Presentation on theme: "TEACHING VOCABULARY TO SUPPORT READING COMPREHENSION CAMDENVILLE PS."— Presentation transcript:
TEACHING VOCABULARY TO SUPPORT READING COMPREHENSION CAMDENVILLE PS
HOW MANY WORDS DO PEOPLE KNOW? Best estimate is that there are word families used in books up to 12 grade (US). Nagy and Anderson 1984 Lowest estimate of number of words a student knows Research suggests we can directly teach word per year (8-10 words per week) If we accept Nagy and Andersons estimate, and that children learn half of them, this suggests that the average child learns about 3000 new words per year- we cannot teach 3000 words directly. Most of these words must come from context
WILL CONTEXTUAL LEARNING BE ENOUGH? If we expect children to learn 3000 words per year- this is a monumental task requiring the learning of about 8 words per day. Nagy et al- argue that much of this learning can come from incidental learning of word meanings: 5 th grade student read for an hour per day- at a rate of 150 words per min- 5 days a week= 2,250,000 words If 2% to 5% of those words are unknown, (as in instructional level text; ) the child will have encountered from to 112,500 unknown words Research shows children will learn between 5% and 10% of previously unknown words from a single reading This would account for at least 2,250 new words learned from context each year.
MATTHEW EFFECTS This suggests one of the most powerful influence on vocabulary growth is to encourage students to read as widely as possible Good readers are better able to derive word meanings from context than poorer readers- myth!!!! words are learned through chance encounters in the text. Words are accumulated over time through exposure and gradual learning. Studies have found that higher ability students were not any better than lower ability students at incidental word learning Therefore if that is so… the difference in vocab growth might be due to differences in the amount that children read
MATTHEW EFFECTS The rich get richer and the poor get poorer
WHAT SHOULD WE DO? Increase amount of reading Teach word meanings- at least 300 words per year direct teaching of word meanings discussions about prefixes, suffixes and roots wide reading- especially reading that challenges childrens abilities read to children -even older children
DEFINITIONS Using the dictionary to find definitions ????? children cannot use conventional definitions to learn words example: erode- to eat out To know a word- we know more than the words definition; we also know that word functions in different contexts. E.g smoke- the verb- He smoked a cigarette The psychologist smoked his pipe the hippie smoked a marijuana cigarette the 13 year old smoked his first cigarette The fisherman smoked the fish Multiple meanings Full and flexible knowledge- involves an understanding of the core meaning of a word and how it changes in different contexts.
TOPIC VOCAB DEFINITION MATCH miner Somebody who works in a mine digging for materials such as gold prospector Somebody who explores in search of materials like gold stockade A tall fence of wooden posts in the ground to keep out enemies trooper Soldier or policeman who rides horses rebellion To oppose authority by fighting riot A time when a group of angry people become noisy, uncontrolled and often act violently licence A printed document giving permission gold fields An area where gold is found settlement A place where people settle injustice Lack of fairness or justice confrontation Face up to in defiance diggings A mine or gold field
DEVELOPING VOCABULARY injustice A lack of fairness rebellion To oppose authority by fighting Developing definitions and understanding meaning Google images instead of web
BEFORE READING ANTICIPATION/REACTION GUIDE WHAT DID GOLD DO FOR AUSTRALIA? WRITE A IF YOU AGREE WITH THE STATEMENT WRITE B IF YOU DISAGREE WITH THE STATEMENT Response before lesson Topic: Gold Response after lesson The discovery of gold changed the whole future of Australia. The population of Australia stayed the same during the gold rush. People left Australia after the gold rush Banks did not have any money to lend. Because of the gold rush more houses were built and cities became bigger.
CUED LISTENING TO PREPARE FOR WRITING Text – Life on the goldfields (Workbook 7- RIC Publication) 8 cue cards (the people, transport, food, clothing, health, law and order, shelter, education) Students listen for their information and draw diagrams to help them remember Students share their information and reformulate the text together. Teacher focus on developing effective simple sentence structures- descriptive phrases, noun and verb groups
How did the early diggers travel to the goldfields and why? What was the health of the miners like and why? Cue card examples Food- What kind of food was common and in what condition? Health- What was the health of the miners like and why?
