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Optical Navigation Division Abraham Chang Senior Field Application Engineer Avago Technology October 2008 Solving RF Chain Challenges with Solutions for.

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Presentation on theme: "Optical Navigation Division Abraham Chang Senior Field Application Engineer Avago Technology October 2008 Solving RF Chain Challenges with Solutions for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Optical Navigation Division Abraham Chang Senior Field Application Engineer Avago Technology October 2008 Solving RF Chain Challenges with Solutions for WiMAX and OFDM(A)

2 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 2 Agenda Brief WiMAX review and market picture WiMAX RF challenges Cost-effective approaches to solve RF challenges - Discrete Linear Amplifier Modules (LAM) - High power multi-throw switch - Power detect/temp sense/switch decoder - Thin laminate wideband filter Future: Combination of above capabilities into a highly integrated FEM for mobile applications

3 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 3 WiMAX review A cost-effective standard to increase data rates while replacing multiple existing standards for high data rate applications Utilizes spectrally efficient OFDMA technology Will be used in conjunction with WiFi and other standards to effectively cover large areas with high data rate service Intel white paper: WiMAX* and Wi-Fi* Together: Synergies for Next-Generation Broadband

4 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 4 How will it roll out to the end customer? Early rollouts to last-mile broadband wireless access applications in under-served regions Indoor and outdoor subscriber units for enterprise and personal use Dongles then embedded cards will allow access for mobility Handset applications later

5 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 5 WiMAX is being aggressively deployed WiMAX Deployments in 133 countries Red pins indicate d deployments, Yellow pins indicate e deployments Courtesy WiMAX Forum:

6 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 6 Manufacturers are betting on WiMAX Embedded Dongles Indoor subscriber units Outdoor subscriber units

7 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 7 WiMAX user base will grow

8 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 8 Comparison of the new e and the older d WiMAX standard specifications (d)802.16e Multiple Access MethodOFDM / OFDMAS-OFDMA Bandwidth supported (MHz) 1.75/3.5/5.5/5.7 OFDM 1.25/3.5/7/14/28 OFDMA 1.25/2.5/5/10/ /3/3.5/5.5/7 FFT size256 OFDM / 2048 OFDMA128/256/512/1024/2048 Sub Carrier spacing (KHz) MHz 2.8 5MHz 11.2 for all BW modes DuplexingFDD/TDD/Half duplex FDD Frame Duration (mS)2/2.5/5/8/10/12.5/202/2.5/4/5/8/10/12.5/20 Channel Coder Concatenated convolutional RS code, Block TC, CTC Concatenated convolutional RS code, Block TC, CTC, LDPC Sub-channelisation (DL)FUSC/PUSC/Band AMC Sub-channelisation (UL)PUSC/optional PUSC HARQ SupportYes [2048 OFDMA only]Yes Fast CQI feedbackYes [2048 OFDMA only]Yes AASYes STC support2/4 Antennas2/3/4 Antennas Frequency Reuse1 cell reuse not supported1 cell reuse can be supported Mobility Handoff supportNoYes Sleep ModesNoYes Data rates 75 Mbit/s max.30 Mbit/s max Multicast / Broadcast support NoYes Full Usage of Subchannels (FUSC) Partial Usage of Subchannels (PUSC) Convolutional Turbo Codes (CTC) space-time coding (STC) Advanced Antenna Subsystem (AAS) Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) not compatible

9 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 9

10 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 10 Mobile WiMAX Front End Block Diagram Shown below is one example of a 3.5GHz WiMAX FEM under development. A similar 2.5GHz FEM development is on the roadmap. Design Targets for Power Amplifier -Gain for 27 dBm Pout Designs 2.3GHz –2.7GHz 36 dB Typ 3.3GHz –3.9GHz 34 dB Typ -Operating Current (PA Only) 27dBm PA Design at 3.6V into 50 Ohms 2.5GHz 605mA 27dBm & 355mA 21dBm 3.6GHz 630mA 27dBm & 375mA 21dBm 25dBm PA Design at 3.6V into 50 Ohms 2.5GHz 440mA 25dBm & 225mA (9.8% 19dBm 3.6GHz 458mA 25dBm & 238mA (9.3% 19dBm Gain control 2 x dB steps BLN

11 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 11 Overview of challenges for the RF chain High linear power outputs at 2-6 GHz require power-hungry PAs Challenging for fixed applications - presents a greater challenge for portable and mobile applications - require long battery life at 3V, and small, thin form factors Co-located radios supporting multiple standards in small portable devices or handsets create switching, interference, and filtering problems

