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1 Flexible Packaging Laminates Lesson 8 8. 2 Plasticating Extruder Fig. 10.2.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Flexible Packaging Laminates Lesson 8 8. 2 Plasticating Extruder Fig. 10.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Flexible Packaging Laminates Lesson 8 8

2 2 Plasticating Extruder Fig. 10.2

3 3 Cast Film and Sheet Extrusion Fig.10.4

4 4 Three-Layer Coextrusion Fig.10.9

5 5 Extrusion Cast Film Line Layout Fig.10.5

6 6 Machine Direction Orientation Fig.10.8

7 7 Cross Direction Orientation Fig.10.8

8 8 Blown-film Die Cross-Section Fig.10.6

9 9 Three-layer Extrusion Blow Mold Cut-away view material 1 material 2 material 3 film bubble

10 10 Blown Film Line With Slitter Fig.10.7

11 11 Blown Film Line Showing Die & Bubble

12 12 Aluminum Foil Household foil is typically 17.5 m ( inches) Available in gauges as low as 7 m ( inches) Pin holing is present below 12 m ( inches) Foil is susceptible to flex cracking Most foils are supported with plastic and/or paper Unsupported foil used for some lid-stock & tablet push-through packaging

13 13 Intact foil is a 100% barrier to all gases Best deadfold properties Easily punctured (tamper evidence) Reflective of radiant heat Conductive (induction sealing) Decorative appeal: all reflective metallics are aluminum Aluminum Foil Characteristics

14 14 Foil Packaging Applications Unsupported foil, non-sealable e.g. confection and cheese wraps Unsupported foil, heat sealable e.g. lidding stock, pharmaceutical tablet backing material Supported foil, non heat sealable e.g. decorative wraps, label stock Supported foil, heat sealable e.g. high barrier pouches and sachets lidding stock, retort pouches

15 15 Aluminum Vacuum Metallizing Fig.14.1

16 16 Provides reflective metallic appearance Improves moisture, aroma, light and oxygen barrier Oxygen barrier improved: up to fifty times for OPP, up to ten times for PET Static dissipative applications OPP, PET, & PA (nylon) most common packaging films Aluminum Metallized Film

17 17 Why Laminate? There is no perfect, universal packaging material Laminates assemble materials with individually desirable properties to create an optimum material Laminate: A product made by bonding together two or more materials

18 18 Mechanical properties tensile strengthstiffness coefficient of frictionuse temperatures elongationformability Laminate Properties Barrier properties as required oxygen barrieressential oil barrier water vapor barrierlight barrier

19 19 L aminate Properties Sealability most flexible packaging is heat sealed most heat seals are polyethylene based other polymers used more critical applications Aesthetic appearance clarity surface gloss reflective metallics

20 20 Describing Packaging Laminate Note: Packaging laminate plies are always listed from the outside to the inside

21 21 Gravure Coating Fig. 14.8

22 22 Wet Bond Laminator Fig

23 23 Fig Dry Bond Laminating

24 24 Solventless Laminating Solventless laminating uses catalyzed or or two-part reactive adhesives

25 25 Extrusion Laminating Fig. 14.9

26 26 Hot Tack The bond strength of the seal while still hot Critical for most form-fill-seal machines Determines how quickly product can be dropped into a pouch

27 27 Common Heat- Seal Materials cost bond quality ionomer (e.g. Surlyn, seals through contaminants ) acid copolymer (good foil bond, chemical resistance) metallocene polyethylene (low temp, fast seal) LLDPE (good hot tack, tough, wide seal temp.) PE/EVA (soft film, low seal temperature) medium-density polyethylene (stiffer, better barrier) cast polypropylene (stands higher temperatures) low-density polyethylene Table 14.5

28 28 Source: M. Lutterotti, DuPont Sealing Mediums Compared Figure 14.6

29 29 Heat Sealing Parameters Fig. 14.7

30 30 foil polyethylene poly(ethylene terephthalate) foil sealing medium printed paper sealing medium Retort pouchAseptic box sealing medium printed polypropylene metallized polypropylene Snack food bag saran-coated nylon sealing medium (Surlyn) Luncheon meat tray Example Laminations See Figures & 14.14

31 31 printed polyethylene polyethylene Ethylene-vinyl alcohol High oxygen barrier polyethylene poly(ethylene terephthalate) sealing medium (vinyl) overlacquer Single-service lidding stock printed foil Example Laminations See Figures 14.13, (For barrier applications foil to the inside) surface print paper polyethylene sealing medium foil Basic food pouch laminate

32 32 Laminate roll stock High barrier insert Finished tube1 Injected molded tip Laminated Collapsible Tube Construction Formed body Foil Clear LDPE paper Sealing medium Printed white PE EAA

33 33 Vertical Form-Fill-Seal (VFFS) Fig CoF is critical!

34 34 VFFS Pouch Seals Compared Fig Fin seal Lap Seal Seals inside surfaces Uses more material Dont cover UPC! Seals outside to inside Both surfaces need sealing medium Use less material

35 35 Horizontal Form-Fill-Seal (HFFS) Fig. 14.3

36 36 Common HFFS Pouch Styles Fig Conventional pouch has three-side seal Can be made into various stand-up designs Some stand-up pouches are pre-made in a separate operation Three-side sealed pouch Gusseted designs

37 37 Multi-Lane Form-Fill-Seal Fig. 14.4

38 38 Stand-Up Pouch Examples

39 39 Stand-Up Pouch Examples

40 40 Film Thickness Measurement Inch Gauge Mil Micrometre 0.001inch = 100 gauge = 1 mil =25 m inch = 50 gauge = 1/2 mil = 13 m ISO metric notes: Micron is a depreciated term for micrometre one inch = 25.4 millimetres and inch = 25.4 micrometres

41 41 Early Universal Barriers PVDC is original high universal barrier polymers EVOH laminated between high moisture barrier polymers can also provide good universal barrier But not high enough barrier for critical applications Metallizing also produces a high universal barrier But aluminum metallized films are not transparent

42 42 Recent Advances in Achieving Barrier Monolayer polymers poly(ethylene naphthalate) ($) liquid crystal polymer ($$$) Multilayered constructions PET/PA/PET PET/EVOH/PET PET/MXD6/PET/ MXD6/PET

43 43 Recent Advances in Achieving Barrier Interior coatings SiO x (glass) coating (Glaskin) AlO x aluminum oxide coating carbon coating (DLC and Actis) Exterior coatings and interior laminates epoxy-amine coating (Sealica and Bairocade) copolyester (Amosorb: interior layer) Nanocomposites extremely fine mineral additions


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