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Cleanroom Technology Farshid Karbassian. Outline 2 Contaminants Contaminants Yield Yield Historical Overview Historical Overview Killer Particles Killer.

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Presentation on theme: "Cleanroom Technology Farshid Karbassian. Outline 2 Contaminants Contaminants Yield Yield Historical Overview Historical Overview Killer Particles Killer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cleanroom Technology Farshid Karbassian

2 Outline 2 Contaminants Contaminants Yield Yield Historical Overview Historical Overview Killer Particles Killer Particles Cleanroom Classification Cleanroom Classification Cleanroom Structure Cleanroom Structure Garments Garments Cleanroom Protocols Cleanroom Protocols

3 Contamination Contamination can be considered as anything which has an effect on the quality or performance of something being created. Contamination can be considered as anything which has an effect on the quality or performance of something being created. Contaminates can take the form of particulate, biopollutants, chemical cross-contamination or electrical charges, which individually or collectively can have a deleterious effect on product or process performance. Contaminates can take the form of particulate, biopollutants, chemical cross-contamination or electrical charges, which individually or collectively can have a deleterious effect on product or process performance. 3

4 Contamination Control Contamination control is a key element in the concept of the zero defect philosophy. Contamination control is a key element in the concept of the zero defect philosophy. By working within a controlled area like a cleanroom, some pollutants can be filtered out, others eliminated by improvements in the production environment. By working within a controlled area like a cleanroom, some pollutants can be filtered out, others eliminated by improvements in the production environment. 4

5 Types of Contaminants dust dust bacteria bacteria chemicals chemicals electrical charges electrical charges Whilst there are many different potential contaminants, these four pose the greatest threat: 5

6 Yield Yield determines weather a fab is making profit or losing money. Yield determines weather a fab is making profit or losing money. It depends on many factors, including people, environment, materials, equipment, and processes. It depends on many factors, including people, environment, materials, equipment, and processes. Wafer yield, die yield, and packaging yield Wafer yield, die yield, and packaging yield 6

7 Wafer Yield Wafer yield depends on processing and wafer handling. Wafer yield depends on processing and wafer handling. Careless human handling and robot malfunction or miscalibration can break the brittle wafers. Careless human handling and robot malfunction or miscalibration can break the brittle wafers. Faulty processes e.g. wrong dopant concentration, poor uniformity, or large amount of particles on wafers can also ruin wafers. Faulty processes e.g. wrong dopant concentration, poor uniformity, or large amount of particles on wafers can also ruin wafers. 7

8 Die & Packaging Yields Die yield is related to factors such as particle contamination, process maintenance, and total process steps. Die yield is related to factors such as particle contamination, process maintenance, and total process steps. Packaging yield relates to the wire bonding quality and specification difference between the die test and the chip final test. Packaging yield relates to the wire bonding quality and specification difference between the die test and the chip final test. The overall yield is the product of all three equations. The overall yield is the product of all three equations. 8

9 Yield More than 300 steps to build an IC. More than 300 steps to build an IC. The die yield of 99% at each process step will lead to overall yield of 4.9%! The die yield of 99% at each process step will lead to overall yield of 4.9%! Y= 28/32=87.5%Y= 2/6=33.3% 9

10 Cleanroom History Cleanroom is an environment that has much lower particle counts than normal environments. Cleanroom is an environment that has much lower particle counts than normal environments. Cleanrooms were Cleanrooms were historically used in historically used in operating rooms to operating rooms to prevent post surgery prevent post surgery infection. infection. 10

11 CleanroomsCleanrooms Microelectronics and the pharmaceutical industries started using cleanrooms in the 60s and 70s. Microelectronics and the pharmaceutical industries started using cleanrooms in the 60s and 70s. Since the 80s other industries e.g. optical, biotechnology, telecommunications, aerospace & defense, medical devices, cosmetics, and food processing industries became interested in the advantages of cleanrooms for their critical production processes. Since the 80s other industries e.g. optical, biotechnology, telecommunications, aerospace & defense, medical devices, cosmetics, and food processing industries became interested in the advantages of cleanrooms for their critical production processes. 11

12 Killer Particles Smaller feature size cleanroom with higher grade of purity Just one more particle count on each wafer could cost a 4 wafer fab more than $1.3 million a year (1980s)! Just one more particle count on each wafer could cost a 4 wafer fab more than $1.3 million a year (1980s)! When feature size shrinks, so does the size of killer particles. When feature size shrinks, so does the size of killer particles. 12

13 How to solve it? HEPA Filter HEPA Filter Cleanroom furniture Cleanroom furniture Garments Garments Tight cleanroom protocols Tight cleanroom protocols 13

