5Section 1: Navigation Devices Primitive Navigation DevicesShadow Stick Sun CompassSurvival Needle CompassWhat you need:1 Needle1 Piece of cork or green leaf1 Puddle or cup of water1 MagnetHow to make the Compass:Stroke the needle in the same direction, using steady, even strokes. After 50 strokes, the needle will be magnetized.Stick the needle in the cork or place it on the leaf in the water. The magnetized end will point north.NOTE: It is possible to get confused on which way is North and South with this compass. Always check your East/West alignment with the sun to confirm.What you need:1 Tall stick (approximately 2 feet)2 Short sticks (approximately 6 inches)3 RocksHow to make the Compass:Find an open area that gets a good amount of sun.Insert the tall stick in the ground & place a rock at the tip of the shadow.Wait 15 minutes, and place the second rock at the tip of the shadow. Wait another 15 minutes, and place the third rock at the tip of the shadow.Using the short stick, align it against the rocks. This is your East- West line (East is the first rock you put down, West is the last rock)Use the second short stick to create a North-South line by placing across the East West line.
6Section 1: Navigation Devices Pros and Cons by TypeSurvival Needle & Shadow Stick Sun CompassesNot recommended for anything more than general cardinal directions.Orienteering CompassGood for working with maps, but not suited for overland navigation.Lensatic CompassBest for working with maps AND overland navigation.Global Positioning SystemThe most precise navigation device, but subject to solar, environmental, or human interference.Smartphone AppsDependent on cell network coverage, high battery drain on devices, needs Wi-Fi for accuracy.Liquid Filled CompassesLiquid filled compasses are best (less prone to small jittering). Needs extra protection from damage.Tritium & Life SpanTritium can be dangerous if your compass breaks, and eventually it will no longer glow without a “recharge” of bright concentrated lightWhile tritium has several different experimentally determined values of its half-life (National Institute of Standards and Technology) lists 4,500±8 days (approximately years)
7Section 1: Navigation Devices Securing Your Navigation DeviceTie down your device using a Bowline knotCut a length of cord approximately 3 feet longTie Bowline knots on both ends of the cordSecure one end to your device by feeding the line through the loopSecure the other end to your belt by feeding the line through the loopSecuring your device to a pouchTie a Bowline knot in one end of the cordRun the untied end through the drain hole of the pouchOn the other side of the drain hole, knot the cord several times with basic knots & pull tightRemember the Bowline:The “rabbit” methodThe rabbit comes out of the holeThe rabbit goes around the treeThe rabbit returns to his holeYouTube Bowline Demonstrationhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9NqGd7464U
8Section 1:Navigation Devices Lensatic Compass Tune UpPaint Sighting Wire and Scale with a white paint marker for better visibility5 minute maintenance to improve your Lensatic compass (non-liquid type)
10Section 2: Map Basics How OLD is your map? Weather Protection Weather, time, and human interference will reduce accuracyWeather ProtectionDIY options for water RESISTANCEProfessional lamination is best, but will be expensive depending on map sizeWaterproof map storage options https://www.google.com/#q=waterproof+map+storageUnderstanding Map ScaleMap scales in common use for topographic maps are 1:62,500 (15 minute quadrangle), 1:100,000 (one degree sheet) and 1: 250,000 (2° sheet)The smaller the ratio is between distances on the map and distances in the real world, the smaller the scale of the map is said to be. In other words, a map with a scale of 1:250,000 is a smaller scale map than a 1:24,000 scale map, but it covers a larger real-world area.
11Section 2: Map Basics Reading a Topographic Map Lines indicate elevation on a topographic map (see the map scale for actual height).The closer the lines, the steeper the elevation between them.The farther apart the lines are, the calmer the elevation between them.Orienting your Map with a CompassPlace the compass on the map, aligning the scale to the North/South line of the map.Rotate both the map and compass until the needle indicates North.Using the scale as a straightedge, align the compass from your current location to your intended destination to determine the azimuth in degrees.
