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Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR/TDT and S Parameters Measurement Applications and Examples 86100C Option 202.

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Presentation on theme: "Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR/TDT and S Parameters Measurement Applications and Examples 86100C Option 202."— Presentation transcript:

1 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR/TDT and S Parameters Measurement Applications and Examples 86100C Option 202

2 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Outline Importance of TDR and S- parameter measurements One port TDR Two port TDR Case study – PC board Case study - backplane Go In screen show mode, jump to desired section by clicking Go

3 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Impedance Problems are Everywhere! Connector Custom Connector Cable DIMM PCB Motherboard Backplane RouterStorage Area Network IC package Components Subassemblies Systems

4 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Required Parameters by Standard StandardMax Freq, GHz ImpedanceReturn Loss Attenu- ation Crosstal k PCI Express Gen 25XXX PCI Express1.25XXXX PCI-XXX Serial Attached SCSI7.5X IPCN/AX Fully Buffered DIMM2.4X IEEE 802.3aeXX Infiniband6.3XXX Serial ATA4.5XXX EIA N/AXX EIA-108N/AXX HDMI4.1XXX DVI4.1X Firewire8XXX USB XX RapidIO8

5 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Agilents Signal Integrity Portfolio 86100C Opt Opt

6 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X New 86100C Capabilities FeatureBenefit TDR Calibration and N1024 Calibration Kit Higher yields through more accurate measurements Quickly see impact of rise times S-parameters with new wizard* Time and frequency domain with one button click Export to Touchstone files* Use S-parameters to model devices and systems Corrected Impedance Profile* (peeling) Compensate measurements for large discontinuities Minimum/maximum/average Quickly compare values against standards limits Excess reactance Obtain value for equivalent circuit components * Indicates feature is provided in Option 202

7 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Applications for the One Port TDR (Slides 8-32) Measuring characteristic impedance and uniformity of a transmission line Measuring time delay of a transmission line Accurate measurement of signal speed in a transmission line Extracting bulk dielectric constant of the laminate Building a model of a discontinuity Building a high bandwidth model of a component Directly emulating the impact on a signal with the system rise time from a discontinuity

8 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Simple & Intuitive User Interface

9 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured TDR response - microstrip transmission line TDR from reference open TDR from DUT Top trace is the reflection from the end of the cable Bottom trace is the reflected signal from the DUT

10 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to measure the characteristic impedance of a transmission line

11 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using advanced settings function to adjust the vertical scale to display the impedance directly

12 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X The same transmission line displayed on the impedance scale at 10 Ohms per division, with 50 Ohms in the center

13 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X High resolution TDR profile of a nominally uniform transmission line

14 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X High resolution TDR response from each end of the same uniform transmission line, verifying the impedance variation is real TDR from left end launch TDR from right end launch

15 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR response with markers showing the beginning and end of the traces TDR from reference open TDR from 6 inch uniform line

16 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR response of a uniform transmission line with two small reference pads, located on 4 inch centers

17 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR response from a microstrip with 2 reference pads, using markers to measure the round trip time delay

18 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Stripline construction and extracting the bulk dielectric constant stripline

19 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Effective Dielectric Constant in microstrip microstrip Dk~ 4 Dk = 1

20 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using a field Solver to Back Out the Bulk Dielectric Constant from the effective dielectric constant Dk eff = 3.34 Dk bulk = 4.48

21 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR response from a uniform transmission line having a small test pad

22 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using the excess reactance feature to extract the capacitance of a test pad

23 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess capacitance of the SMA launch

24 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess capacitance of two corners

25 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess inductance of a short gap in the return path

26 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess inductance of a large gap in the return path

27 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess inductance of an axial lead termination resistor

28 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Using markers to extract the excess inductance of a SMT termination resistor

29 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X DUT Incident wave Reflected wave Transmitted wave S11 S21 Incident wave Reflected wave Transmitted wave TDR TDT t t DUT Relationship of TDR and S Parameters

30 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Converted S11 of the SMT termination resistor

