# Presenter: Stacy Chang, NBCT PowerPoint created by AMSTI trainers Revised by Stacy Chang 4 th Grade Inquiry-Based Science Module Physics.

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Presenter: Stacy Chang, NBCT changsl@uab.edu PowerPoint created by AMSTI trainers Revised by Stacy Chang 4 th Grade Inquiry-Based Science Module Physics of Sound

2. What is the most unusual thing you heard this morning? 1. How many sounds did you list?

The Learning Cycle The 5 Es of an inquiry-based lesson Initiate ApplyClarify Question Evaluate

Science Notebook Components Question/Problem/Purpose Hypothesis Procedure/Planning Results/Data/Observations Conclusion/What Have You Learned? Next Step/New Question

COURSE OF STUDY OBJECTIVES 2.Compare different pitches of sound produced by changing the size, tension, amount, or type of vibrating material. Investigation 2: Parts 1-3 Investigation 3: Parts 1-3 Investigation 4: Parts 1-2 Describing the relationship between the structure of the ear and hearing Investigation 1 Your Sound Source Science Story

Notebook Entry Sound KWL Question: What do you know/ wonder about sound? KWL

INVESTIGATION 1: DROPPING IN Part 1: Drop Challenge Part 2: Drop Codes Part 3: Sound and Vibrations

Investigation 1 / Part 1 Drop Challenge

Object Drop Close your eyes and listen to the sound made the object. List words that describe the sound made by the object. Introduce the term- properties.

Notebook Entry Drop Challenge Question: What sounds will I hear when dropping each object into the sound chamber? Teacher will drop objects into the drop chamber one at a time. Make a prediction of the properties of each sound. Record actual properties. Chart: Sounds of Objects ObjectHypothesisActual paper cup cardboard Foil

Introduce term: sound discrimination Play Drop Challenge Game (TG p. 12 – 13) Conclusion/ Reflection: (*Content Inquiry Questions/Answers p. 15/Inv. 1 TG) Objects can be identified by their properties, including the sounds they make. Some properties of sound are loud, soft, high, low, scratchy, and ringing. Next Step/New Questions:

SCIENCE STORY Seeing the World through Sound Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 2 & 3 under Science Stories.

Investigation 1 / Part 2 Drop Codes

NB Entry Information from Sound Question: What are some ways that people can get information from sound? Compare two familiar sounds (recess bell/fire alarm). Discuss/ write: 1.What does each tell us? 2.How can you tell the sounds apart? 3.What other sounds are used to give us information? List. (Option- Contest)

Notebook Entry Drop Codes Question: How can we use the drop objects and drop chamber to develop a code that can be used for communicating? Hypothesis: Write/ Discuss. Plan/Observations: Sorting Mat (whole group demonstration) ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sorting Map (Student Sheet 2) Use sound discrimination to determine the secret word! popsicle stick metal washer foil plastic spoon paper cup cardboard plastic chip clothespin Option: Make copies and laminate for future use. Use dry-erase markers to write on.

Sorting Map (Student Sheet 2) Use sound discrimination to determine the secret word! popsicle stick metal washer foil plastic spoon paper cup cardboard plastic chip clothespin Option: Make copies and laminate for future use. Use dry-erase markers to write on. H H M M I I A A P P N N C C O O

Create your own code! Work with your partner to create a code using the drop objects. Assign a letter to each of the objects. (All letters/objects do not have to be used.) Show your code (Sorting Mat) to your teammates. Drop each object into the drop chamber. Have your other teammates determine your secret word using sound discrimination!

Continued Conclusion/ Reflection: (Drop Code Content Inquiry Question p. 20/Inv. 1 TG) Sounds can convey information to human in codes, warning signals, and music. Voc: code Next Step/ New Questions

Response Sheet- Dropping In Student Sheet 3 (Assessment)

Listening For Sound Activity Have students close their eyes and listen to their surroundings. Record observations. ClassroomOutside Vocabulary – vibration, sound source, sound receiver, volume

SCIENCE STORY Listen To This Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 4 & 5 under Science Stories.

