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Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond

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Presentation on theme: "Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond"— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond
Technology Briefing on Materials at Farnborough 04 Airshow July 20-21, 2004 Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond

2 Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond
Technology Briefing on Materials at Farnborough 04 Airshow July 20-21, 2004 Presented by Alain Garcia Executive Vice President Airbus Engineering Jürgen Klenner Senior Vice President Materials for airframes, the A380 and beyond

3 Superior airframe: Airbus vision
CUSTOMER Maintenance free airframe Highest performance Environmentally friendly airframe AIRBUS ENVIRONMENT

4 The Airbus airframe philosophy
Airbus sustained leadership in advanced aircraft structures by: Being always at the forefront of technology. Applying the most advanced structure technologies as a prime goal since the beginning of Airbus. Considering customer needs, performance, environment/health & safety aspects. Pushing new technologies, carefully evaluated and introduced step-by-step as soon as they are matured. Fostering the competition between different materials to exploit their physical potentials and enhance their performance.

5 Materials for airframes
Broad experience Repairability Static behavior Improvement potential Strengths Fatigue behavior Low density No corrosion Best suited for smart structures Improved fatigue Better “tailoring” Higher fire “resistance” Less corrosion (compared to Al-alloys) High density Fatigue behavior Corrosion behavior High costs of new alloys Weaknesses Impact behavior No “plasticity” Repairability Recycling Lower stiffness Higher density Less industrialized process (compared to CFRP) Metals (Al-alloys) Composites (CFRP) Fiber Metal Laminates

6 What the airframe requires
Upper skin: Compression/stability Lower skin: Tension/crack growth Bending and Torsion Longitudinal stress Static/residual strength Crack growth Impact Shear stress Bending Impact Hoop stress and longi- tudinal stress Shear stress due to trans- verse shear and torsion Impact Compression due to bending, stability, static strength, corrosion resistance Hoop stress Impact High local loads

7 Composites vs. metal: The benefit of competition
1970 1980 1990 2000 2020 2010 CFRP design Fairings Pressure bulkhead Keel beam Floor panels Al-Li LBW, extrusions Metal design GLARE®, LBW, EBW, Ti alloys CFRP Fuselage Fuselage section Center wing box Adaptive Structures, SHM FSW, Al-Sc advanced Al casting Successor GLARE® Moveables, Rudder VTP, HTP Flaps, CFRP Wing effect effetc

8 How Airbus airframes have evolved
A300/A310 A320 A330/A340 A380 A400M CFRP primary structure: Center Wing Box, Rear fuselage, wing ribs Higher modulus carbon fibers Upper fuselage: fiber metal laminate LBW, Electron Beam Welding Resin film infusion Automated fiber placement New Al-, Ti-alloys CFRP primary structure: flaps, horizontal tailplane (HTP) Automated Tape laying Laser Beam Welding (LBW) (A318) CFRP primary structure: HTP as fuel tank CFRP primary structure: pressure bulkhead, keel beam, floor panels (A ) Resin infusion techniques Thermoplastic CFRP (A ) New Al-alloys GFRP fairings, radome, fin leading edges CFRP movables: spoilers, airbrakes, rudder CFRP primary structure: fin (A ) CFRP wing further airframe innovations … 1974 (EIS)

9 Airbus: The leader in CFRP technology
A400M A380 CFRP structural weight % A A A320 A310/200 A300 Year

10 Airbus: The leader in metal technology
Advanced metal technologies Laser Beam Welding (LBW) New Al-alloys: e.g. Al-Li New Ti-alloys Electron Beam Welding Friction Stir Welding Extrusions, Castings, … Example: section 18, lower panel Stringer to skin LBW Stringer guiding system Beam guidance

11 Airbus: The leader in fiber metal laminates (FML)
GLARE® application in A380 upper fuselage and D-noses (HTP, VTP) High performance FML (e.g. improved static strength, improved stiffness) Example: section 18, main deck panel 500 µm GLARE® Micrograph Composite material (GFRP) Aluminum material

12 A380: The most advanced airframe (examples)
CFRP Floor Beams for Upper Deck CFRP Wing Ribs CFRP Section 19.1 CFRP Section 19 GLARE® CFRP Center Wing Box Integral Structures (LBW) More Ti & New Ti-processing (electron beam welding)

13 New horizon: The “intelligent” aircraft structure
Further approaching the Superior Airframe Vision, Airbus is aiming at the “intelligent” structure: Best suited to local airframe needs, i.e. optimised hybrid design Self-monitoring and reacting Adaptable to changing requirements Highest tolerance towards external effects to enable: Leading edge of performance Minimum maintenance, extended operational life Highest possible environmental friendliness

14 Structure Health Monitoring – Aspect of Airbus “intelligent” airframe
Human nervous system: The brain detects intensity and location of pain and judges when to go to the doctor. Evaluation SHM system: The SHM System checks the structure and evaluates the follow up actions for maintenance. SHM 1st Generation: Maintenance cost reduction, increased aircraft availability SHM 2nd and 3rd Generation: New design philosophy enabling weight reduction

15 “Intelligent” aircraft structure: more than SHM
Self-Cleaning Self-Monitoring Adaptive Structure Self-Healing Nano-Materials Nanotechnology Sensors Material Matched New Design Synergy between fuselage and cabin interior

16 Future Airbus airframe technology
High performance “Intelligent” airframe Advanced composite & metallic materials New Composite material applications Optimized material matched design Composites adapted design Airbus airframe vision 2st, 3rd Generation SHM Fiber Metal Laminates Nanotechnology: materials & sensors New metals and adapted design 1st Generation Structural Health Monitoring Composites primary & secondary structure Adaptive structures New material processes 1970 1990 2010 2030

17 Conclusion Best materials and related technologies have been used/will be used in future in Airbus airframe for the specific application: THE BEST MATERIAL FOR THE SPECIFIC APPLICATION not ONE MATERIAL FOR ALL. The philosophy of best material use leads to a hybrid airframe adapted to the local specific requirements (mixture of different materials). The high performance “intelligent” Airbus airframe is: - optimized regarding new materials matched design - self-monitoring and reacting - adaptable to changing requirements The high performance “intelligent” Airbus airframe technology is introduced step-by-step after demonstrating maturity, securing the leading role of Airbus in airframe technology

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