VISUAL CUES FOR REMEMBERING
PRE READING PREPARATION- (ADJUSTMENTS) Identify for the students- key concepts and vocabulary of the text- an explicit text orientation Word definitions-pre teach Teach the text using graphic organisers Provide synonyms and antonyms for difficult ideas Decoding- pre teach how to decode unfamiliar multi- syllabic words (phonological processing- syllabification) (dictionary.com) Cut out the guess work- free up the mind for remembering
ORIENTATIO N TO TEXT Visual literacy What information can you get without even reading? Pre-teach key vocabulary Take them through the text step by step
STRATEGIES TEACHING SYNONYMS TEACHING ANTONYMS REWRITING DEFINITIONS PROVIDING EXAMPLES PROVIDING NON- EXAMPLES DISCUSSION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE NEW WORD AND RELATED WORDS e.g debris defined as trash or waste – include a discussion of the differences between debris and trash- or garbage, HAVING STUDENTS CREATE SENTENCES CONTAINING THE TARGET WORD DISCUSS THE MEANING OF THE SAME WORD IN DIFFERENT SENTENCES CREATING A SCENARIO SILLY QUESTIONS
THE PROBABLE PASSAGES STRATEGY (FROM FOR THE LOVE OF WORDS) Title:The promise of gold Vocabulary terms and phrases: Bark huts, tent city, chopsticks, riot, goldmine, killed, police, stolen Make a prediction from the vocabulary Setting Characters Problems Events Ending
The Goldfields and Aboriginal People The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural environment. They made all their tools out of stone, bone, shell and wood and therefore placed no value on gold. The impact of European settlement had a major effect on the native people of this continent. The new settlers took their land, ate their food, depleted their supplies, introduced illness and forced their ways on the Aboriginal people. The land was sacred to the Aboriginal people. The diggers did not care; they dug it up in their search for wealth and left the area in a mess. The native way of life would never again be the same. The European people settled in Australia with a total disregard for the people who already inhabited the area. Victoria's European Population Victoria's Aboriginal Population , ,0001, ,0002,300
PRE TEACH TEXT VOCABULARY harmony harmony balance environment the circumstances or conditions that surround one; our surroundings natural present in or produced by nature present in or produced by nature depleted use up or empty out (to decrease the fullness of) use up or empty out (to decrease the fullness of) disregard to treat without proper respect or attentiveness
PRE TEACH HOW TO WORK OUT THE WORDS SYLLABIFICATION ( DICTIONARY.COM) har mony en vironment poi sonous deplet ed dis regard inhabit
VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT DOMINOES (AN ADJUSTMENT) harmony harmony The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural environment. environment The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural environment. The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural environment.
VOCABULARY CLOZE MATCH DOMINOES harmony harmony The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural __________. The Aboriginal people had been living in harmony with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural __________. environment environment The Aboriginal people had been living in __________ with the land for many years without causing a great deal of change to the natural environment.
USE PICTURES AND BOOKS- DEVELOP VOCABULARY Nouns Dog, crow, lake, water, bush, scrub, landscape, trees, gums, blind eye, wings, strange creature reflection, Verbs Shine, shiver, sighing, stare, look, discussed, snuffle, creep, hide, Adjectives Sad crow, brave dog, wise dog Crow wakes with a rush of grief
USE PICTURES AND BOOKS TO DEVELOP VOCABULARY Whats happening in this picture? Whats are the characters feeling? Why do you think that? Crow wakes with a rush of grief What does a rush of grief look like to you- what do you think the author means?