31 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X ADS model of resistor and the measured and simulated S parameters Z0 = 48.8 Ohms TD = 0.06 nsec R = 48.5 Ohms L = nH

32 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Emulating system rise time responses for a 200 mil long neck down region with effective rise times = 40, 100, 200, 500 psec RT = 40 psec RT = 100 psec RT = 200 psec RT = 500 psec

33 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Applications for the 2-port TDR (Slides 34-70) TDR/TDT 1.Measuring insertion loss and return loss 2.Extracting dielectric constant of the laminate 3.Extracting dissipation factor of the laminate 4.Measuring the bandwidth of the interconnect 5.Identifying design features that contribute to excessive loss TDR/cross talk 6.Measuring NEXT 7.Measuring FEXT 8.Emulating FEXT for different system rise times 9.Identifying design features that contribute to NEXT 10.Exploring the impact of terminations on NEXT and FEXT 11.Measuring ground bounce 12.Identifying design features that contribute to ground bounce 13.Emulating ground bounce noise for different system rise times Differential TDR (DTDR) 14.Measuring each of the five impedance associated with a differential pair 15.Measuring the degree of coupling between lines in a differential pair 16.Measuring the differential impedance of a twisted pair cable 17.Measuring the reflected noise of a differential signal crossing a gap in the return path 18.Emulating the reflected noise at the system rise time for a differential signal crossing a gap 19.Measuring the mode conversion in a differential pair 20.Identifying specific physical features that contribute to mode conversion in a differential pair.

34 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Configuration for TDR/TDT Measurements TDR stimulus TDR response TDT response

35 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X User Wizard for TDR/TDT operation

36 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Example of TDR/TDT response from 8 inch long microstrip transmission line on 20 mV/div and 500 psec/div scales Transmitted response Reflected response

37 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR/TDT response converted into frequency domain for return loss/insertion loss Insertion loss of reference thru Insertion loss of DUTReturn loss of DUT

38 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Return and insertion loss of a 24 inch interconnect on a motherboard with two daughtercards Insertion loss of DUT Return loss of DUT

39 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X ADS modeling of a uniform 8 inch long microstrip, showing the bandwidth of the simple model to be ~12 GHz Dk = 4.43 H1 = 60 mils TanD = Len = 8 inches W1 = 125 mils BW of the model is ~ 12 GHz

40 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured insertion loss of a reference thru, a uniform line (DUT-1) and a uniform line that is part of a differential pair (DUT-2) Insertion loss of reference thru Insertion loss of DUT-1 Insertion loss of DUT-2

41 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X ADS model of the 9 inch long trace, modeling the coupling to the adjacent, quiet line, showing the bandwidth of the model to be ~ 8 GHz Dk = 4.43 H1 = 60 mils TanD = Len = 9 inches W1 = 125 mils S1 = 115 mils

42 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Changing Separation between the two transmission lines showing the impact on the insertion loss dip Similar coupled stripline w = 125 mils, s = 115 mils Simulated stripline insertion loss Edge to edge spacing, in mils

43 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Configuration for two port TDR measurements TDR stimulus TDR response TDT response FEXT NEXT Active or aggressor line Quiet or victim line

44 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measurement of the NEXT on a quiet line using the marker

45 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measuring both the NEXT and FEXT with the second channel in the TDR Measured at near end and at far end, all ends terminated

46 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Emulating the FEXT with different system rise time responses with RT = 100, 200, 500, 1nsec Measured at near end, far ends of active and quiet lines open RT = 1 nsec RT = 500 psec RT = 200 psec RT = 100 psec

47 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured TDR response of 24 inch long trace in a mother board using markers to measure the impedance in the daughter card and mother board

48 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured NEXT and FEXT in a 24 inch long trace on a mother board, with all ends terminated FEXT NEXT TDR response

49 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured cross talk in quiet line with worst case termination FEXT NEXT TDR response (port 1) Measured at far end (port 2) 1 2 open

50 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Tightly coupled pair of transmission lines with small gaps in the return path that will generate ground bounce Short gap in the return path Longer gap in the return path

