Good Side of DDT? All but halted a 25% mortality rate in soldiers fighting in war from TYPHUS with a de-lousing program. Started research on newer more efficient chemicals that are safer on the environment
EPA Civil and Criminal Penalties 500 – 1,000 dollar warnings 500 – 1,000 dollar warnings Knowing violations constitute more of a penalty. Knowing violations constitute more of a penalty. Examples Examples –Selling a RUP to a person not certified –Giving pesticides away –Use a pesticide inconsistent with its label –Altering a pesticide label –Failure to keep records or allow inspection
Examples of what veteran applicators see in the field
Do you see any problems with this picture? #1) No Eye Protection - Ocular #2) No Gloves - Dermal #3) Improper Respirator - Inhalation #4) No Chemically Resistant Apron – Dermal #5) Mixing chemicals within 100 ft of water
What is the final and 4 th mode of entry of pesticides?
How easy is it to be exposed to pesticides? How long does it take to be exposed? How long does it take to be exposed? What if its regarding a common situation that occurs in the field. You take off your gloves only 1 time to replace a stubborn plugged nozzle? What if its regarding a common situation that occurs in the field. You take off your gloves only 1 time to replace a stubborn plugged nozzle? Are you contaminated with pesticides if you only shake an individuals hand 1 time for 1 second? Are you contaminated with pesticides if you only shake an individuals hand 1 time for 1 second? Need 4 volunteers Need 4 volunteers –1 st Volunteer: Work on nozzles with no gloves 2 nd Volunteer: Shake your neighbors hand 2 nd Volunteer: Shake your neighbors hand –3 rd Volunteer: Work on nozzles with gloves 4 th Volunteer: Shake your neighbors hand 4 th Volunteer: Shake your neighbors hand
OK, you are contaminated. So what! How toxic is it?
Indicates a pesticides acute toxicity from one exposure. Indicates a pesticides acute toxicity from one exposure. –What is acute? Based on a pesticides active and inert ingredients. Based on a pesticides active and inert ingredients.
Acute Toxicity Testing Is required by the Environmental Protection Agency for: Is required by the Environmental Protection Agency for: –Each active ingredient –For inert ingredients Usually uses rats Usually uses rats Very expensive process Very expensive process
Signal Words / LD50 Caution (Category IV) You can drink the stuff Table 2. Signal words found on pesticide labels.
Gordon Shrum – Cochair BC Hydro Agent White Compound Agent White Compound Agent Orange Agent Orange 4:1 mixture of 2,4-D and picloram 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T Produces dioxins – carcinogen The National Toxicology Program has classified TCDD to be a human carcinogen, frequently associated withcarcinogen soft-tissue sarcomasoft-tissue sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Hodgkin's diseaseHodgkin's disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).chronic lymphocytic leukemia 1896 – 1985!
Chronic Toxicity Definition Definition EPA mandates testing for chronic toxicity of: EPA mandates testing for chronic toxicity of: –Active ingredients Usually on rats Usually on rats This is very expensive This is very expensive Chronic toxicity statements are placed on the product label (carcinogen, mutagen, reproductive damage, etc..) Chronic toxicity statements are placed on the product label (carcinogen, mutagen, reproductive damage, etc..)
