2Teacher InstructionsCopy 1-per student WORKSHEET: Enlightenment PhilosophersCopy 3 each: PLACARDS. Laminate PLACARDS if possiblePost PLACARDS evenly-spaced apart around room.Begin Power Point Presentation and have the students follow directions.NOTE: You may prefer to have students get into groups of 4 and have them rotate the placards.Time = 45 minutes
3Pair-Share What was the enlightenment? What enlightenment philosophers contributed ideas to our form of government today and what were their ideas?
4What was the Enlightenment? An intellectual movement; thinkers used reason and the scientific method to help them understand their world especially in governmentThey said that God did not give people the right to ruleInstead, the right to rule came from the people.
5StandardsCA 12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of American democracy as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and other essential documents of American democracy.1. Analyze the influence of ancient Greek, Roman, English, and leading European political thinkers such as John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Niccolò Machiavelli, and William Blackstone on the development of American government.
6ObjectiveStudents will be able explain the contributions of Enlightenment philosophers to democracy by completing a gallery walk.
9Gallery WalkSTEP 1: Walk around the room and read the placards on the wall that describe the ideas of the important Enlightenment philosophers.STEP 2: Complete the corresponding WORKSHEET: Gallery Walk – The Enlightenment Philosophers.STEP 3: When you have finished, complete the wrap-up question on your worksheet.
10Review QuestionWhich idea do you think was the most important to the development of Democracy and why? Be ready to share your answers with the class.
11Review Game “Guess the Philosopher” Directions: Read the excerpt and guess which philosopher had the most influence over it’s ideas.
12John LockeWhen in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.The Declaration of Independence
13BecarriaNo person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.The U.S. Constitution: Amendment V:
14No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States… MontesquieuNo Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States…The U.S. Constitution: Article I, section 9:
15RousseauWe the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.Preamble: The U.S. Constitution
16BlackstoneThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause. . .Amendment IV: The U.S. Constitution
17BecarriaIn all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury . . .and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.Amendment VI : The U.S. Constitution
18John LockeWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government…The Declaration of Independence
19MontesquieuArticle. II ,Section. 1.The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.Article. I., Section 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.Article III., Section 1: The judicial Power shall be vested in one supreme Court. . .The U.S. Constitution
20BecarriaExcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.Amendment VIII: The U.S. Constitution
21VoltaireCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;Amendment I: The U.S. Constitution