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Nomadic Computing with PCs Bert Keely Architect, Mobile PCs and Tablet Technology Windows Client org Microsoft Corporation Bert Keely Architect, Mobile.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomadic Computing with PCs Bert Keely Architect, Mobile PCs and Tablet Technology Windows Client org Microsoft Corporation Bert Keely Architect, Mobile."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Nomadic Computing with PCs Bert Keely Architect, Mobile PCs and Tablet Technology Windows Client org Microsoft Corporation Bert Keely Architect, Mobile PCs and Tablet Technology Windows Client org Microsoft Corporation

3 Nomadic Computing ideas Steve Roberts bicyclesbicycles Mark Weisers many-per-person nomadic pc peripherals (part of ubicomp) peripherals Invisible Wearable Im after less of a head rush Steve Roberts bicyclesbicycles Mark Weisers many-per-person nomadic pc peripherals (part of ubicomp) peripherals Invisible Wearable Im after less of a head rush

4 A device you can carry and use for visual information Books & magazines dont fit in pockets A full PC with the handiness of paper 1M sold, but this device is still under construction! Books & magazines dont fit in pockets A full PC with the handiness of paper 1M sold, but this device is still under construction!

5 The handiness of paper You can use it directly with one hand, even while carrying it. You can capture thoughts and express yourself naturally using digital ink. Its comfortable wherever you go - around the home and office, on the go, and in meetings. You can use it directly with one hand, even while carrying it. You can capture thoughts and express yourself naturally using digital ink. Its comfortable wherever you go - around the home and office, on the go, and in meetings.

6 Where we are today: finishing the beginning 1M Tablet PCs fold face open interact using a pen How good are they? dependable? thin & light? instant access? battery life? automatic networking? easy to interact with? 1M Tablet PCs fold face open interact using a pen How good are they? dependable? thin & light? instant access? battery life? automatic networking? easy to interact with?

7 Where we are today Hardware evolving Slates for vertical markets Ultra-portable laptops that convert to tablet mode are still a bit clumsy, still too heavy to hold Inaccurate pens rely on cursor for indirect direct input Displays look washed-out due to extra surface reflections and extra viewing angle sensitivity in portrait Few tablets have portable DVD options Hardware evolving Slates for vertical markets Ultra-portable laptops that convert to tablet mode are still a bit clumsy, still too heavy to hold Inaccurate pens rely on cursor for indirect direct input Displays look washed-out due to extra surface reflections and extra viewing angle sensitivity in portrait Few tablets have portable DVD options

8 Where we are today Underdeveloped application software Pen as inking device needs consistent UI for mode switching, selection & manipulation Ink as datatype needs accurate analysis to identify text flows, drawings, annotations, math equations etc. Ink markup requires anchoring and transformation to keep meaning when the underlying content reflows Poor online/offline transitions Underdeveloped application software Pen as inking device needs consistent UI for mode switching, selection & manipulation Ink as datatype needs accurate analysis to identify text flows, drawings, annotations, math equations etc. Ink markup requires anchoring and transformation to keep meaning when the underlying content reflows Poor online/offline transitions

9 Where we are today System software evolving slowly Many refinements needed for mobile use simple on/off all day batteries automatic networking including WWAN scalable UI dependable simple interaction Pen as pointing device needs accuracy, clear feedback, and reliable gestures Pen as text input device needs quick mode switching, user-specific vocabulary, acceleration via auto-completion System software evolving slowly Many refinements needed for mobile use simple on/off all day batteries automatic networking including WWAN scalable UI dependable simple interaction Pen as pointing device needs accuracy, clear feedback, and reliable gestures Pen as text input device needs quick mode switching, user-specific vocabulary, acceleration via auto-completion

10 What were doing about hardware Collaborating w/ OEMs and key component manufacturers Optimized Display Initiative Pen vendor collaborations to improve accuracy, reduce cost Project Kinesis Collaborating w/ OEMs and key component manufacturers Optimized Display Initiative Pen vendor collaborations to improve accuracy, reduce cost Project Kinesis