14 HEPA Filter The idea of the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter was introduced in late World War ll, after it was found that some of the problems during The idea of the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter was introduced in late World War ll, after it was found that some of the problems during the assembly of the the assembly of the first atomic weapons first atomic weapons were related to dust. were related to dust. 14

15 Cleanrooms Classification A cleanroom is identified A cleanroom is identified by a class number which by a class number which shows how clean it is. shows how clean it is. Standard definitions of Standard definitions of cleanroom classification cleanroom classification are a combination of metric and English units. are a combination of metric and English units. 15

16 A class 10 cleanroom has fewer than 10 particles with diameter larger than 0.5 µm per cubic foot. A class 10 cleanroom has fewer than 10 particles with diameter larger than 0.5 µm per cubic foot. Cleanrooms Classification 16

17 There are more than particles with diameter larger than 0.5 µm per cubic foot inside a reasonably clean house. There are more than particles with diameter larger than 0.5 µm per cubic foot inside a reasonably clean house. Cleanrooms of classes , 10000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 in English scale have been used. Cleanrooms of classes , 10000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 in English scale have been used. Cleanrooms Classification 17

18 A fab making IC chips with a minimum feature sizes smaller than 0.25 µm needs a class 1 cleanroom to achieve an acceptable yield. A fab making IC chips with a minimum feature sizes smaller than 0.25 µm needs a class 1 cleanroom to achieve an acceptable yield. The highest class of cleanroom, M-1, has fewer than 1 particle per cubic meter. The highest class of cleanroom, M-1, has fewer than 1 particle per cubic meter. Cleanrooms Classification 18

19 Cleanrooms Classification Particle/ft 3 Class 0.1 m 0.2 m 0.3 m 0.5 m 5 m M

20 Cleanrooms Structures 20

21 Cleanrooms Structures Conventionally Ventilated Type of Cleanroom Unidirectional Flow Type 21

22 22

23 Particle Counter Particle counter is used to count and size of the particles. Particle counter is used to count and size of the particles. 23

24 Between 40 % and 80 % of contamination can be traced to human operatives working in cleanrooms. Between 40 % and 80 % of contamination can be traced to human operatives working in cleanrooms. Sex, age, temperature differentials and patterns of activity all have a bearing on the rate of issue, as do contaminants from clothing, cosmetics and personal hygiene. Sex, age, temperature differentials and patterns of activity all have a bearing on the rate of issue, as do contaminants from clothing, cosmetics and personal hygiene. The Human Element 24

25 Cleanroom Garment Since people are the greatest contaminants in a controlled environment, specialized garments are needed to protect the environment from the human contaminant. Since people are the greatest contaminants in a controlled environment, specialized garments are needed to protect the environment from the human contaminant. Cleanroom garments must meet specific protection criteria. This involves special materials, particular construction and individual styling. Cleanroom garments must meet specific protection criteria. This involves special materials, particular construction and individual styling. They must be comfortable, easy to apply and practical in use. They must be comfortable, easy to apply and practical in use. 25

26 Cleanroom Garment The fabrics must: be low shedding be low shedding permit the body to breathe whilst trapping particles within the garment permit the body to breathe whilst trapping particles within the garment withstand repeated cleaning/sterilization cycles withstand repeated cleaning/sterilization cycles meet any specific requirements like control of static charges meet any specific requirements like control of static charges be cost-effective be cost-effective 26

27 Cleanroom Garment There are three broad categories of fabric used in the construction of cleanroom garments. There are three broad categories of fabric used in the construction of cleanroom garments. woven fabrics woven fabrics laminated or membrane fabrics laminated or membrane fabrics disposable or limited life materials disposable or limited life materials 27 Polyester Cleanroom Fabric Cotton Fabric

28 Bunny Suit Shoe Cover Shoe Cover Cap Cap Face Mask Face Mask Safety Glasses Safety Glasses Hood Hood Coverall Coverall Boots Boots Gloves Gloves 28

29 Bunny Suit 29

30 Bunny Suit 30

31 31

32 Gowning Procedure 32

33 Undersuits Unisex tunic and separate trousers with moisture control system to maximize comfort. Tunics are either short or long-sleeved with security pocket for locker key. Trousers are pull-on with elasticated waist and adjustable ankle studs. Unisex tunic and separate trousers with moisture control system to maximize comfort. Tunics are either short or long-sleeved with security pocket for locker key. Trousers are pull-on with elasticated waist and adjustable ankle studs. 33

34 Hat, Coat, Shoes Hats are one size to fit all with toggled elastic adjustor to cover the most abundant hairstyles. Suitable for wearers in ISO 6 to ISO 8 cleanroom suites. Coats come in a range of 8 sizes from XSM to XXXXL with a unisex fit, good zip flies to ensure minimal particle outage and longer length sleeves with fully adjustable wrist studs to overcome that tricky gap between sleeve end and glove. Suitable for wearers in ISO 6 to ISO 8 cleanroom suites. Shoes have shaped soles with elasticated ankle grips offering comfort to the wearer. Sizes XSM to XXXL. Suitable for wearers in ISO 6 to ISO 8 cleanroom suites. 34