* describe the characteristics, feelings, appearance of 2 characters in a text- find similarities and differences USE PICTURES AND BOOKS TO DEVELOP VOCABULARY
CHARACTER DESCRIPTIONS * use a wide range of descriptive vocabulary to describe a literary character
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS Proverbs and sayings are old and common phrases which are often repeated based upon experience and truth. Proverbs are used to remember complex ideas quickly and easily. The above link contains some of the most common proverbs and sayings, but it's not an exhaustive list ml
INTERESTING WORDS CHART WordPage Any help given? Your explanatio n Dictionary (if needed) luxuriant5No Plentiful, strong growth canopy6Yes Like a roof Like a roof Covering highest part of the forest species8Yes Types of trees Types of trees Kinds of animals and plants that are similar pollinate25NoEat? Carry pollen for fertilisation
DEVELOPING TOPIC VOCABULARY Teaching vocabulary & concepts- Preparation for learning: Vocabulary picture match (floor storm) using books and pictures to match with words- students need to justify choices Long sticky tongue predator bulging eyes camouflage habitat webbedSuction pads croak lunge preycling leap limbs Under belly
CATEGORISING AND SORTING WORDS Long sticky tongue predator bulging eyes camouflage habitat swim suction pads snout croak lunge prey cling leap limbs mosquito insect underbelly webbed wet and moist
WORDS WORTH CHART Vocabulary activities can help children when they are reading and when they are writing! Enlarge the Words Worth chart in your handout and laminate. Display in a prominent area of the classroom. When children come across new interseting words in print, place in the "dollar" column. Work backwards and help them generate words that mean about the same, but might be not as interesting as the "dollar" word. (The 10 cents" and 50 cents" words help children make connections between the synonyms and help them remember the meaning of the "dollar" words). This is also a helpful vocabulary activity when children are writing, place one of their words in the 10 cents" column and add more interesting words to the 50 cents" and "dollar" column.
WORM WORDS Worn Words Enlarge this template and use with "Words Worth Chart" (above). Once the Words Worth Chart is full, take off the "penny" and "dime" words and place them in the trash! Once words are in the trash, students are encouraged to use the "dollar" words when they are speaking and writing
ANTONYM CONCENTRATION Laminate and cut out the antonym cards in the handout. Have students work in small groups to find word matches. Three different antonym levels are provided on the template.
"COLORFUL WORDS" WALL VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES: CLASSROOMS THAT SUPPORT WORD LEARNING "Colorful Words" Wall Teaching vocabulary is important. We have space for furniture and equipment; we have space for books, backpacks, and writing utensils. If words are important, then finding places to organize and display words should take prominence in the structure of your classroom.
4 FOLD VOCABUALRY
WORD LISTS – e.g My School Canteen bananas / cashier / cash register / cupcakes / fork / hot dog / lunch box / menu / milk / napkin / orange juice / pizza / salad / sandwich / soup / spoon / student / rubbish bin/ tray / Classroom alphabet / blackboard / whiteboard/ book / book bag / calendar / chair / chalk / clock / computer / desk / map / pencil / pencil sharpener / ruler / scissors / stapler / student / teacher / rubbish bin Hallway bannister / bell / boys' toilets / bulletin board / clock / drinking fountain / stairs / exit sign / fire alarm / fire extinguisher / girls' toilet / lock / lockers / stairs / student / teacher / wheelchair Library book return / books and magazines / card catalog / cassette tape / chair / clock / computer / desk / film projector / head phones / librarian / table / tape player / T.V. / VCR Playground ball / basketball hoop / bell / bench / door / fence / flag / grass / sandpit/ school bus / seesaw / slide / student / swings / tree / cricket
IDIOMS Many students, especially English Language Learners find our language difficult because of its infinite number of idiomatic expressions. Idioms are expressions that do not mean what they literally say. When children aren't exposed to these expressions (or when adults use them and don't explain what they mean) it can create a barrier to vocabulary and comprehension. One way to enrich your students background is to expose them to as many expressions as possible. The handout today contains some of the most common idiomatic expressions, but it's not an exhaustive list
PREFIX/SUFFIX CHECKERS Purchase a checkers board and place velcro on the black squares on the game board. Print, laminate, and cut out the fprefix/suffix squares on the template in your handout and place corresponding velcro pieces on the back. Place the words with prefixes and suffixes in random order on the game board. Each time a player moves a checker they must say the prefix or suffix, read the word, and explain what it means. (The template "Common Prefixes/Suffixes" from above can help children as they are playing this game)