11 Optimized Display Initiative Goals Being Pursued In Phases Widen viewing angle for portrait use Reduce reflections and sparkling Increase resolution at 12 sweet spot Improve optical efficiency to allow auto-dim to save power during typical use Adjust white balance using ambient sensors Further improve outdoor readability Goals Being Pursued In Phases Widen viewing angle for portrait use Reduce reflections and sparkling Increase resolution at 12 sweet spot Improve optical efficiency to allow auto-dim to save power during typical use Adjust white balance using ambient sensors Further improve outdoor readability

12 1. Why is viewing angle limited? There are materials through which light passes at different speeds in different directions. Liquid crystals stacked diagonally have this birefringence Over long distances, birefringence can create a double image (naturally occurring calcite crystals, common in Iceland, are sometimes called TV rock) Over short distance, birefringence can put waves 180 degrees out of phase, canceling the image In a typical twisted nematic (TN) LCD, light from secondary path is strong enough at some viewing angles to substantially weaken the image There are materials through which light passes at different speeds in different directions. Liquid crystals stacked diagonally have this birefringence Over long distances, birefringence can create a double image (naturally occurring calcite crystals, common in Iceland, are sometimes called TV rock) Over short distance, birefringence can put waves 180 degrees out of phase, canceling the image In a typical twisted nematic (TN) LCD, light from secondary path is strong enough at some viewing angles to substantially weaken the image

13 Ways to widen viewing angle The LCD manufacturer can choose polarizer films that include opposite birefringence, to undo the misalignment caused by the crystals. A Strong Compensation Film achieves the needed improvement with twisted nematics: 20:1 contrast ratio viewed 50° off of perpendicular LCD manufacturers can avoid twisted nematic structure and instead keep all the crystals horizontal (in-plane switching = IPS), or force the top ones to go completely vertical (vertical alignment = VA) The LCD manufacturer can choose polarizer films that include opposite birefringence, to undo the misalignment caused by the crystals. A Strong Compensation Film achieves the needed improvement with twisted nematics: 20:1 contrast ratio viewed 50° off of perpendicular LCD manufacturers can avoid twisted nematic structure and instead keep all the crystals horizontal (in-plane switching = IPS), or force the top ones to go completely vertical (vertical alignment = VA) IPS (e.g. FFS from Hyundai Display)VA (e.g. Samsung)

14 Status of wide view push This year all standard Tablet PC displays will include wide view technology Any display manufacturer can add portrait viewing support to an existing display, by sourcing a Strong Compensation Film. They can further optimize long-term by adopting VA or IPS The same approaches will be useful to improve photo viewing See samples after the talk This year all standard Tablet PC displays will include wide view technology Any display manufacturer can add portrait viewing support to an existing display, by sourcing a Strong Compensation Film. They can further optimize long-term by adopting VA or IPS The same approaches will be useful to improve photo viewing See samples after the talk

15 2. Why is there glare? (a.k.a. reflections) Light entering a solid slows down Per Snells law, most incident light is refracted, but some is reflected The eye sees an unwanted reflected image, whose strength is proportional to the change in speed Air refractive index = 1, Plastic = 1.4, boundary reflects 5.5% Light entering a solid slows down Per Snells law, most incident light is refracted, but some is reflected The eye sees an unwanted reflected image, whose strength is proportional to the change in speed Air refractive index = 1, Plastic = 1.4, boundary reflects 5.5%

16 Traditional solution = antiglare Roughen the surface to scatter the reflections – they are still there, but no longer specular (keeping image intact, like a mirror) Anti-glare is common on laptop & desktop LCDs The eye sees no reflected objects, but sees lower contrast The reflections combine with the display image, making black less dark Darker blacks are important when watching video, so antiglare is now becoming out of vogue Some marketers are now are now oddly featuring screens without antiglare as glare type Roughen the surface to scatter the reflections – they are still there, but no longer specular (keeping image intact, like a mirror) Anti-glare is common on laptop & desktop LCDs The eye sees no reflected objects, but sees lower contrast The reflections combine with the display image, making black less dark Darker blacks are important when watching video, so antiglare is now becoming out of vogue Some marketers are now are now oddly featuring screens without antiglare as glare type

