The wind blows the dandelions throughout the field, and some seeds stick and grow into flowers. Other seeds do not. Note: one seed that sticks and grows into a flower is better than none at all!
You can lead a horse to water, but you cant force him to drink – Old English adage How does this adage apply to teaching?
My students! Thats the only reason that I am working. I am working for them because I want them to improve. I want them to learn. – Recent GO TEACHER participant There are people who teach to live, and those who live to teach. Which are you?
You make others happy when youre happy and your work is meaningful: If you TEACH FOR YOURSELF, FOR THE MOMENT AND THE JOY OF IT, the rest will follow! Remember: teaching is a 50/50 effort! You can guide students to meet you halfway!
CONTENT/KNOWLEDGESKILLS THE INFORMATION YOU ARE TEACHING (KNOWLEDGE AND FACTS) The WHAT DEFINING things and terms Background knowledge of the topic students are reading and writing about (e.g. Mother Theresa) ________________________________ Cultural knowledge and awareness of English-speaking countries Knowledge of English, including: o Grammar rules o Meanings and correct uses of vocabulary words, transition words, expressions, idioms, etc. o Labeling the components of a paragraph or essay o Different genres of reading o Knowledge of informal vs. formal language THE ABILITIES, METHODS, APPROACHES, AND STRATEGIES YOU ARE TEACHING The HOW (to apply your knowledge) ________________________________ Writing skills o How to organize an essay/paragraph o How to write an introduction, paragraph, and conclusion o How to write a topic and concluding sentence o How to use vocabulary in context of a sentence o How to apply the grammar rules in a sentence o How and when to use informal and formal language in writing Listening skills o Note –taking o Understanding pronunciation and intonation
CONTENT/KNOWLEDGESKILLS THE INFORMATION YOU ARE TEACHING (KNOWLEDGE AND FACTS) Teaching WHAT and DEFINING things Background knowledge of the topic students are reading and writing about (e.g. Mother Theresa) ________________________________ Knowledge of English, including: o History of English and etymology o Linguistics o Physical structure of mouth/throat during pronunciation o Definition of skimming and scanning o Difference between academic/formal and casual/informal written and spoken language THE ABILITIES, METHODS, APPROACHES, AND STRATEGIES YOU ARE TEACHING Teaching HOW to DO something and APPLY your knowledge ________________________________ Reading skills o Skimming/Scanning o How to guess unknown vocabulary in context o Predicting and using background knowledge Speaking skills o Group speaking strategies o Pronunciation and intonation strategies o How to use words and phrases in a conversation in the right context o How and when to use formal and informal language in speaking o How to speak politely
Usually not, unless: There are no other alternatives You have no time It would clearly promote learning and retention Think about the benefits of spending more time explaining in English Use as a last resort Consider age, level, educational attainment, and learning preferences
Alternatives: Contextualize a word or grammar point: think about how you learned your first language! Give it real meaning: Use in a sentence/s Give examples Teacher or student produces: Synonyms Antonyms Photos/pictures/drawings Related gestures, expressions, behaviors
BE AWARE OF FALSE COGNATES, for example: Realize vs. realizar Estoy embarazada vs. Im embarrassed Actualmente vs. Actually Use graphic organizers for vocabulary
The opposite of grammar translation method Less focus on grammar and more on fluency and language USE in real-life contexts Influenced by progressivism in education
Emphasizes: Language USE over knowledge Communicative competence Conversational and practical English in real life situations (work, school, tourism, etc.) Active learning Learner autonomy and student-centered Understanding and expressing meaning Collaborative/cooperative learning Immediate use and application
Limited time Limited resources Lack of technology Textbooks are boring Curriculum is not relevant to Ecuadorian students real, everyday lives Lack of respect from school administration and other forces in charge
Lack of respect from society, parents, even students Student behavior problems Excessively large class sizes that make Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) difficult Its easy to take the easy way out! How do we save time and money, and still deliver the best lessons possible?
1)Why do we use textbooks in teaching? 2)Is it OK to teach directly from the textbook most of the time? Why or why not? 3)Name at least 3 occasions when textbooks are helpful/beneficial. 4)Name at least 3 occasions when textbooks should be supplemented (changed, added to, parts skipped)
Topics are irrelevant to students real lives/needs Culturally biased Layout is overwhelming or poorly organized Lack of visuals Too difficult or too easy Pacing is too fast or slow Poor sequencing
Not enough practice activities Not student-centered Not enough focus on oral communication/ conversation skills Not enough freedom/choice Incomplete/missing items
Consider that you may need to supplement in three main ways: 1)The content (add, subtract, modify) 2)The delivery of the content (make it more fun, make it longer or shorter, make it clearer, etc.) 3)The activity itself (change or replace the activity)
Are activities meaningful and relevant to my students? Are they appropriate for: English level Content/background knowledge Age Ecuadorian culture? Socioeconomic status? Gender
Do activities: Build on students prior knowledge? Allow for pair/group work? Keep the maximum amount of students involved and engaged at one time? Keep the maximum amount of students speaking and listening as often as possible?