12Section 2: Map Basics Declination: True North vs. Magnetic North Declination is the difference in degrees between True North and Magnetic NorthGo to the NOAA Website:Interpreting the Information:The declination factor is shown in the highlight.How to Interpret the Graphic and Data:The graphic shows that the declination is 14 degrees West (the Magnetic North compass rose is angled to the left of the imaginary North/South line of the map [True North is straight up on the map]).This means we need to ADD 14 degrees to Magnetic North to achieve True North when navigating.Magnetic Declination changes over time!!Confirm it at least once per year.NOTE: If the MN graphic was inclined 14 degrees to the right, we would then subtract our declination factor.Select your Map Area:Enter the desired Zip Code in the “Search” box and click the “Get Location” buttonCalculate the Declination:The Latitude and Longitude fields will now populate. Select “HTML” in the Result section , then click the “Calculate button.Use the “PDF” option if you wish to print the graphic.
13Section 2: Map Basics Using the USGS Website to Download Topo Maps Go to the Website:Select your Map Area:Enter the desired Zip Code in the “Search” box and click the “Go” buttonDownload the Map:Select the version desired (be aware of the file’s “size” and “date” information, then click the file size under then “Download” icon to download the map. The map will be compressed (zipped).Activate Map Options:Left click on the map’s red markerPrinting the Map:These are full size digital images, so they won’t fit on one normal 8.5” x 11” page. It is recommended that you take the file to a printing supply store (Kinkos, OfficeMax, etc) for printing.
15Section 3: Basic Land Navigation Shooting an AzimuthOrient your map and determine your direction of travel azimuth in degrees.Placing your thumb in the thumb loop, hold the compass as shown in fig 1.Turn your body to align the compass to your direction of travel azimuth (fig 2).Look through the Sighting Slot and Sighting Wire to find a visible landmark along your azimuth (fig 3).Be aware of metal interference to the compass!Gear, clothing, hats, etc.
16Section 3: Basic Land Navigation Navigation MethodsDead Reckoning (straight line to destination)Terrain Association (navigation based on matching terrain features within sight to a map)Terrain Analysis of your RouteWhat is in the way between you and the destination?Which is the smartest way?Time, Terrain, Weather, Human Factors
17Section 3: Basic Land Navigation Measuring Distance on FootDetermining you Pace CountFind a level 100 yard (300 foot) course, like high school football field. Bring a notebook and pen.1. Normal Cadence:Walk from one goal post to the other at a normal pace, counting how many times your left foot hits the ground. Record the number.2. Fast Cadence:Walk from one goalpost to the other at a fast pace, counting how many times your left foot hits the ground. Record the number.3. Slow Cadence:Walk from one goalpost to the other at a half-step pace, counting how many times your left foot hits the ground. Record the number.By doing this three times at different paces, you can get a rough idea of how far you are moving on normal (flat) terrain, fast (paved) terrain, and slow (rough or uphill) terrain.Calculate your pace by dividing the length of your course by the amount of paces it took to travel it. So if your course was 300 feet and you counted 50 paces, then that equals a 6 foot pace.Remember, your pace count will change depending on your terrain! Using this methodology will give you a better idea of how far you have walked.Pace CordPace-counting beads are a great way to measure distances travelled by foot. A set of ranger beads is merely a lanyard with two sets of beads; the bottom section has nine and the top section has five. The beads are moved at various distances to count your total distance walked.For every 100 meters the user walks, one of the lower beads are pulled down. When the ninth of the lower beads are pulled, the user has walked 900 meters. The next time the user has walked 100 more meters, one of the upper beads are pulled down, and all the lower beads are pulled back up.
19Section 4: Advanced Land Navigation IntersectionIntersection is the location of an unknown point on a mapResectionResection is how to determine your location on the map from two or more known pointsModified ResectionModified resection is the method of locating your position on the map while walking on/near a known linear ground feature, such as a road, canal, or stream(all three methods in one video)
20Section 4a: Intersection Intersection is used to locate a visible but unplotted location on a mapShoot an Azimuth to the Unknown Location [?] from a Known Point [KP1] on the mapRecord the AzimuthConvert the Azimuth to Grid North by adding or subtracting the declinationMove to a second Known Point [KP2] on the mapRepeat steps 2 and 3 abovePlot the intersection on the map. This is the Unknown Location’s position on the map.SCENARIO:We need to determine the exact location of an encampment of strangers near our land on the map. We can see them from two observation points and will work together to plot their position on the map.