Investigation 1 / Part 3 Sound and Vibrations

Question: How are sounds made? Hypothesis: Plan/ Observations: Student Sheet 4 (The Tuning Fork) Materials: 1 tuning fork 1 cup of water Paper Towels 1 ping-pong ball on a thread

Sound and Vibrations Student Sheet 5 (The Long Gong) Observe and write about the door fiddle and tone generator. Door Fiddle Tone Generator

Conclusion (Content Inquiry TG p. 29) All sounds come from a source that is vibrating. Sound sources are things that are vibrating and making a sound, like a whistle, teakettle, or voice. Anything that detects vibrations is a sound receiver (ear, microphone, telephone receiver)

SCIENCE STORY Animal Babble Your Source and Receiver Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 6 & 7 under Science Stories.

Ear Diagram Paste ear diagram in NB. Discuss parts/ function and label. Extensions: Brainpop.com, Bill Nyes DVDs, Promethean Planet

Ear Diagram Paste ear diagram in NB. Discuss parts/ function and label. Extensions: Brainpop.com, Bill Nyes DVDs, Promethean Planet

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXTENSIONS Language Extension - Explore Onomatopoetic Writing – p. 31 TG Have students select one of the writing prompts to illustrate and complete. Prompt 1 – When I hear the rain go pitter-patter, it makes me think of… Prompt 2 – The drum roll of thunder causes me to feel … *Allow students to make up their own writing prompt if they would like.

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXTENSIONS Math Extensions – Listed on TG 29 Math Extension Problem of the Week Dropping In – Student Sheet 29 (Have students complete and paste in NB) Science Extension –Listed on TG 32

Home/ School Connection Student Sheet 33

INVESTIGATION 2: GOOD VIBRATIONS Part 1: Vibration and Pitch Part 2: Length and Pitch Part 3: Tension and Pitch

Investigation 2 / Part 1 Vibration and Pitch

Question: How are high and low sounds made? Review voc/ concepts learned so far. Voice Activity Tongue Depressor Activity: Describe and write about how high and low sounds are made. Revisit the Door Fiddle and Tone Generator. Compare and contrast instruments. Describe and write about how high and low sounds are made.

Conclusion : (Content Inquiry Question TG p. 12/Inv. 2) Fast vibrations produce high-pitched sounds. Slow vibrations produce low-pitched sounds. How fast or slow something is moving is called the frequency of the vibration. Voc: pitch, frequency, volume continued

Sound Waves Low volume High pitch High volume High pitch Low volumeHigh volume Low pitch

Slinky Sound Waves Demonstration or Bill Nyes DVD Sheet in White AMSTI binder

SCIENCE STORY Highs and Lows Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 8 & 9 under Science Stories.

Investigation 2 / Part 2 Length and Pitch

Question: What causes an instrument to create high or low pitches? Hypothesis: Plan/ Observations: Student Sheets 6-9 (Can be completed as centers or individual mini-activities.)

Length and Pitch The Waterphone (Student Sheet 6) Materials: 5 bottles with water filled in different levels, 1 mallet

Length and Pitch The Xylophone (Student Sheet 7) Materials: 5 xylophone tubes 1 foam piece 1 mallet

Length and Pitch The Kalimba (Student Sheet 8) Materials: 5 steel springs 1 kalimba base 2 craft sticks

Length and Pitch The String Beam (Student Sheet 9) Materials: 1 string beam

Length and Pitch Conclusion/ Reflection: Content Inquiry Answers p. 19/Inv. 2 TG A long object has a low pitch and vibrates slowly. A short object has a high pitch and vibrates quickly. Highlight Vocabulary – kalimba, xylophone

SCIENCE STORY Making Waves Sound Off Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 10 & 11 under Science Stories.

Response Sheet: Good Vibrations Student Sheet 10 (Assessment)

Investigation 2 / Part 3 Tension and Pitch

Question: What is tension? How does tension affect pitch? Hypothesis: Plan/ Observations: Minigutbucket (Student Sheet 11) Foss-Ulele (Student Sheet 12)

Tension and Pitch Conclusion: Content Inquiry p. 24/Inv. 2 TG Tension is force applied to an object trying to pull it apart. The greater the tension on a sound source, the higher the pitch. Vocabulary – tension

Response Sheet SCIENCE STORY Scoping Out Sound Complete Good Vibrations Response Sheet (Student Sheet 10) Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Page 21 Orally discuss story. Story Background in TE on pp. 12 & 13 under Science Stories.