Do activities: Offer a lot of practice activities? Involve speaking and writing practice/use of grammar? Contextualize and support with visuals? Allow for learning independence and personal choice? Mimic authentic activities in which English could be used?
IF there is cultural bias, can you also use that as a cultural teaching opportunity? How can I adjust the pacing and sequencing to students needs? What should be duplicated/copied from the textbook?
Item A Only (Differences) Item B Only (Differences) Both A and B (Similarities) Typical American Breakfast Typical Ecuadorian Breakfast What Both Have in Common Cereal with milk and/or fruit Pancakes or Waffles Eggs Bacon Oatmeal with milk Bread with butter Juice Coffee Sierra: (Bread with butter, cheese, and marmalade, coffee, juice, and fruit), mote, yucca Costa: (Bolon con café, patacon, empanada de verde, black coffee) Oats with milk Juice Coffee Bread and butter COMPARING AND CONTRASTING TWO THINGS ITEM A:ITEM B : Book 2, Unit 2, pg. 18 Your Daily Routine
Form groups of 3. Look through your Postcards textbook with your group mates: 1) Find 1-2 activities/lessons that should be supplemented for any reason and discuss reasons why 2) Discuss at least 3 ideas about how to supplement and improve the lesson/activity in the textbook 3) Write it down- you will share this with the class!
In groups of 3, discuss: 1)Whats missing from the blue Grammar Focus box? 2)What may confuse students about the Practicing Grammar section? 3)Is there cultural bias in the photos on this page? 4)Are there enough visuals provided? 5)What should I use or duplicate from this lesson? 6)What should I ignore or not use? 7)Give one brief example of how I can improve this lesson.
Website to Access Texts: http://educacion.gob.ec/documentos-pedagogicos/
Always put yourself in students shoes: Identify things that could cause confusion Decide the extra things that should be taught Decide if the explanation in the text prepares students enough for the following practice activities
For example: Adding it (pronoun/indirect object) to the box and giving several examples Pre-teach and/or do a mini-lesson on: Personality adjectives Adjective clauses with who Professional roles/labels/titles There is/are/was/were
For example: Recreate activity using famous people known to Ecuadorian students: Deceased celebrities to teach past simple Current celebrities to teach present simple
Make it as relevant to students personal lives as possible Everybody loves talking about themselves, their loved ones, and celebrities! Make it more fun: do guessing activities Contextualize, contextualize! Use/create graphic organizers and images Final assessment should require production of all that students learned
Make learning authentic: Require students to speak and write their own personalized sentences Students role-play and write about real- life situations in which English could be used Use realia (authentic materials) Seize the opportunity to teach content, character building, and life planning
1. I am (adjective) because I ________. Example: I am cautious because I think before I do things. OR... 2. (Person/name) is (adjective) because he/she _________. Example: My mother is friendly because she talks to everybody.
3. My ideal (best friend / significant other) is (adjective) because ________. Example: My ideal best friend is funny because I like to laugh.
1. I want to be a (profession) when I grow up because I like ________. Example: I want to be a doctor because I like to help people. OR... 2. (Person/name) wants to be a (profession) because he/she likes ________. Example: My brother wants to be a singer because he likes to sing.
PRESENT TENSE: Guess whos taped to your back? This person is a talented singer. This person is a serious bodybuilder. This person is an athletic soccer player. This person is a talkative newscaster. This person is an intelligent politician. This person is a good-looking musician. IS MY PERSON...?
ANSWERS: Juan Fernando Velasco Alexandra Escobar Antonio Valencia Tania Tinoco Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado Gerardo Morán
PAST TENSE: Guess whos on my card? This person was a brave general. This person was a creative artist. These people were hardworking soccer players. This person was an independent female doctor. This person was a compassionate nun. This person was a funny actor. These people werent imaginative artists. IS YOUR PERSON...?
ANSWERS: Simón Bolívar Oswaldo Guayasamin Chucho Benitez Matilde Hidalgo de Prócel Mother Theresa Ernesto Alban Gomez Don Evaristo
Cloze Activity: 1.Simon Bolivar ______ a general. 2.Simon Bolivar and his lover, Manuela Saenz, ______ liberators for Latin America. 3.Mother Theresa ______ an artist. 4.Antonio Valencia and Chucho Benitez ______ women. 5.Matilde Hidalgo de Prócel ______ the first female doctor in Ecuador.
Students write a paragraph describing themselves, their personalities, and what they want to be when they grow up using all previously learned: Present and simple past of verb to be (8 examples) Personality adjectives (5 examples) Profession nouns (2 examples) Give choices: they can also write about someone else in the third person
Teacher models an example of expectations Non examples also help After writing and self/peer-editing their paragraphs, students switch them with a partner In groups of 4-5, each student reads the partners secret paragraph to his/her group (or classmates) and the others must guess who in the class it is!