Some of our Safest chemicals Chronic Affects Evident Chronic Affects Evident –Immune system problems –Sores, Rashes
Ag Health Study A long term health study of pesticide applicators and their spouses with comparisons to the general population A long term health study of pesticide applicators and their spouses with comparisons to the general population Acknowledgements Acknowledgements –Iowa State University, North Carolina State University –The National Cancer Institute –National Institute of Environmental Health Services –U.S. Environmental Protection Agency –Agricultural Health Study Scientists –Cornell Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors, Cornell University
New: Ag. Health Study Participants: 90,000 people Certified Pesticide Applicators and Spouses Certified Pesticide Applicators and Spouses –IOWA: 31,877 farmers 31,877 farmers 21,771 farm spouses 21,771 farm spouses 4,916 commercial applicators 4,916 commercial applicators –NORTH CAROLINA 20,518 farmers 20,518 farmers 10,567 farm spouses 10,567 farm spouses
Prostate Cancer Associated With Methyl bromide fumigant Methyl bromide fumigant Chlorinated pesticides (men over 50) Chlorinated pesticides (men over 50) –Aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlor, toxophene Five pesticides with men with a family history of prostate cancer Five pesticides with men with a family history of prostate cancer –Insecticides: chlorpyrifos (Lorsban), coumaphos (Co-Ral), fonofos (Dyfonate), permethrin (with (Co-Ral), fonofos (Dyfonate), permethrin (with animal uses) animal uses)
Respiratory Health Wheeze (airways in lungs are narrowed) associated with… Wheeze (airways in lungs are narrowed) associated with… –Pesticides (Paraquat, parathion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, alachlor, EPTC)
Eye Health – Vision Loss Degeneration of retina Degeneration of retina Seen with applicators and farm wives Seen with applicators and farm wives –Fungicides: benomyl, captan, chlorothanonil, copper ammonia carbonate, ferbam, maneb, metalaxyl, PCNB and sulfur –Application methods: hand spray guns, backpack sprayers, or mist blowers / foggers –Certain crops: orchard fruit, Christmas trees and peanuts –DDT, dicofol and endosulfan (organochlorines) –Dichlorvos, cygon, guthion, imidan, malathion, orthene and prolate (organophosphates) –Carbaryl and oxanyl (carbamates)
Personal Protective Equip. (PPE) Good News: Good News: –Research shows PPE may reduce pesticide exposure by 90%
Protecting Yourself: How and Why? Where do you find out about your pesticides toxicity, inherent dangers, and personal protective equipment you should use when handling pesticides. www.greenbook.net
PPE Coveralls Coveralls Chemical Resistant Suits, Gloves, Footwear, Aprons, and Headgear. Chemical Resistant Suits, Gloves, Footwear, Aprons, and Headgear. Protective Eyewear Protective Eyewear Respirators Respirators
Coated / Laminate Suits PVC, Nitrile, Rubber Tychem® –seems. –sealed seems. Non-breathable Non-breathable Do not use rain suits with cotton liners Do not use rain suits with cotton liners
Gloves Want unlined gloves! Nitrile, Neoprene, PVC Do Not Wear Leather Gloves! Do Not Wear Latex gloves! Check for holes often! Want 14 mils or higher!
Eyewear Goggles Face Shields Safety Glasses But never wear contacts when spraying pesticides!!!
Respirators Read Product Label Particulate masks (dusts, granules) Particulate masks (dusts, granules) –The one-strap dust mask is not NIOSH approved. When pesticide label recommends a dust filter this is not acceptable. For nuisance-level dusts. recommends a dust filter this is not acceptable. For nuisance-level dusts. –Generally, two-strap respirators with exhale valves are not for pesticide spraying but are acceptable for application of pesticide dusts and granules. Always read the pesticide label for product-specific recommendations. Cartridge Type Respirators (pesticide vapors) Cartridge Type Respirators (pesticide vapors) –Fitted face piece and replaceable filters –Not for fumigants –Prefix of NIOSH/MSHA TC –Cartridges should be replaced annually and stored in ziplock bags –Cartridges usually labeled for use with ORGANIC VAPORS –Follow product label Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) –Manure Pit with methane and hydrogen sulfide –Anyhydrous Ammonia –Grain Fumigants –Special Medical Certification Needed
Inspect PPE Make sure you have no smells Make sure you have no smells –What should you do? Is it clean and has it been cleaned? Is it clean and has it been cleaned?
Contact Information Contact your Local Extension Office or the MSU Pesticide Safety Education Program Cecil Tharp, Pesticide Education Specialist 406-994-5067, firstname.lastname@example.org Web Address: www.pesticides.montana.edu email@example.com@montana.eduwww.pesticides.montana.edu