Presentation on theme: "LAB PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN THE FABRICATION OF FPD Prepared By:"— Presentation transcript:
LAB PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN THE FABRICATION OF FPD Prepared By:
INTRODUCTION Fabrication of a fixed partial denture involves the fabrication of the wax pattern, casting, soldering and finishing. Here we shall study in detail about these procedures Fabrication of a fixed partial denture involves the fabrication of the wax pattern, casting, soldering and finishing. Here we shall study in detail about these procedures.
MODELS,CAST,& DIES MODEL : It a positive replica of the teeth and adjacent structures used primarily for observation and diagnosis. CAST: A working model, master cast. DIE: Die is a positive replica of the individual pre-pared tooth on which the inlays,crowns,bridges are made. These are individual tooth replicas prepared for easier handling during wax pattern fabrication and finishing of inaccessible areas of the cast.
TYPES OF CAST AND DIE MATERIALS GYPSUM: a)Type IV-Dental stone, Highstrength b)Type V-dental stone,High Strength, high Expansion c)Dental stone+lignosulphonates METALS: a)Electroformed/Eletroplated. b)Sprayed metals. c)Amalgam.
POLYMERS; a)Metal-filled resins or inorganic filled resins. b)Epoxy. CEMENTS: a)silicophosphate or polyacrylic acid bonded cements. CERAMIC OR REFRACTORY DIE MATERIALS: CERAMIC OR REFRACTORY DIE MATERIALS: a)For direct baking of porcelain crown or preparation of wax pattern for casting. Type IV& Type V Stone dies, Electroformed dies, Epoxy resins, Refractory or materials are recommended die materials.
IDEAL PROPERTIES OF DIE MATERIALS 1.It should be dimensionally accurate. 2.It should have high abrasion resistance, should possess good strength,& have smooth surface. 3.Toughness – to allow burnishing of foil & resist breakage. 4.Ability to reproduce all fine details in the impression. 5.Compatibility with all impression materials. 6.Colour contrast with wax, porcelain & alloys. 7.Easy & quick manipulation & rapid fabrication. 8.Non-injurious to health by touch or inhalation. 9.Economic.
IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DIE SYSTEM The die should be easy to remove and replace in its original position. The die must be stable when placed in the cast. The die must be stable when placed in the cast. It should be easy to mount in the articulator It should be easy to mount in the articulator
TYPES OF DIES Based on the design, die systems can be classified into : 1WORKING CAST WITH SEPARATE DIE SYSTEM 2WORKING CAST WITH REMOVABLE DIE SYSTEM 2WORKING CAST WITH REMOVABLE DIE SYSTEM. There are three commonly used removable die systems, they are: a)Dowel pin system -Straight -Curved b)Di-lok tray system c)Pindex system 3ACCUTRAC SYSTEM
WORKING CAST & SEPARATE DIE SYSTEM Here, two casts are poured from a single impression and one cast is sectioned and used as a die and the other is not sectioned and is used as the working cast. The wax pattern is prepared on the die and later transferred to the working cast. The die is shaped and finished using an acrylic trimmer and the portion of the die below the cervical line is finished using a scalpel. Sharp undercuts in the base should be avoided. ADVANTAGE Simplest and easiest methodDISADVANTAGE The wax pattern may get distorted while transferring it from the die to the cast. Proximal margins tend to get overcontoured.
WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE SYSTEM In this system a special type of working cast is prepared and the dies are carefully sectioned so that the individual dies can be removed and replaced in their original position in the cast. Dowel pin systems, di-lok tray systems and the pindex systems come under this category.
DOWEL PIN SYSTEMS Dowel pins may be straight or curved: 1.STRAIGHT DOWEL PIN SYSTEMS They are prepared using two techniques, namely the pre-pour and post-pour techniques.