Response Sheet : Good Vibrations Complete Good Vibrations Response Sheet (Student Sheet 10)

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXTENSIONS Language Extensions Math Extension Problem of the Week – Good Vibrations Student Sheet #30 Music Extensions Science Extensions Home/ School Connection Student Sheet 34

INVESTIGATION 3: How Sound Travels Part 1, Sounds through Air and Water Part 2, Sounds through Solids

Investigation 3 / Part 1 Sounds through Air and Water

Question: How is sound different when heard through air than when heard through water? Hypothesis: I believe …

Investigation 3 Activities Sound Through Air (Student Sheet #13) Materials: 1 tuning fork 3 tubes 1 block

Investigation 3 Activities Sound Through Water (Student Sheet #14) Materials: 1 basin of water 2 stethoscopes paper towels alcohol and cotton balls

Continued Response Sheet Student Sheet 15 Conclusion/ Reflection: (Content Inquiry p. 14) Sound can travel through water. Sounds are louder and clearer when they travel through water. (Then, why cant you understand people when youre under the water?) Vocabulary – stethoscope, amplify, megaphone

Amplification Challenge Discuss ways to amplify sound of tone generator when played softly. *Show students the megaphone and tone generator. Orally ask them to explain how the megaphone can be used to amplify sound in the room?

SCIENCE STORY Moving Along Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TE on pp. 8 & 9 under Science Stories.

Investigation 3 / Part 2 Sounds through Solids

Investigation 3 Activities Sounds Through Solids: Wood (Student Sheet 16) Materials: 2 wood dowels tissue tape Sounds Through Solids: String (Student Sheet 17) Materials: 2 string telephones

Sounds through Solids Question: Does sound travel through solid materials? What must sound have in order to be heard? Plan/ Observations: Student Sheet 16 & 17 Conclusion: Add Content Inquiry p. 19/Inv. 3 TG Sound travels effectively through solids like wood and string. Sound must have a source, a receiver, and a medium to travel through (solid, liquid, or gas).

SCIENCE STORY Bouncing Back Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TE on pp. 16 & 17 under Science Stories.

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXTENSIONS Language Extensions Math Extensions – Problem of the Week – How Sound Travels (Student Sheet 31) Art Extensions Science Extensions Have students explore, reflect, and illustrate the new instruments. (Instructions pp. 22 & 23/Inv. 3 TE) Garden-Hose Listening String Telephone Air Cannon

INVESTIGATION 4: Sound Challenges Part 1, Sound Challenges Part 2, Choosing Your Own Investigation

Investigation 4 / Part 1 Sound Challenges

Set up all challenge stations and have students explore each challenge activity with their group. Remind them that their group will have to present one of the challenges to the class. Challenges: The Foss-Ulele Challenge (Student Sheet # 18) The Kalimba Challenge (Student Sheet #19) The Long-Gong Challenge (Student Sheet #20) The Minigutbucket Challenge (Student Sheet #21) The String-Beam Challenge (Student Sheet #22) The Tuning-Fork Challenge (Student Sheet #23) The Waterphone and Xylophone Challenge (Student Sheet #24) The Whisper Challenge (Student Sheet #25)

Challenge Presentations Have students follow the following guidelines for their presentations. Read your challenge out loud. Demonstrate your best solution. Describe how the sound travels from the sound source to each receiver or how you change the pitch of your instrument. Describe or demonstrate other solutions you tried.

SCIENCE STORY Lights! Camera! Action! Grandmothers Hearing Test Review all vocabulary terms. Review all Content Inquiry Questions and Answers. Have students read story individually or with a partner, and briefly summarize what they read and learned from this reading selection. Orally discuss story. Story Background in TG on pp. 18 & 19 under Science Stories.

Investigation 4 / Part 2 Choosing Your Own Investigation

Go over the Project Ideas found on Student Sheet #26 under Investigation Duplication Masters. Hand out the Project Proposal Student Sheet #27 for students to complete. Hand out the Presentation Guidelines found on Student Sheet #28. Have students present their 3 minute presentation.

Instrument Reflection (At Home Project) Have students create a unique musical instrument and present it to the class. Illustration Reflect on why you chose this instrument, and what you learned from creating this instrument.

INTERDISCIPLINARY EXTENSIONS Language Extensions Math Extensions Problem of the Week – Sound Challenges (Student Sheet #32) Social Studies Extensions Science Extensions – Activity Make Animal Quackers p. 23/Inv. 4 TG

Physics of Sound Unit Summary Have students reflect on what they learned from this unit and how it relates to the real world. Also, have them list their favorite and least favorite activities. Post Unit Assessment (Assessment Duplication Masters Section of TG)

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