12 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 12 Challenges and Difficulties Need: Spectrum efficiency for high data-rate wireless communication Cause: OFDM(A) (5MHz, 10MHz, 20MHz ) PAR >11.48dB (Peak to Avg. Ratio) Effect: Need to back-off the PA to meet the linearity requirements at 26dBm ( P1dB>35dBm ) over 16% BW for battery-operated wireless portable/mobile gadgets at multiple power levels and interference-free performance Solution: High power, linear, efficient (LP and HP), low-cost and highly integrated module Going Forward: Supports multi-mode, and modulation-adaptable (WiFi, WiMAX, LTE) schemes within IP-based cellular structures

13 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 13 Design Approach Adapt a multi-carrier power amplifier approach Analyze the instantaneous time-domain behavior of the PA MMIC Develop an ultra linear power amplifier chain using Avagos pHEMT process Size each RF gain stage to minimize the spectral re-growth contribution to minimum to final stage Place fully temperature compensated bias network for each stage Discrete Linear Amplifier Module (LAM)

14 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 14 Discrete Linear Amplifier Module (LAM) Design Approach Implement broadband inter-stage and output matching networks Output matching network and supply bias feeds containing harmonic rejection circuits Optimize out-of-band transfer function to have minimum impact on the noise power performance for better RFIC interface Include all matching and DC-coupling components in the module to minimize number of external components for ease-of-use and low cost of ownership GND pins around RF pins for continuous ground path

15 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 15 Design Approach Optimize bias network for full pulse operation to support static and transient EVM performance Minimize memory effects leading towards symmetric upper and lower SEM performance Flatten large signal performance (Plinear and gain) to minimize calibration time during system integration Add provisions to have load-insensitive high dynamic range power detector, temperature sensor and gain step control – 2 nd generation LAMs potentially contain these functions Maximize heat transfer with maximum number of plugged thermal vias underneath PA MMIC Discrete Linear Amplifier Module (LAM)

16 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 16 Discrete Linear Amplifier Module (LAM) Performance Summary Achieved 25.5dBm linear power to meet 2.5% EVM and 11MHz of SEM requirements across full band Total current < 500mA WiFi Access PA ( GHz) Pout>23dBm Meet both ETSI and IEEE e SEM requirements Introduced dual-mode 2GHz PA to support WiMAX and WiFi mode

17 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 17 High Power Multi-Throw WiMAX Switch for WiMAX FEM SP4T WiMAX MIMO ( GHz) Design Approach Develop low insertion loss, high isolation and high power capacity multi- throw switch for WiMAX and WiFi MIMO operation using Avagos proprietary pHEMT process Improve the linearity of the thru switch section to handle WiMAX signal without contributing the overall distortion Design SP3T and SP4T from 2 to 6GHz

18 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 18 High Power Multi-Throw WiMAX Switch for WiMAX FEM Performance Summary Typical Insertion Loss <0.6dB Typical isolation >25dB IP1dB >35.5dBm GHz, GHz and 2-6GHz versions available SP3T WiMAX MIMO ( GHz)

19 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 19 PD + Temp. Sense + Switch Decoder for WiMAX FEM Pwr. Det. + Temp. Sense + Decoder On-chip ESD Multiplexed PD/TS out Linear-in-dB PD 1V 15dB 30mV/dB Offset PTAT TS (0.2V–1V)/(-30C-100C) 1-out-of-4 DECODER A10 CMOS (0.5x0.7mm 2 ) Size 0.5mm x 0.7mm On-chip ESD Fully functional logic Zero Current (Idd < 5nA) Adapts to a range of logic levels: 2V

20 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 20 Design Approach For low cost solutions, wide-band filter structures are designed to suppress the noise power generated by the RFICs as well as for the amplified noise by the PA Combine lumped element and SMT components to save space and cost Develop the filter topologies on coreless and dual core laminate substrates Employ full 3D EM simulators for accuracy and time-to-market Optimize the input and output for PA as well as multi-throw switch Wide-Band Filters on Laminate for WiMAX FEM

21 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 21 Wide-Band Filters on Laminate for WiMAX FEM Performance Summary Typical Insertion Loss <1.2dB Sufficient OOB rejection Fitted to 6x6x1 module size

22 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 22 FUTURE: WiMAX (MIMO) FEM for Mobile Applications Integration of Building Blocks All the building blocks are ready to integrate for low cost solution Employ Avagos proprietary semiconductor technologies Support MIMO operation Contain dual mode (WiMAX/WiFi) operations for high- level of integration Have provision for LNAs Target size = 6x6x1 Work with digital pre-D systems with consistent AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics Next step: Integrate these building blocks and release low-cost high performance WiMAX FEMs Under Developem ent

23 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 23 Under Developem ent

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27 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 27 Avago GaAsCap Package make Lower Cost