PRE-POUR TECHNIQUE Here the die pins are positioned in their appropriate places within the impression using bobby pins and sticky wax. The dowel pin is positioned within the impression using sticky wax After positioning the pins, the impression is poured up to the level of the alveolar process of the remaining teeth. First pour is poured upto the level of the alveolar process Separating medium is applied over the first pour and die pin and the remaining portion of the cast is poured. Separating medium is applied and the base is poured
After the cast is set, the dies are sectioned by placing vertical sections on the interproximal regions of the cast using a die sectioner or a manual saw. Vertical sections at the inter proximal regions should be made without damaging the contour of the adjacent teeth. Since the separating medium was applied before pouring the second half of the cast, the dies can be easily separated with vertical sections alone. The die is carefully separated from the cast without chipping. After removing the die, a small hole will be visible in the cast. This indexing hole will guide the pin into position while replacing the die The die is carefully separated from the cast without chipping. After removing the die, a small hole will be visible in the cast. This indexing hole will guide the pin into position while replacing the die.
POST-POUR TECHNIQUE Here, the cast is poured upto the level of the crowns of the teeth in the impression. Subsequently, small holes are drilled within the first pour in the required places and the dowel pins are cemented into the holes The remaining part of the cast is poured and the dies are sectioned as described in the pre- pour technique. ADVANTAGES Easy to prepare No special equipment is necessary DISADVANTAGES The pins may get displaced while pouring the cast.
2. CURVED DOWEL PIN SYSTEM This is similar to straight dowel pin technique except that curved pins are used. The curved pins will project from the sides of the base of the cast. When the projecting pins are pressed, the die unit attached to the respective pin will pop out from its place. Curved dowel pin system (pushing the pin from the side pops the die out).
B) DI-LOK TRAY SYSTEM This technique uses a special tray to pour the cast. This special tray has orientation grooves on the inner aspect. Actually the tray is made of multiple components, which can be assembled or dismantled as required (Fig. 33.7). Impression is poured using a two-pour technique. The first pour is poured up to the level of the impression and the second or base pour is poured after positioning the rim of the di-lok tray over the impression. Before the second pour is set, the base of the di-lok tray is assembled and the cast is allowed to set. Later, the di4ok tray is dismantled and the grooves on the base of the cast formed by the di-lok tray is used as a guide to do die sectioning. Advantages Simple and easy to prepare The cast can be mounted in an articulator Disadvantages Requires special equipments.
C) PINDEX SYSTEM This system is similar to the post-pour dowel pin technique. Here a special drill press equipment is used to do die sectioning. The drill press has a platform with a slot like opening through which the drill pin will project during the procedure. The entire platform is spring mounted and when pressed down automatically starts the drill, which will project through the slot. The unit has a red pilot light lamp on top, which will shoot a point exactly on the drill. This red pilot pointer will act as a guide while drilling (Fig. a). Fig - guide to drill holes in the base of the cast. The platform of the pindex machine is spring loaded. When the cast is passed against the platform, the motor will get activated and drill a hole in the casta. The cast is placed on the pindex machine and the pilot light is used as a
Die sectioning procedure is simple wherein the cast of 15 mm base is placed on the drill press and drill holes are prepared in the under surface of the base of the cast using the pilot light as a guide. After making the drill holes to the required depth, sleeved die pins are placed and cemented using cyanoacrylate adhesive. Remember that the holes will not be very deep. Hence a portion of the pins will be projecting from the base of the cast. Die sectioning procedure is simple wherein the cast of 15 mm base is placed on the drill press and drill holes are prepared in the under surface of the base of the cast using the pilot light as a guide. After making the drill holes to the required depth, sleeved die pins are placed and cemented using cyanoacrylate adhesive. Remember that the holes will not be very deep. Hence a portion of the pins will be projecting from the base of the cast.
After cementing the pins, a base is poured over the base of drilled cast. Consecutively the dies are sectioned but not upto the base as described in the dowel pin system. ADVANTAGES. Allows accurate placement of the die pins. Allows accurate placement of the die pins. DISADVANTAGES. Special equipment is required.
THE ACCUTRAC SYSTEM These dies are exclusively used in the fabrication of laminate veneers. Basically this system involves the fabrication of two casts as described in the working castwith separate die system. One cast (master cast) is sectioned into dies and used to prepare the coping. After preparing the wax pattern, the sectioned dies are reassembled in the master cast.
The master cast is blocked out with wax (filled with wax to seal the crevices). The second cast (refractory cast) is duplicated from the blocked out, sectioned, die master cast using addition silicone. The second cast is poured using specially formulated stone, whose expansion will compensate for the shrinkage of porcelain when fired in the furnace.