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WORLD WAR II BALLOON ATTACK ON NORTH AMERICA Michael E. Unsworth Michigan State University Libraries.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II BALLOON ATTACK ON NORTH AMERICA Michael E. Unsworth Michigan State University Libraries."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II BALLOON ATTACK ON NORTH AMERICA Michael E. Unsworth Michigan State University Libraries

2 REVENGE FOR THE DOOLITTLE RAID (APRIL 18 42)

3 DEFEAT AT MIDWAY (JUNE 3-4, 1942) COMPLICATED PLANNING

4 JAPANS POST-MIDWAY STRATEGIC SITUATION

5 I-15 CLASS SUBMARINE LAUNCHING YOKOSUKA E14Y1 ("Glen) FLOATPLANE

6 RESEARCHERS OF THE NINETH MILITARY TECHNICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AT NOBORITO

7 THE FU-GO WEAPON FU" is the thirty- second character in the Japanese syllabary (alphabet). "GO" was the Japanese equivalent for "Number "FU-GO" was Weapon No. 32 of the Japanese Military Scientific Laboratory. "FU" also happens the first part of "FUSEN", the Japanese word for balloon.

8 TOP: TYPICAL FLIGHT PROFILE BOTTOM: TYPICAL JET STREAM IN WINTER

9 A-TYPE PAPER FU-GO

10 Gas Release Valve & Envelope From North Dorr, Michigan, Incident (March 45)

11 A-TYPE FU-GO CHANDELIER

12 U.S. NAVAL AVIATORS EXAMINING CHANDELIER

13 CHANDELIER, BOMBS & SANDBAG FROM BOUNDARY BAY, B.C. INCIDENT (APRIL '45)

14 CHANDELIER RELEASING SANDBAG

15 NEW YORK TIMES (MARCH 17, 1995)

16 PAPER MAKING

17

18 ROOM OF FINISHED SHEETS

19 GLUING SHEETS TO FORM LAMINATE PANELS

20 TEST INFLATION OF FU-GO ENVELOPE

21 LAUNCH CREW MANHANDLING TEST BALLOON

22 LAUNCH SITE WITH THREE PADS IN OPERATION

23 FU-GO AIRBORNE AFTER LAUNCH

24 FU-GO OVER THE PACIFIC

25 BATTERY BOX

26 ENVELOPE IN THE PACIFIC (APRIL 17, 45)

27 Japanese Balloon Incidents Prepared By CAORG From Canadian And U.S. Reports, 26 April 1945

28 MEXICAN RECOVERY (MARCH 1945)

29 35 m. N.W. of Whitehorse (Aug. 15 or 16, 45)

30 NORTH DORR, MICHIGAN (MARCH 45)

31 COUNTERMEASURES: Responsibilities North American defense – Canada & U.S. had control of their own territories. Full information sharing U.S.: Military – Navy over water; Army over land Civilian – F.B.I.

32 COUNTERMEASURES: Detection: Sunset Project (Spring 45)

33 COUNTERMEASURES: Interception: Sumas, Wash. (Feb )

34 COUNTERMEASURES: Interception: Coal Harbour, B.C. (Mar )

35

36

37 COUNTERMEASURES: Investigations - Newcastle, Wyoming (Feb. 8, 45)

38 INVESTIGATIONS : Nixon, Nevada (Mar. 29, 45)

39 INVESTIGATIONS : Glacier National Park, Mont. (July 27, 45)

40 INVESTIGATIONS : Oxford House, Manitoba (Mar. 12, 45)

41 FOREST FIRE THREAT: WHITEWATER, B.C. CHANDELIER (MAY 31, 1945)

42 INCENDIARIES

43 FOREST FIRE THREAT Majority of Discovered Balloons Had Incendiaries Most of the Western U.S. & Canada Was Forested Fire Danger for Jan.-Mar. Was Nonexistent April - September Was the Most Dangerous Period Prevailing Summer Winds Might Bring More Balloons to Canada Than to the U.S. Japanese Development of a Phosphorus- treated Cardboard Squares (Incendiary Leaves) Posed a Particular Danger

44 COUNTERMEASURE: FIRE FLY PROJECT

45 FIRE FLY PROJECT: 555 TH Parachute Infantry Battalion

46 ACTUAL FOREST FIRE DAMAGE CAUSED BY BALLOONS: None. The Japanese ceased launching balloons in early April 1945

47 THE CHEMICAL WARFARE/BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (CW/BW) THREAT

48 MOST LIKELY AGENTS: HUMAN MALADIES B-Encephalitis Rift Valley Fever Meliodosis Bacilli Rickettsia Diseases Cholera Salmonella Typhoid Dysentery Psittacosis Brucellosis Plague Variola Chemical Agents

49 MOST LIKELY AGENTS: ANIMAL MALADIES Rinderpest Foot-and-Mouth Disease Contagious Pleural Pneumonia Fowl Plague Newcastles Disease Chemical Agents

50 Decontamination Practise

51 THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE BALLOONS CARRIED CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

52 CENSORSHIP Imposed on the U.S. and Canadian media in early January 1945 Aggressively enforced by authorities Reached even this comic strip Smilin' Jack New York Sunday News (Aug. 5, 45)

53 SECURITY BLANKET STARTED TO UNRAVEL ON MAY 5, 1945: A WOMAN AND FIVE CHILDREN WERE KILLED NEAR BLY, OREGON

54 ONE OF THE BIGGEST SECURITY BREACHES : TORONTO DAILY STAR. HOME EDITION MAY 31, 1945

55 CENSORSHIP WAS THE MOST EFFECTIVE COUNTERMEASURE: THE JAPANESE STOPPED THE BALLOON ATTACK IN APRIL 1945 DUE TO THE LACK OF FEEDBACK

56 HANFORD, WASHINGTON, INCIDENT MARCH 10, 45

57 JAPANESE BALLOONS REPORTED DURING WW II COUNTRY NUMBER Canada78 United States 200 Mexico 2 At sea 5 TOTAL 285

58 U.S. BALLOONS REPORTED DURING WW II Oregon 40 Nebraska 5 Montana 32 Colorado 3 Washington 25 Iowa 3 Alaska 24 Texas 3 California 22 Arizona 2 Idaho 8 Michigan 2 S. Dakota 8 N. Dakota 2 Wyoming 8 Hawaii 1 Nevada 6 Kansas 1

59 MICHIGAN BALLOON INCIDENTS

60 NORTH DORR/BYRON CENTER: February 23 '45

61 Property of Chris Stein: Intersection of 146 Avenue and 21st Street

62 ROPE FROM BALLOON

63 Fein Family Farm House

64 RECOVERED ENVELOPE & GAS RELEASE VALVE

65 ROPE & HOOKS

66 Don Piccards Balloon Recycling Feb. 16, 47 - Minneapolis

67 FARMINGTON: Mar. 25/June 8 45

68 FARMINGTON: Gill Road

69

70 INCENDIARIES

71 WHY YOU HAVENT HEARD ABOUT IT: COMPETED WITH V-J DAY STORIES

72 WHY YOU HAVENT HEARD ABOUT IT: FEW CASUALTIES SAME PRINCIPLES USED FOR COLD WAR U.S. SPY AND ANTI-CROP WARFARE BALLOONS

73 FU-GO IN LITERATURE: Liam Callanan. The Cloud Atlas New York : Delacorte Press, c2004.

74 POSTSCRIPT: AL-QAEDA USE?

75 ***END***

76


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