17 LCD complication Liquid crystal stacks are easily disturbed by pen pressure, which slightly deforms front glass. Visible liquid crystal flow is called pooling LCD vendors can now more tightly control cell gap by switching to column spacers. But polarizer is also easily scratched. Front glass Back glass Spacer

18 Typical tablet adds protective overlay, triples reflections! Protective overlay is added to prevent disturbing crystals and scratching soft polarizer. This creates not just one air/solid boundary but three: 16.5% of incident light is reflected Display Protective Overlay 5.5% 5.5% 5.5%

19 The magic of anti-reflection (AR) Place two reflective surfaces a quarter-wavelength apart. Reflections are ½ wave out of phase, thus cancel each other One layer of Magnesium Fluoride broadly cuts visible reflections in half Multilayer combinations can eliminate 90% of reflections For green (average visible light), ¼ wave = 550 nanometers thick

20 Alternate tablet solution OEMs who want to keep overlay can reduce reflections at all air-gap surfaces by using anti- reflection coatings (AR) OCLI is developing optimized overlays Nitto Denko offers anti-reflective polarizer ARC % total is reasonable Display Protective Overlay 2% 0.5 % 2%

21 Ultimate tablet solution Laminate a scratch-resistant, anti-reflective (AR) material directly onto display. This reduces first surface reflections and eliminates air gap reflections Flexible material can be laminated during LCD mfg process Nitto Denko developed with MS encouragement, but deployment awaits better cell gap control by LCD manufacturers Rigid material can be bonded afterwards Motion Computing is first to ship with bonded glass in a Tablet PC. See their M1400 in Microsoft booth. Optical Coating laboratories (OCLI) has developed an optimized first surface on glass (see sample table) DuPont is developing cost-effective lamination process Protective Laminate Display

22 Fingerprints interfere with first surface AR When finger oils thicken the plate, unwanted reflections return 3-part solution for use indoors: mild AR with hydrophobic coat plus fine anti-glare Because water is polar with great surface tension, a non-polar top coat will reduce collection of finger oils Because mild AR (e.g., single layer Magnesium Fluoride) only cuts reflections in half, fingerprints are less visible Because anti-glare diffuses reflections, fingerprints are even less visible

23 Status of reflection reduction push 1. Most OEMs/ODMs starting to optimize overlay and display surfaces Overlay approach requires AR on 3 surfaces: front of overlay, rear of overlay, front of display OCLI supplying high quality overlays Nitto Denko supplying AR polarizers 2. A few OEMs/ODMs are eliminating overlay by laminating protection Add scratch resistant layer directly to front polarizer Requires tightly controlling cell gap to eliminate pooling Requires fine AG coating on laminate (helps hide fingerprints without sparkling) 1. Most OEMs/ODMs starting to optimize overlay and display surfaces Overlay approach requires AR on 3 surfaces: front of overlay, rear of overlay, front of display OCLI supplying high quality overlays Nitto Denko supplying AR polarizers 2. A few OEMs/ODMs are eliminating overlay by laminating protection Add scratch resistant layer directly to front polarizer Requires tightly controlling cell gap to eliminate pooling Requires fine AG coating on laminate (helps hide fingerprints without sparkling)

24 3. Increasing resolution at 12 sweet spot V1 Tablets gathered around a sweet spot, but didnt nail it 10.4 at 1024x768 resolution gives 123 ppi, which gets sharp text (with ClearType rendering). But size is is too small to view a whole document page 12.1 portrait is large enough to view a document page, but at 1024x768 resolution, 106 ppi text is too grainy Two displays are emerging to fit the sweet spot: x1050 (SXGA+) is now shipping from Toshiba Matsushita Display (TMD). At 145 ppi, it can take full advantage of Longhorn scaling. Wide view will become standard on this display in June (Strong Compensation Film) x800 (Wide XGA) tablet-ready display under development by BOE Hydis. 124 ppi fits sweet spot, wide aspect ratio is good both for documents in portrait, and movies in landscape. See samples table after the talk V1 Tablets gathered around a sweet spot, but didnt nail it 10.4 at 1024x768 resolution gives 123 ppi, which gets sharp text (with ClearType rendering). But size is is too small to view a whole document page 12.1 portrait is large enough to view a document page, but at 1024x768 resolution, 106 ppi text is too grainy Two displays are emerging to fit the sweet spot: x1050 (SXGA+) is now shipping from Toshiba Matsushita Display (TMD). At 145 ppi, it can take full advantage of Longhorn scaling. Wide view will become standard on this display in June (Strong Compensation Film) x800 (Wide XGA) tablet-ready display under development by BOE Hydis. 124 ppi fits sweet spot, wide aspect ratio is good both for documents in portrait, and movies in landscape. See samples table after the talk