I am a student at ABC High school. I want to be a soccer player when I grow up because I like to compete and move my body. I think a soccer player is a good profession for me because I am very athletic and cooperative and play well in teams. However, sometimes I want to be a politician because I want to change my country. I think I would be a good politician because I am hard-working, friendly, logical, and confident. Although many real politicians are not compassionate, I will be one of the few! When I was a child, I played in a soccer league with children who were older and stronger. However, I was very brave, and I learned a lot because I wasnt cautious. Our team won the championship that year.
In my first year of high school, I was the student leader of my class. There were also two other leaders and we worked together. We were all decisive and organized, so we made a lot of good changes in the school. This experience gave me skills to be a confident politician in my country, Ecuador, when I grow up. I hope that my dream comes true someday. Now, can you guess who I am?
I (be) a student at _________. I want to be a _________ when I grow up because I like to _________ and _________. I think a _________is a good profession for me because I (be) very _________ and _________. However, sometimes I want to be a _________ because I want to _________. I think I would be a good _________ because I (be) ________, ________, and _______. When I (be) a child, I _________. In my first year of high school, I (be) _________. There (be) _________. We (be) _________. This experience gave me skills to be a _________ _________ when I grow up. I hope that my dream comes true someday. Now, can you guess who I am?
Born on 29 th, August 1958, this talented person started his entertainment career as the lead singer of a famous group. The band was made up of his brothers who were all older than him, and was run by his father Joseph. The group did very well and the star of the band was undoubtedly this person at only eleven years of age! He started singing solo two years later and pioneered the entry of African Americans into the world of pop music. Many different types of people around the world started following his creative music, which gave him instant success. His fans numbered in the millions even though he was just in his teens. Three of his albums became world records. The Guinness World of Records listed him as the entertainer who was the most successful and imaginative.
During his career he won 13 Grammies with singles that remained on the music charts for a very long time. This person's fame and fortune caused him to be the focus of billions of people and also led to his being followed by the paparazzi, the press, and the media constantly. Sadly, he was sensitive about his appearance and was not confident about his nose, which his father used to tease him about as a teen. This made him get surgery for his nose. This surgery was the first of many that he did throughout his life. His reasons for doing this are a mystery because he was born quite good-looking. In spite of the cosmetic changes that he did make to himself, this person kept being considered the greatest entertainer in the world.
However, he was always introverted and sometimes had a strange way of relating to people. His life took a sad turn when he was accused of child molestation. He was followed by the media who continued to obsess about the topic even though his innocence was proved. His image in public eyes was destroyed and even his devoted fans could not stop this damage to his reputation. His unique dancing, singing, and songwriting skills have led to many entertainers copying him. This person was a philanthropist and his charities have helped millions worldwide. His death is a huge loss to the entertainment industry and the entire world. He will always be remembered and will be in the hearts of his fans, forever. Who is he??
Questions: 1)Name at least one objective of the aforementioned supplemental activities. 2)Would you use these activities in your classroom? Why or why not? 3)How could you change these activities to make them more appropriate for your context? 4)What other topics could you use activities like this to teach? (please refer to one activity, like the mingling game)
Some suggestions: You dont have to reinvent the wheel! Use resources that others have made Make reusable materials and laminate
Some suggestions: Make students create and copy the images/graphic organizers themselves Write the language on the board, students copy it, then practice speaking it Draw images Act things out Contextualize, contextualize!
IF YOU HAVE NO TECHNOLOGY, use: Journaling- one notebook per year Art/drawing images Paper never hurt anybody! Body language and facial expressions go a long way
With your previous group members and notes, create one supplemental lesson plan based on a lesson in the textbook. Write the final version of the lesson plan on chart paper to present to your classmates. Be ready to justify your lesson and why you chose this particular activity. Be ready to demonstrate/act out the best part of this lesson (5 minutes total) to the whole group based on some strategies/ theories you learned today (a mini-lesson). Pretend we all are your students.
Please include the following components in your lesson plan: 1)TOPIC, LESSON DURATION, AGE GROUP, NUMBER OF STUDENTS 1)OBJECTIVES (what you want to students to know and do by the end of the lesson): Write S.W.B.A.T. (Students Will Be Able To) 2)PROCEDURE/STEPS (includes teacher and student activity) 3)TIMING (how long each activity will take) 4)ASSESSMENT/SUCCESS INDICATORS (student demonstration of actual learning) 5)MATERIALS (if any)
My website: www.peopleleap.comwww.peopleleap.com Go to Resources and Amys Professional Blog My email: firstname.lastname@example.org@peopleleap.com Shaping the Way We Teach English Website: http://oelp.uoregon.edu/shaping http://oelp.uoregon.edu/shaping American English Website: http://americanenglish.state.gov http://americanenglish.state.gov MOE Resources: http://educacion.gob.ec/documentos- pedagogicos/ http://educacion.gob.ec/documentos- pedagogicos/