35 Hood, Coverall, Boots Hoods are made in one size to fit all with fully adjustable studding at the rear, long cowls to ensure the hoods do not untuck from body garments and overall hair and forehead cover. Suitable for wearers in ISO 4 to ISO 7 cleanroom suites. Coveralls come in a range of 8 sizes from XSM to XXXXL with a unisex fit, good zip flies to ensure minimal particle outage and longer length sleeves with fully adjustable wrist studs to overcome that tricky gap between sleeve end and glove. Suitable for wearers in ISO 4 to ISO 7 cleanroom suites. Overboots have shaped soles offering comfort to the wearer and fully adjustable tops and toe tapes. Sizes XSM to XXXL. Suitable for wearers in ISO 4 to ISO 7 cleanroom suites. 35

36 Coveralls front back Rolled seams set-in sleeve coverall 36

37 Coveralls Stud cuff Knitted cuff Pen holder Pocket Popular variations Features: Seam: Rolled seams, heat-sealed raw edges. monofilament thread Sleeve: Set-in, 1 piece Cuff wrist: Stainless steel stud adjustment, 3 male 1 female Cuff ankle: Stainless steel stud adjustment, 3 male 1 female Collar: Cleanroom style collar, 2 male 1 female stud adjustment at top of zip Closure: Fly front - closed end 70cm polyester zip, nylon spiral teeth, opposite fastenings for male and female versions Size range: Male - chest cm Female - chest cm. 37

38 Labcoats Features: Seam: Twin-needled, heat-sealed raw edges, monofilament thread Sleeve: Set-in, 1 piece Cuff wrist: Polyester knitted cuffs Front: Centre front zip, open flap at bottom, shoulder and side seams Collar: Mandarin, 1 piece, top stitched at the base Closure: 83cm open-ended zip, polyester tape with nylon spiral teeth. Stainless steel studs at top, 2 male and 1 female. Size range: Unisex XS-XXXL 38

39 Headwears 39

40 Footwears 40

41 Cleanroom Laundry Microncleans ISO 4 cleanroom garment processing suite offers the latest in bespoke washers, dryers and packaging machines to ensure all your requirements are fully satisfied. All garments are processed using reverse osmosis water with a topical anti-stat applied preventing static build-up. Microncleans ISO 4 cleanroom garment processing suite offers the latest in bespoke washers, dryers and packaging machines to ensure all your requirements are fully satisfied. All garments are processed using reverse osmosis water with a topical anti-stat applied preventing static build-up. 41

42 Cleanroom Laundry Microncleans ISO 7 cleanroom garment processing suite offers an alternative service for cleanroom operators in lower grade cleanrooms and those requiring a high care workwear service. Microncleans ISO 7 cleanroom garment processing suite offers an alternative service for cleanroom operators in lower grade cleanrooms and those requiring a high care workwear service. 42

43 Cleanroom Laundry Micronclean has the expertise to manufacture specialist styles of garments and machine covers. Micronclean has the expertise to manufacture specialist styles of garments and machine covers. 43

44 Cleanroom Protocols People need to walk steadily, running or jumping could disturb particles on the floor, walls, and ceiling. People need to walk steadily, running or jumping could disturb particles on the floor, walls, and ceiling. Sitting on tables or leaning against walls is forbidden. Sitting on tables or leaning against walls is forbidden. There are few chairs in cleanrooms. There are few chairs in cleanrooms. Bringing pencils and erasers to cleanroom is forbidden. Bringing pencils and erasers to cleanroom is forbidden. Keeping particles from becoming airborne is the main goal. 44

45 Cleanroom Protocols Specially made papers are used in cleanrooms. For a better than class 1, all records are kept electronically. Specially made papers are used in cleanrooms. For a better than class 1, all records are kept electronically. Once ones glove touches any skin it should replaced immediately. Once ones glove touches any skin it should replaced immediately. Technicians should leave the process area before sneezing or coughing. Technicians should leave the process area before sneezing or coughing. Keeping particles from becoming airborne is the main goal. 45

46 Cleanroom Protocols People who work in cleanrooms are not allowed to use cosmetics, perfume, cologne, or aftershave. People who work in cleanrooms are not allowed to use cosmetics, perfume, cologne, or aftershave. Technicians cannot wear contact lenses. Technicians cannot wear contact lenses. Smokers who want to work in cleanrooms are forced to quit smoking. Smokers who want to work in cleanrooms are forced to quit smoking. Keeping particles from becoming airborne is the main goal. 46

47 Cleanroom Protocols 47

48 Wipes 48

49 Any questions?


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