28 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 28 Avago can offer WiFi and WiMAX power amplifiers in a proprietary GaAsCap wafer scale packaging option. This would give the thinnest package product on the market, a very valuable option for FEM builders using LTCC since it would eliminate wire bond step and allow 1.2mm total FEM height. GaAsCap IC packaging option 700u 300u LTCC MMIC Plastic 200u 1.2mm Cap wafer Base wafer Backside Via Gasket Backside Via 10 mils thick

29 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 29

30 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 30 Avago WiMAX Released Product LNA PA

31 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 31 WLAN & WiMAX LNA in Ultra Thin Package *Pre-released products: Avago Technologies reserves the right to alter specifications, features, functions, markings, manufacturing release dates and general availability of the product at any time, including the right not to release the product shown in this slide Ultra thin (0.4mm) and miniature package Very low noise figure High linearity at low operating current Built in bias control & shutdown functions Low external component count P/N Freq (GHz) LNA ModeBypass Package (mm) Vd (V) Id (mA) NF (dB) IIP3 (dBm) Gain (dB) IP1dB (dBm) IL (dB) IIP3 (dBm) MGA-645T x1.3x0.4 MGA-655T x1.3x0.4 MGA-675T6* N/A 2x1.3x0.4 Surface Mount 2x1.3x0.4 mm 3 UTSLP Note: MGA-675T6 does not have bypass switch MGA-645T6 Market Release d !

32 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 32 Pre-released products: Avago Technologies reserves the right to alter specifications, features, functions, markings, manufacturing release dates and general availability of the product at any time, including the right not to release the product shown in this slide Value Propositions Low operating voltage (3.3V or 5V) Low current, high efficiency Integrated switch control attenuator Integrated shutdown and power detector Fully matched RF Input and output MCOB 5x5x1.1 mm 3 Mobile WiMAX Linear Power Amplifier Note 1: Linear Output power measured at 64QAM OFDMA modulation per IEEE e specs Part numberALM-42216ALM Freq range (GHz) Test freq (GHz) Vdd (V)3.3 Ids (mA) Pout (dBm)22.5 EVM (%)2.5% PAE (%)13% Gain (dB)3028 Pwr DetYes Idq (mA) Atte. (dB)20 Package (mm)5x5x1.1 P1dB (dBm) MatchingFull SamplesAvailable Functional block diagram Shutdown Detector Market Release d !

33 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 33 WLAN & WiMAX ½ W Driver Amplifiers *Pre-released products: Avago Technologies reserves the right to alter specifications, features, functions, markings, manufacturing release dates and general availability of the product at any time, including the right not to release the product shown in this slide ½ Watt High Linearity Smart FET High linearity and P-1dB at low operating current Built in adjustable temperature compensation circuit Low external component count Standard 3x3 LPCC package 5V Supply P/N Freq (GHz) Typical Performance Package (mm) Vd (V) Id (mA) NF (dB) IP3 (dBm) Gain (dB) P1dB (dBm) MGA-30216* x3x1 MGA-30316* x3x1 MGA-30116* x3x1 Vdd Rbias RFin RFout MGA-30X16 Market Release d !

34 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 34 WLAN & WiMAX 1 W Driver Amplifiers *Pre-released products: Avago Technologies reserves the right to alter specifications, features, functions, markings, manufacturing release dates and general availability of the product at any time, including the right not to release the product shown in this slide 1 Watt High Linearity Amplifier Fully Matched Module High linearity and P-1dB at low operating current Unconditionally stable across load conditions Built in adjustable temperature compensation circuit 5x6 MCOB Module package 5V Supply P/N Freq (GHz) Typical Performance Package (mm) Vd (V) Id (mA) NF (dB) IP3 (dBm) Gain (dB) P1dB (dBm) ALM-31222* x6x1.1 ALM-31322* x6x1.1 ALM-31122* x6x1.1 ALM-322XX* x10x1.1 Vdd bias RFin RFout Input match Output match Vctrl ALM-31X22 Market Release d !

35 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 35 FBAR WiFi/WiMAX Filter Technologies

36 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 36 WiMAX Spectrum US WCS- licensed MMDS/ITFS - licensed UMTS extension band (Band VII guard band) licensed Fixed Broadband Spectrum extension to 3800 more limited licensed UNII Upper band GHz US Europe e New WRC UNII Low, Mid bands ISM UNII Upper band New WRC UNII Low, Mid bands ISM b,g a WiFi Spectrum Solid: initial WiMAX profile Striped: future WiMAX profile GHz ISM 5125=5850 ISM US Europe

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40 Avago's RF Solutions to WiMAXPage 40 Thank you. For additional information, visit


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