25 Traditional font rendering: one pixels not enough, two is too many

26 Unlocking hidden resolution Notebook PC displays use RGB sub-pixels White is an optical illusion Real resolution is 3X higher on one axis Edges between sub-pixels equal those between the pixels ClearTypes advantage – Addresses edges within the pixel Diffuses color error New sampling theory Works with existing hardware Uses existing Windows font technology Notebook PC displays use RGB sub-pixels White is an optical illusion Real resolution is 3X higher on one axis Edges between sub-pixels equal those between the pixels ClearTypes advantage – Addresses edges within the pixel Diffuses color error New sampling theory Works with existing hardware Uses existing Windows font technology

27 ClearType

28 Further resolution increases have diminishing returns Shrinking the display aperture ratio loses brightness (consumes more power) Increasing total resolution demands more graphics rendering and data transfer (consumes more power) Today, finer pixel pitch makes pixel-based text too small to read, makes icons without scaling too small to target Longhorn enables arbitrarily high resolutions, but mobile PC sweet spot seems likely to remain ppi due to other factors above Shrinking the display aperture ratio loses brightness (consumes more power) Increasing total resolution demands more graphics rendering and data transfer (consumes more power) Today, finer pixel pitch makes pixel-based text too small to read, makes icons without scaling too small to target Longhorn enables arbitrarily high resolutions, but mobile PC sweet spot seems likely to remain ppi due to other factors above

29 Optimal resolution and PPI for a range of mobile sizes XGA 1024x768 WideXGA 1280x800 SXGA+ 1400x1050 UXGA 1600x1200 WideSXGA+ 1680x Sub-Optimal Optimal Optimal with advantages in Longhorn Tablets at 12.1 need Wide XGA or SXGA+ resolution Larger notebooks benefit from SXGA+ or UXGA resolution

30 Project Kinesis Based on belief that breakthrough ergonomics and aesthetics will help Tablet functionality appeal to mainstream PC users Project "Kinesis" Goals: Share hardware design feedback from customers and partners Assist our partners with hardware design by sharing CAD drawings, usability feedback, etc. Increase convenience without increasing BOM cost Background Information: Microsoft and IDEO collaborated on physical design embodying new ideas in response to customer input Based on belief that breakthrough ergonomics and aesthetics will help Tablet functionality appeal to mainstream PC users Project "Kinesis" Goals: Share hardware design feedback from customers and partners Assist our partners with hardware design by sharing CAD drawings, usability feedback, etc. Increase convenience without increasing BOM cost Background Information: Microsoft and IDEO collaborated on physical design embodying new ideas in response to customer input

31 Overview – Project Kinesis Key Features: 1. Thin and light 2. Direct hinge 3. Navigation control 4. Media slice 5. Docking stand wide (1280x800) display 7. Portrait stand 8. Ergonomic pen and pen wells 9. Convenient carrying case 10. Retractable AC adapter Key Features: 1. Thin and light 2. Direct hinge 3. Navigation control 4. Media slice 5. Docking stand wide (1280x800) display 7. Portrait stand 8. Ergonomic pen and pen wells 9. Convenient carrying case 10. Retractable AC adapter

32 Thin and Light + Direct Hinge Thin and Light Convertible 21.5MM (.85) thin 1.25KG (2.75 lbs) Direct Hinge: Quick, simple access to keyboard Electrically and mechanically reliable interconnect Hinge costs less to manufacture than typical Tablet PC hinge. Thin and Light Convertible 21.5MM (.85) thin 1.25KG (2.75 lbs) Direct Hinge: Quick, simple access to keyboard Electrically and mechanically reliable interconnect Hinge costs less to manufacture than typical Tablet PC hinge.

