Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

16 Roof Designs Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Identify and sketch 12 different.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "16 Roof Designs Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Identify and sketch 12 different."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 16 Roof Designs Chapter

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Identify and sketch 12 different types of basic roof designs. Draw a roof that has a typical roof slope (pitch). Describe the construction of a typical frame roof. Explain the importance of proper attic ventilation and roof flashing. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of new roofing materials. Explain the purpose of a roof plan.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Roofs The roof greatly affects the overall appearance of a house Many standard styles Style should complement the basic design

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gable Roof Triangular with a gable at both ends Easy to build and sheds water well Applicable to most house designs

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Winged Gable Roof Attractive design feature Gable roof, extended at the peak Requires lookout rafters

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hip Roof Sloped roof section or hip at ends Slightly more difficult to build than gable roof Does not provide for ventilation as well as others

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Dutch Hip Roof Hip roof with a small gable at either end Steeper gables than hips Gables can be used for ventilation

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Flat Roof Most economical to build Requires built-up or membrane roof covering Popular in warm climates

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Shed Roof More pitch than flat roof Used for additions or with other roof styles Less than 3:12 pitch requires a built-up roof

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gambrel Roof Also known as barn roof Two different slopes Provides additional headroom

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mansard Roof French design Provides additional living space Difficult to build

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A-Frame Roof Provides roof and walls for structure Pitch allows for smaller second floor Popular for cottages, homes, churches

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Butterfly, Folded Plate, and Curved Panel Roofs Limited residential construction Used in commercial construction Can cause drainage problems

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Contemporary Roof Types Warped roof: Limitless in design –Common shape is hyperbolic paraboloid –Made from concrete, plywood, or plastic –Expensive to build Free-form roof: Freedom with design –Any shape can be formed with fabric and frame –Strong and weather resistant –Limited residential use

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Architecture Living Roofs: Covered with soil, capable of growing plants Benefits: –Used for growing food –Provides excellent insulation –Reduces storm water run-off –Creates habitat for wildlife –May lower air temperatures in large cities Green

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Traditional Frame Roof Construction Before designing a roof: –Consider the features of traditional frame roof construction –Understand the features impact on the design

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Rafter: Structural element of the roof that supports the sheathing –Common rafters lay perpendicular to wall plate –Rafters extend from roofs ridge to plate or beyond –Several types

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Rafters are cut to proper lengths by locating ridge cut, seat cut, plumb cut, and tail cut

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Layout of rafter cuts are determined by: –Roof slope (roof pitch) –Clear span Additional factors: –Rise –Run

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Roof slope (roof pitch) is slant of roof Shown on drawing as: – Slope ratio diagram – Fractional pitch

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Slope diagram –Indicated by triangle –Shows ratio between rise and run of roof –Run is always expressed as 12 units Fractional pitch is rise/clear span –Pitch = Rise/Clear Span

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Rafter sizes depend on: –Spanned distance –Rafter spacing –Supported weight

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rafters Rafters may serve as ceiling joists on low-sloped roofs

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cornice Cornice: Roofs overhang at the eave line that forms connection between roof and side walls Three types used in residential construction: –Open cornice –Box cornice –Close cornice

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Open Cornice Used with exposed-beam construction, contemporary, or rustic designs Rafter ends: –Exposed –Tapered or curved

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Box Cornice Space between the ends of projecting rafters and wall is enclosed with a soffit board Three basic types: –Narrow box –Wide box with lookouts –Wide box without lookouts

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Wide Box Cornice With Lookouts

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Close Cornice Rafter does not project beyond wall Roof is terminated by frieze board and molding

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rake or Gable End Gable end (rake): Extension of gable roof beyond exterior walls of house –Proportions should be similar to cornice –Special framing is used for wide overhang –Close rake is least expensive to build

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rake or Gable End Framing for gable end with wide overhang

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Trusses Roof truss –Assembly of members that form rigid framework that supports roof Information needed to purchase a truss: –Roof span –Roof pitch –Truss spacing –Roof load

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Trusses Adequate roof load is 40 pounds per sq. ft. Lightweight wood trusses can span distances of 20' to 32' Typical residential trusses are 2 4 or 2 6 lumber Gussets fasten members of wood truss together

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Trusses Prefabricated trusses –Less expensive than conventional framing –Available in standard widths and pitches Common wood trusses: –W-type truss –King-post or K-post truss –Scissors truss

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. W-Type Truss

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. K-Post Truss

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Scissors Truss Scissors truss

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Raised Heel Truss When bottom chord of truss extends beyond exterior wall Provides space for additional insulation

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ventilation Attic ventilation is a necessity –Reduces moisture condensation under sheathing –Helps cool house interior Screened openings or ventilators provide attic ventilation –Ventilator openings should be at least 1/300th of ceiling area

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ventilation Types of ventilators –Gable ends and underside of overhang –Ridge and soffit ventilator

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Flashing Flashing repels water from areas of potential leakage –Used where roof contacts a wall, chimney, roof valley, or at any roof penetration Placement is beneath surface material per specifications

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Flashing May be weather-resistant metal –Aluminum, copper, galvanized sheet metal Roof valley flashing can be metal or two layers of 90# roll-type roofing Metal drip edge flashing –Prevents water from entering behind shingles –Protects fascia and rake boards

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chimney Flashing Composed of shingle flashing and counterflashing

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gutters and Downspouts Gutter –Collects water from roof and directs it to downspout that diverts it away from house –Prevents water from running directly off eaves and splattering house –Pitched 1" to 1.5" per 20' –Available in several styles and materials

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Sheathing and Roofing Roof sheathing supports roofing material –Generally plywood or other approved panel product –Thickness depends on rafter spacing –1/2" sheathing-grade plywood is used when rafters are 16"OC

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. New Roofing Materials Asphalt laminate shingles Metal roofing

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Asphalt Laminate Shingles Thicker, heavier, and more wind resistant than traditional asphalt shingles Appear three-dimensional

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roofing Materials Metal roofing: –Gaining wider acceptance for residential construction –Resists high winds – Simulates other roofing materials

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Plan Roof planTop view plan that shows information needed to construct roof –Shape –Roof pitch –Size and location of framing –Size and location of roof vents

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roof Plan Roof framing plan shows: –Exterior house walls –Exterior roof lines –Size and location of all roof framing members –Any additional information needed for roof construction

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Employability Computer ethics –Unethical to use computer for personal activities without permission –Unethical to access confidential information, download copyrighted material, or harass others –Many organizations monitor computer users


Download ppt "16 Roof Designs Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Identify and sketch 12 different."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google