51 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X TDR of a single ended transmission line crossing gaps in the return path, showing the inductive discontinuities

52 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured ground bounce on the quiet line from gaps in the return path Near end noise TDR response

53 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Emulating impact of rise time on the ground bounce noise in a pair of coupled lines with a rise time of 500 psec Near end noise RT = 500 psec TDR response RT = 500 psec

54 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured TDR response of a single line crossing a large gap in the return path and the ground bounce noise in the quiet line Near end noise TDR response 50 mV/div FEXT

55 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Emulating ground bounce noise from large gap at rise times of 100 psec and 1 nsec Near end noise RT = 1 nsec TDR response RT = 1 nsec

56 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Configuration for differential pair characterization Line 1 Line 2 Differential stimulus Line 1 Line 2 Common stimulus

57 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X DTDR Set up screen for differential measurements

58 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured TDR response of a single transmission line configured for the even mode, single ended and odd mode Odd mode impedance Single ended impedance Even mode impedance

59 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Three impedances of a single line displayed directed on an impedance scale Odd mode impedance Single ended impedance Even mode impedance

60 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured odd mode impedance of each line in a differential pair, displayed directly on an impedance scale

61 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured even mode impedance of each line in a differential pair, displayed directly on an impedance scale

62 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured differential impedance of a pair of microstrip traces, displayed directly on an impedance scale

63 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured common impedance of a pair of microstrip traces, displayed directly on an impedance scale

64 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Comparison of the measured single ended impedance and odd mode impedance of a single line in a long motherboard trace Single ended impedance Odd mode impedance

65 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured differential impedance of two different twisted pair cables connected to a coax launch Twisted pair in telephone cable Twisted pair in cat V Ethernet cable

66 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured reflected common signal from a coax to twisted pair transition with an incident common signal Differential impedance Common impedance

67 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured differential impedance profile of a differential pair crossing a wide gap in the return path Single ended TDR Differential TDR

68 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Emulating the differential impedance profile of a differential signal crossing a large gap at four different rise times 10 Ohms/div RT = 100 psec RT = 200 psec RT = 500 psec RT = 1 nsec

69 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured mode conversion from differential to common signal due to an asymmetry on one line in a pair Received common signal component DTDR response Open far end Small capacitive asymmetry on one line SMA launch

70 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Measured mode conversion on a differential pair when the capacitive asymmetry is moved from one line to the other Capacitive asymmetry on line 1 Capacitive asymmetry on line 2

71 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Case Study – Typical PC Board

72 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Ability of TDR Calibration to Improve TDR Rise Time through Lossy or Dispersive Paths Calibrated at end of 1m RF cables, measure shorts for fall time Shorts and fall time are chosen to eliminate effect of fringing capacitance at the end of an unterminated line Edge speed has improved from 79 to 25ps Yields very clean pulse

73 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Ability of TDR Calibration to Improve TDR Rise Time through Lossy or Dispersive Paths Calibrated at right end of adapter (female 3.5mm) Placed shorts there to characterize fall time Improved edge speed from 553ps to 83ps Much cleaner step Differential PC board traces

74 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Benefits of TDR Calibration Ability to correct for TDR step aberrations Ability to improve edge speeds through lossy and dispersive lines These two abilities yield better measurement accuracy of impedances in typical measurement situation (not at the front panel of the test instrument), particularly when looking at closely-spaced discontinuities These same benefits are available when calibrating at probe tip using a calibration substrate

75 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Ability of TDR Calibration to Improve Accuracy through Lossy or Dispersive Paths Calibrated at front panel of TDR module; measured as two single ended-traces to transition into differential lines For balanced lines, can add two single-ended measurements to obtain differential (cald at = ohms; raw ~ 62 ohms)

76 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Ability of TDR Calibration to Improve Accuracy through Lossy or Dispersive Paths Calibrated at right end of cable (female SMA) Measured impedance of 32in board of 1/3 of differential trace Blue trace is uncalibrated; yellow trace is calibrated Note ability to more accurately see large discontinuities Differential PC board traces

