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**ELASTICITY Elasticity Elasticity of Composites Viscoelasticity**

Elasticity: Theory, Applications and Numerics Martin H. Sadd Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (2005)

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Revise modes of deformation, stress, strain and other basics (click here) before starting this chapter etc.

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**What kind of mechanical behaviour phenomena does one have to understand?**

Phenomenologically mechanical behaviour can be understood as in the flow diagram below. Multiple mechanisms may be associated with these phenomena (e.g. creep can occur by diffusion, grain boundary sliding etc.). These phenomena may lead to the failure of a material. Mechanical Behaviour Elasticity Recoverable deformation Plasticity Permanent deformation Fracture Propagation of cracks in a material Fatigue Oscillatory loading Creep Elongation at constant load at High temperatures Note: above is a ‘broad’ classification for ‘convenience’. E.g. Creep is also leads to plastic deformation!

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**Instantaneous Elastic Time dependent Deformation Instantaneous Plastic**

Recoverable Instantaneous Elastic Time dependent Anelasticity Deformation Instantaneous Plastic Time dependent Permanent Viscoelasticity

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**Elasticity Linear Elasticity Non-linear**

Elastic deformation is reversible deformation- i.e. when load/forces/constraints are released the body returns to its original configuration (shape and size). Elastic deformation can be caused by tension/compression or shear forces. Usually in metals and ceramics elastic deformation is seen at low strains (less than ~10–3). The elastic behaviour of metals and ceramics is usually linear. Linear E.g. Al deformed at small strains Elasticity Non-linear E.g. deformation of an elastomer like rubber

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**A,B,m,n → constants m > n**

Atomic model for elasticity Let us consider the stretching of bonds (leading to elastic deformation). Atoms in a solid feel an attractive force at larger atomic separations and feel a repulsive force (when electron clouds ‘overlap too much’) at shorter separations. (At very large separations there is no force felt). The energy and the force (which is a gradient of the energy field) display functional behaviour as below. Energy Force Attractive Repulsive The plots of these functions is shown in the next slide A,B,m,n → constants m > n

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**Repulsive Repulsive r0 Force (F) → Potential energy (U) → r → r → r0**

Attractive Attractive r0 Equilibrium separation

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**Elastic modulus is the slope of the Force-interatomic spacing curve (F-r curve), at the**

Near r0 the red line (tangent to the F-r curve at r = r0) coincides with the blue line (F-r) curve Force → r → r0 For displacements around r0 → Force-displacement curve is approximately linear THE LINEAR ELASTIC REGION

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**Young’s modulus (Y / E)****

Young’s modulus is :: to the –ve slope of the F-r curve at r = r0 Stress → Tension strain → Compression ** Young’s modulus is not an elastic modulus but an elastic constant

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**> T C Stress-strain curve for an elastomer Tension**

T due to uncoiling of polymer chains Stress → C strain → T Due to efficient filling of space Compression T > C

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Other elastic moduli = E. E → Young’s modulus = G. G → Shear modulus hydrodynami = K.volumetric strain K → Bulk modulus

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**Bonding and Elastic modulus**

Materials with strong bonds have a deep potential energy well with a high curvature high elastic modulus Along the period of a periodic table the covalent character of the bond and its strength increase systematic increase in elastic modulus Down a period the covalent character of the bonding ↓ ↓ in Y On heating the elastic modulus decrease: 0 K → M.P, 10-20% ↓ in modulus Along the period → Li Be B Cdiamond Cgraphite Atomic number (Z) 3 4 5 6 Young’s Modulus (GN / m2) 11.5 289 440 1140 8 Down the row → Cdiamond Si Ge Sn Pb Atomic number (Z) 6 14 32 50 82 Young’s Modulus (GN / m2) 1140 103 99 52 16

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**Anisotropy in the Elastic modulus**

In a crystal the interatomic distance varies with direction → elastic anisotropy Elastic anisotropy is especially pronounced in materials with ► two kinds of bonds E.g. in graphite E [1010] = 950 GPa, E [0001] = 8 GPa ► Two kinds of ordering along two directions E.g. Decagonal QC E [100000] E [000001]

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**Young’s Modulus (GN / m2)**

Material dependence Elastic modulus Property Geometry dependence Elastic modulus in design Stiffness of a material is its ability to resist elastic deformation of deflection on loading → depends on the geometry of the component. High modulus in conjunction with good ductility should be chosen (good ductility avoids catastrophic failure in case of accidental overloading) Covalently bonded materials- e.g. diamond have high E (1140 GPa) BUT brittle Ionic solids are also very brittle Ionic solids → NaCl MgO Al2O3 TiC Silica glass Young’s Modulus (GN / m2) 37 310 402 308 70

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METALS ► First transition series → good combination of ductility & modulus (200 GPa) ► Second & third transition series → even higher modulus, but higher density POLYMERS ► Polymers can have good plasticity → but low modulus dependent on ◘ the nature of secondary bonds- Van der Walls / hydrogen ◘ presence of bulky side groups ◘ branching in the chains Unbranched polyethylene E = 0.2 GPa, Polystyrene with large phenyl side group E = 3 GPa, 3D network polymer phenol formaldehyde E = 3-5 GPa ◘ cross-linking

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**Increasing the modulus of a material**

METALS ► By suitably alloying the Young’s modulus can be increased ► But E is a structure (microstructure) insensitive property the increase is fraction added ► TiB2 (~ spherical, in equilibrium with matrix) added to Fe to increase E COMPOSITES ► A second phase (reinforcement) can be added to a low E material to ↑ E (particles, fibres, laminates) ► The second phase can be brittle and the ductility is provided by the matrix → if reinforcement fractures the crack is stopped by the matrix

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**Aligned fiber composite Particulate composite**

COMPOSITES Laminate composite Aligned fiber composite Particulate composite Modulus parallel to the direction of the fiberes Under iso-strain conditions I.e. parallel configuration m-matrix, f-fibre, c-composite Volume fractions

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**Composite modulus in isostress and isostrain conditions**

Voigt averaging Under iso-strain conditions [m = f = c] I.e. ~ resistances in series configuration Under iso-stress conditions [m = f = c] I.e. ~ resistances in parallel configuration Usually not found in practice Reuss averaging Ef Isostrain Ec → Isostress For a given fiber fraction f, the modulii of various conceivable composites lie between an upper bound given by isostrain condition and a lower bound given by isostress condition Em f A B Volume fraction →

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