33 Navigation Control 5 way button rolls up and down for scrolling documents Rocks left and right for back and forward navigation Center depresses cleanly for enter Control rotates for portrait and landscape use. When user rotates the button, Windows switches orientation. Adjacent window switch and hotkey buttons 5 way button rolls up and down for scrolling documents Rocks left and right for back and forward navigation Center depresses cleanly for enter Control rotates for portrait and landscape use. When user rotates the button, Windows switches orientation. Adjacent window switch and hotkey buttons Portrait Landscape

34 Dock and Media Slice Media Slice Media slice contains extra battery, DVD, and speakers. Dock Tablet can be placed in dock with or without media slice Simple pivot and hinge allows for use as 2 nd monitor or as Tablet Media Slice Media slice contains extra battery, DVD, and speakers. Dock Tablet can be placed in dock with or without media slice Simple pivot and hinge allows for use as 2 nd monitor or as Tablet

35 12.1 wide display + portrait stand 12.1 Wide XGA 1280x800 Display Great for DVDs with media slice Ideal aspect ratio for a full size page plus toolbars in portrait mode 124 DPI ideal for reading N-Trig digitizer works with standard 12.1 display Portrait Stand Simple part, big ergonomic improvement Great ergonomics for reading and writing 12.1 Wide XGA 1280x800 Display Great for DVDs with media slice Ideal aspect ratio for a full size page plus toolbars in portrait mode 124 DPI ideal for reading N-Trig digitizer works with standard 12.1 display Portrait Stand Simple part, big ergonomic improvement Great ergonomics for reading and writing

36 Pen and pen well + accessories Pen and Pen Well Recessed barrel button design reduces accidental right click Store & grab pen wells ease pen use as pointing device while typing (for both right and left handed users) Accessories: Nylon portfolio case conceals and protects Tablet, also holds AC adapter A pocket-size AC adapter with retractable cord is easy to carry. Pen and Pen Well Recessed barrel button design reduces accidental right click Store & grab pen wells ease pen use as pointing device while typing (for both right and left handed users) Accessories: Nylon portfolio case conceals and protects Tablet, also holds AC adapter A pocket-size AC adapter with retractable cord is easy to carry.

37 Status of application software Give presentations while adding ink and highlighter for emphasis Stay connected, using pen to communicate quietly (Outlook 2003 cached mode, Send/Receive over the internet via RPC over HTTP, MSN Messenger) Check calendar, contacts, agenda & attachments while walking to next meeting Take notes naturally using ink and audio in OneNote Markup & share web pages via Snipping tool Read and mark up documents without pushing print (Office 2003) Sketch, diagram & draw freely, with undo Enhance and show digital photos Show a map of any street in the US Use the pen to interact directly with any PC application or game Give presentations while adding ink and highlighter for emphasis Stay connected, using pen to communicate quietly (Outlook 2003 cached mode, Send/Receive over the internet via RPC over HTTP, MSN Messenger) Check calendar, contacts, agenda & attachments while walking to next meeting Take notes naturally using ink and audio in OneNote Markup & share web pages via Snipping tool Read and mark up documents without pushing print (Office 2003) Sketch, diagram & draw freely, with undo Enhance and show digital photos Show a map of any street in the US Use the pen to interact directly with any PC application or game

38 Steady progress in system software Improved text input in XPSP2 Writing pad appears in-place, grows, disappears Reco uses context Next major release in 06 codenamed Longhorn Simple On/off (incl. stand-by default) Auto-config of Extended Desktop and Conf. monitors Single-tap to open Visuals (cursors, feedback, fonts, icons etc.) Flick gestures and complementary button software More reco improvements incl. user vocabulary & auto- complete Ink Analysis APIs Improved text input in XPSP2 Writing pad appears in-place, grows, disappears Reco uses context Next major release in 06 codenamed Longhorn Simple On/off (incl. stand-by default) Auto-config of Extended Desktop and Conf. monitors Single-tap to open Visuals (cursors, feedback, fonts, icons etc.) Flick gestures and complementary button software More reco improvements incl. user vocabulary & auto- complete Ink Analysis APIs

39 Longhorn favorite features

40 Thank You!

41 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.


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