & E. Riva Tensile Tests and Evolution of Electrical Resistance Strain Norm. elect. resistance vs. strain Stress (MPa) (R-R 0 )/R 0 Stress vs. strain Twill-weave laminates

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Damage Observations Fill yarnTow yarn Epoxy Fiber fracture Fracture in yarn

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Damage Mechanisms: a Summary Final longitudinal fiber fracture is preceeded by a number of mechanisms. Matrix cracks develop in fill yarns. Delamination occurs between orthogonal yarns. Inter-ply delamination is observed Inter-ply delamination Crack in fill yarn Delamination between orthogonal yarns

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Homogeneization Method for Composite Materials Assumption of periodic microstructures which can be represented by unit cells Asymptotic expansion of all variables and the average technique to determine the homogeneized (macroscopic) material properties and constitutive relations of composite materials Prediction of microscopic fields of deformation inside the unit cell through the localization process COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva

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Texture and Representative Volume RV Material models: Yarn: transverse isotropic, linear elastic Matrix: linear elastic RV Twill-weave

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Finite Element Modeling of RV Parametric geometrical model (I-DEAS) Finite element code (ABAQUS) Convergence study Optimized model: > 30000 elements Geometric nonlinearity included Progressive damage evolution routine in FORTRAN

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Boundary conditions on RV Post, Han and Ifju (1994) Carvelli & Poggi (2001) where u(x) is the displacement field in the RV u 0 is a rigid displacement of the RV is a small rigid rotation of RV E is the average strain (macroscopic) of RV ũ(x) is a periodic displacement associated to microscopic strain field within RV Free surface

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Damage Modes for Fiber Yarn COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva M. Zako et al (2003)

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Modeling Damage Development Blackketter et al (1993)Discount method Iterative procedure. Evaluation at each integration point. Normal stress criterion for failure. Elastic modulus is reduced to 1/10 of its initial value. Role of time step and mesh size.

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Effect of Texture on Longitudinal Stiffness COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Strong influence of crimp ratio on stiffness. Good correlation with experimental results. A thick laminate is stiffer than a single lamina. At high crimp ratios the twill- weave is stiffer than the plain- weave. Plain weave Twill weave Lamina Thick laminate

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Effect of Crimp Ratio on Stress-Strain Curve Strong influence of crimp ratio on stress-strain curve. Good correlation with experimental results. Low crimp ratio shows a trend linear to failure. Influence of computational parameters.

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Stresses and Damage COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva a b c d Step a The critical stress is perpendicular to the fill yarn surface. The wedge elements of the straight portion of the fill yarns fail first. Initial damage occurs near the fill yarns. The critical stress is representative of damage initiation in the matrix.

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva a b c d Step b The critical stress direction does not change. It is perpendicular to the fill yarn surface. Damage continues in the fill yarns. Damage now involves the brick elements next to the wedge elements. The damage spreads into the matrix. Stresses and Damage

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva a b c d Step c The wedge elements, where the two perpendicular yarns are close to each other, fail. Fiber failure occurs in the fill yarn. Failure occurs where the yarn is curved to the maximum. Stresses and Damage

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva a b c d Step d Failure extends to the neighboring brick elements up to final catastrophic collapse. In this final stage different failure modes are activated such as transverse and longitudinal shear, and transverse direct stress. Stresses and Damage

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COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Inter-ply delamination Crack in fill yarn Delamination between orthogonal yarns Qualitative Correlation Experimental Computational

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Conclusions COMPTEST 2003 Chalons en Champagne G. Nicoletto & E. Riva Optical inspection of a twill-weave laminate during tensile testing showed different damage mechanisms. Finite element modelling of an appropriate RV provided the macroscopic stress-strain relation of a woven laminate that were compared to experimental results. The finite element model of the RV provided the microscopic stresses and strains within matrix and reinforcements. An iterative procedure based on a damage routine has been developed to simulate damage evolution. A first correlation between experimental observations and computed damage evolution in a twill-weave laminate is encouraging.

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