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1. What are the five essential components for effective reading instruction? How can I help secondary students improve decoding and fluency skills? How.

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Presentation on theme: "1. What are the five essential components for effective reading instruction? How can I help secondary students improve decoding and fluency skills? How."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What are the five essential components for effective reading instruction? How can I help secondary students improve decoding and fluency skills? How can I use data analysis to guide individualized instruction of students in my intervention class? 2

3 I can explain the foundational reading skills students must have in order to be successful readers and writers. I can administer the Ekwall / Shanker diagnostic assessments. I can analyze the data to inform instruction and to meet the individual needs of my students. 3

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5 5 Building A Strong Foundation

6 6 Phonemic Awareness PhonicsFluency VocabularyComprehension Reading Instruction

7 A Phoneme is a single speech sound. (The letter h represents the sound /h/) Phonemic Awareness is the understanding that the sounds of a spoken language work together to make words. Example: Changing the first phoneme in the word hat from /h/ to /p/ changes the word from hat to pat. 7

8 8 Phonics The relationship between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language Graphemes The letters and spellings that represent these sounds in written language Phonemes Individual sounds of spoken language

9 To help students learn the Alphabetic Principlethe understanding that letters and sounds work together in systematic ways to form words. When students understand the alphabetic principle, they develop the skills needed to decode words. 9

10 10 Students Who Struggle With Decoding : Students With Strong Decoding Skills: Rely heavily on context and guessing Read slowly and with great effort Focus on decoding rather than comprehending Skip challenging words and sections of text Do not monitor their reading to make sure it makes sense. Read a word letter by letter Process words automatically and rapidly Look for known word parts in unfamiliar words Use context to confirm pronunciation and meaning.

11 11 Familiarize students with key words before encountering them in text. Provide a working definition of key words. Model explicitly how to break down regular multisyllabic words.

12 It is not just about the speed. It is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly and with expression. 12

13 13 Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Ambruster, Lehr & Osborn, Word Recognition Comprehension

14 NOT-SO-FLUENT READER Fluency Effort and Attention Comprehension FLUENT READERS 14 Fluency Effort and Attention Comprehension

15 15 Group I: Introduction and Caveat Group II: Fluency beyond the Elementary Grades Group III: What Does This Mean Participants use the Cornell note-taking graphic organizer. Share with group.

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17 17 Repeated and monitored oral reading (partner reading, student-teacher reading) Choral Reading Readers Theatre Tape-assisted reading Model fluent reading

18 Students cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. This is especially true as students read more advanced texts that contains words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. 18

19 Embed the CODE Principles and the Marzano Six- Step Process into daily intervention instruction Use the vocabulary tools of the KCLM model Teach word parts (prefixes, suffixes, base words and word roots) Teach words that are important for understanding a concept of the text Teach words that students are likely to see again and again 19

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21 21 Activate Prior Knowledge Monitor/Clarify Comprehension Infer and Predict Summarize Visualize Synthesize and Retell Ask Questions

22 Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) Ekwall/Shanker Reading Inventory TOWL 4 Writing Assessment 22

23 Is an online standardized, norm-referenced achievement test that can be given three times a year. Provides student Lexile scores Reduces time needed to evaluate student achievement. From Pearson Education Inc. 23

24 Comprehension Vocabulary Phonics Decoding Phonemic Awareness 24

25 The ESRI measures: phonemic awareness concepts about print letter knowledge basic sight words structural analysis fluency comprehension 25

26 Independent : level a student should be able to read without help of any kind from the teacher Instructional: level at which a student should be able to read with teacher assistance Frustration: the point at which reading material simply becomes too difficult for the student to read 26

27 Comparison of silent and oral reading Assessment of fluency and word recognition proficiency at various levels of difficulty to determine the level of materials that a student should read under various conditions Listening comprehension 27

28 Informal Reading Inventory Emergent Literacy Sight Words Phonics Structural Analysis Context Clue Use Reading Interest 28

29 Test requires a student to pronounce increasingly difficult words that are listed by grade level at which most students learn them. Takes approximately 5 to 10 minutes to administer. 29

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31 Make copies of the scoring sheet. You will need one set of the two pages for each student you test. (p ) Open the manual to the Test Sheet (p. 130). You can also copy and laminate the sheet to hand to the student. 31

32 1. Place the test sheet in front of the student and say, Here are some words I would like for you to read aloud. Try to read all of them even if you are not sure what some of the words are. Lets begin by reading the words on this list. 2. Record words pronounced correctly with a plus(+) on your scoring sheet and write down all incorrect responses. 3. Have students continue reading consecutively higher level-levels until the student misses three or more words on any one list. 4. After the student misses three or more words on any list, stop the testing. 32

33 The highest list at which the student reads with 0 or 1 error is the independent reading level. The highest list at which the student misses two words is the instructional level. The list at which the students misses three or more words is the frustration level. 33

34 Norm-referenced, comprehensive diagnostic of written expression It is used to identify students who write poorly Determine students particular weaknesses in various writing abilities Document student progress 34

35 Vocabulary Spelling Punctuation Logical Sentences Sentence Combining Contextual Conventions Story Composition 35

36 36 Reflective Journal *I can explain the foundational skills students need to be successful readers and writers. *I can administer the SAT 10, Ekwall/Shanker, and Towl 4 diagnostic assessments. *I know how to analyze the data to meet the individual needs of my students.

37 Ekwall, James, & Ward A. Cockrum. Reading Inventory. 5 th Edition. Allyn and Bacon 2010 Gelfond, Sabra. How You Can Build A Better Reader. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: January 2010.http://www.iser.com/resources/better-readers.html Hudson, Roxanne Ph.D. Word Work Strategies to Develop Decoding Skills for Beginning Readers. Retrieved from the World Wide Web June RR.pdf RR.pdf National Reading Panel. Put Reading First. National Institute for Literacy 2001) Pressley, Michael. Comprehension Instruction: What Works. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: Reading Rockets.Org. June 2010). Rasinski, Timothy V., Nancy D. Padak, Christine A.McKeon, Lori G.Wilfong, Julie A. Friedauer, Patricia Heim. Is Reading Fluency a Key for Successful High School Reading. National Reading Associatioin Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic. Walker, L. (1996) Readers' Theatre in the Middle School and Junior High School, Meriwether Publishing, CO. SAT-10: 88DA-C444B0A52245/0/SAT10ScoreReportSampler.pdfhttp://www.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/E5E5CAB0-7BB9-4BBB- 88DA-C444B0A52245/0/SAT10ScoreReportSampler.pdf TOWL-4: us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAa19045&Mode=summary


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