77 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Ability of TDR Calibration to Improve Accuracy through Lossy or Dispersive Paths Calibrated at right end of male-to-male adapter Measured impedance to third bend in differential trace Red trace is uncalibrated; yellow trace is calibrated Note ability to more accurately see large discontinuities Differential PC board traces Differential PC Board traces

78 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Comparison of Results Reference Plane>>At Front Panel End of 1m Cables End of 1m Cables & 12in Board Calibrated Uncalibrated Other TDR instruments in the industry which lack TDR calibration would roughly provide the uncalibrated results

79 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Viewing Correction Prior to Reference Plane Measured loads at front panel – scale at 2 ohms/divn Only noise from digital filter

80 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Viewing Correction Prior to Reference Plane Calibrated at right end of cable Measured 12in board No aberrations prior to reference plane at 5 ohms per division Differential PC board traces

81 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Viewing Correction Prior to Reference Plane Calibrated at right end of male-to-male adapter Measured 32in board Note only ripple from digital filter (set at 10ohms per division to see impedance traces) Setting Effective Rise Time to >100ps eliminates ripple (compare to raw trace with fall time of ~550ps) Differential PC board traces Differential PC Board traces

82 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Comparison of Differential Stimulus Agilent steps agree within mV Another suppliers steps agree within 9-10mV

83 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Case Study - Channel Increasing the Rate on a 3Gb/s Backplane XAUI at 3.125Gb/s Four layers, each with differential transmit & receive pairs 16 length

84 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Backplane Trace Layout Layer Tx1 Rx1 Tx2 Rx2 Tx3 Rx3 Tx4 Rx4 Channel PairsTest Ports 12 34

85 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Assess Channel Impedance Using TDR Connector Launch Ckt card vias Backplane vias Yellow is Layer 1 Green is Layer

86 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Via Stubs Create Capacitive Loads How is a Via Stub Created? Signal current splits in two directions and sees two 50 ohm lines in parallel (25 ohms) Excess capacitance is created by a 25 ohm segment of equivalent circuit Reflections and poor signal integrity results Better (no stub) i i Poorer (stub) i i1i1 i2i2 Layer 4 Layer 1

87 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Assess Channel Using TDT Blue is Layer 1 TDT Red is Layer 4 TDT Channels are different by 129ps

88 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Single-ended S-Parameters Return Loss or TDR Insertion Loss or TDT Near End Crosstalk (NEXT) Far End Crosstalk (FEXT) Four-port single-ended device Port 1 Port 3 Port 2 Port 4 Frequency Domain Parameters

89 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Single-ended and Differential S-Parameters SSSS SSSS SSSS SSSS Stimulus Response Port 1 Single-ended Port 3 Port 2 Port 4 Balanced port 1 Balanced port 2 21CC 11CC 21DC 11DC S S S 22 CC 12CC 22 DC 12DC S S S SS 21CD 11CD 21DD 11DD S S S 22 CD 12CD 22DD 12DD S S S SS Port 1 Port 2 Differential- Mode Stimulus Common-Mode Stimulus Port 1 Port 2 Port 1 Port 2 Differential- Mode Response Common- Mode Response Naming Convention: S mode res., mode stim., port res., port stim.

90 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Assess Channel Using S-parameters Can export data to Touchstone for analysis Return loss is required by many standards ISI usually increases with channel attenuation S11 is Layer 1 Return Loss S33 is Layer 4 Return Loss S21 is Layer 1 Attenuation S43 is Layer 4 Attenuation Layer 4 has dB more loss

91 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Backplane Trace Connections - Crosstalk Layer Tx1 Rx1 Tx2 Rx2 Tx3 Rx3 Tx4 Rx4 Channel PairsTest Ports

92 Group/Presentation Title Agilent Restricted Month ##, 200X Assess Crosstalk Typical spec in standards is 20-26dB Blue is Layer 1 Red is Layer 4


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