21Section 4a: Intersection Intersection DemonstrationNote: Please view in Slideshow Mode for click animationClick 1:KP1 Azimuth to ? = 340° MagneticAdd Declination Factor (14°)? is 354° Grid Azimuth from KP1Click 2:KP2 Azimuth to ? = 300° Magnetic? is 314° Grid Azimuth from KP2Click 3:Draw lines on map using solutions above to determine location of ?GRIDNOTHKP2KP1
22Section 4b: Resection Resection SCENARIO: Resection is how to determine your location on the map from two or more known pointsShoot an Azimuth to the first known point on the mapRecord the AzimuthConvert the Azimuth to Grid North by adding or subtracting the declinationAdd 180° to convert to azimuth to a BACK azimuthShoot an Azimuth to the second known point on the mapRepeat steps 2, 3, and 4 abovePlot the intersection on the map. This is your current location.SCENARIO:We need to check our position on the map to confirm our terrain association and pace count.We can see two distinct landmarks and will use them to plot our correct position on the map.
23Resection Demonstration Section 4b: ResectionResection DemonstrationNote: Please view in Slideshow Mode for click animationClick 1:Azimuth to KP1 = 160° MagneticAdd Declination Factor (14°)=174°Add 180° to create Back Azimuth354° from KP1Click 2:Azimuth to KP2 = 110° MagneticAdd Declination Factor (14°)=124°304° from KP2Click 3:Draw lines on map using solutions above to determine YOUR locationYOUGRIDNOTHKP2KP1
24Section 4c: Modified Resection Modified resection is the method of locating your position on the map when you are located on a linear feature on the ground, such as a road, canal, or streamShoot an Azimuth to a known terrain featureRecord the AzimuthConvert the Azimuth to Grid North by adding or subtracting the declinationAdd 180° to convert to azimuth to a BACK azimuthPlot the intersection on the map. This is your current location.SCENARIO:We are walking along Flanders Road and need to check our position on the map.
25Section 4c: Modified Resection Modified Resection DemonstrationNote: Please view in Slideshow Mode for click animationAzimuth to Old Church = 320° MagneticAdd Declination Factor (14°) = 334°Add 180° to create Back Azimuth = 514°Since there are only 360° in a circle, we need to subtract 360° from 514°!We are 154° from Old ChurchDraw lines on map using solutions above to determine YOUR locationClick 1Click 2GRIDNOTHOld ChurchYOU
26Calculation Cheat Sheet ??IntersectionLocate a visible but unplotted locationResectionDetermine your location on the mapModified ResectionDetermine your location while on a liner terrain feature1st Azimuth to Target:______+/- Local Declination:______Grid Azimuth to Target:____2nd Azimuth to Target:_____Grid Azimuth to Target:_____Orient map and mark GridAzimuths to intersect on the map.Azimuth to Known Point 1:______+/- Local Declination:______Minus 180° for Back AzimuthGrid Azimuth from KP1:_____Grid Azimuth more than 360°? Subtract 360°.Azimuth to Known Point 2:______Grid Azimuth from KP2:____Orient map and mark GridAzimuths to intersect on the map.Azimuth to Target:______+/- Local Declination:______Minus 180° for Back AzimuthGrid Azimuth from Target:____Grid Azimuth more than 360°? Subtract 360°.Orient map and mark Grid Azimuth to intersect the liner terrain feature.
27Closing TakeawaysCompass navigation is rudimentary compared to GPS. EXPECT it to be inaccurate compared to your experience with GPS!ALWAYS take the time to orient yourself to the terrain BEFORE you begin your navigation movement. Know where major terrain features should be in relation to your own body.All compasses are affected by metal. Hold them away from your body and don’t take readings from them near metal objects.The longer the distance that you navigate, the more pronounced minor errors will be in finding a precise destination.Keep checking your progress every hour through Resection or Modified Resection.Keeping a pace count is HARD! Make sure you focus your mind on the task and don’t allow it to wander.MAKE SURE YOU PROTECT YOUR MAPS AND YOUR COMPASS!!!!