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1 Reinforced glass beams lecture for Verre 2006 Dr.ir. F.A. Veer.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Reinforced glass beams lecture for Verre 2006 Dr.ir. F.A. Veer."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Reinforced glass beams lecture for Verre 2006 Dr.ir. F.A. Veer

2 2 Glass in architecture Glass has played an important role in architecture as the material that opens up a building to light. An important example are the great rose windows of the medieval cathedrals.

3 3 Cathedral of Notre dame, Paris

4 4 Glass in architecture Although these windows are very dramatic they need extensive supporting masonry as they weaken the structure.

5 5 Crystal palace, London, th century greenhouse, Madrid, Spain

6 6 Glass in architecture Although glass appeared to take a leading role it was still only a material that separated the interior and exterior. It was only some twenty years ago that glass started to be used in a limited structural role.

7 7 Grand Serres of cite des sciences et de lindustrie at la Villette

8 8 Glass in architecture This marks a transition from non-structural to limited structural use of glass. This also raised the important question: How far can we go in using glass as a structural material ?

9 9 Glass as a structural material It also raises the question of what loads we can put on glass in : –Tension –Bending –Compression Bending will be the focus of this presentation

10 10 Glass beams Monolithic annealed float glass Tempered float glass PVB laminated tempered float glass Sentry glass laminated tempered float glass Cast resin laminated tempered glass Polycarbonate laminated glass Carbon fibre reinforced glass Stainless steel reinforced glass

11 11 ING office, Budapest

12 12 Glass museum, Kings Wingford, England, PVB laminated roof beams

13 13 Apple store, New York, use of Sentry glass

14 14 Wolfson building of the medical faculty of the university of Glasgow

15 15 IHK building, Munich

16 16 Carbon fibre reinforced glass roof beams for the loggia di vicari

17 17 Stainless steel reinforced glass beam after testing TU Delft all glass paviljon 2004

18 18 Failure behaviour stress strain Monolithic glass PVB laminated glass PC laminated glass Reinforced glass

19 19 Stainless steel reinforcement In 1995 the ZAPPI research program started. Goals was to develop safe transparent components for a transparent building of 20×20×20 meters. This means beams of large span, columns etc. as well as the technology to put it together.

20 20 Glass polycarbonate beam 1997

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26 26 Glass box section reinforced beam, 2003

27 Glass T-section post-tensioned beam

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29 29 Further improvement Although the 2004 result showed large and safe beams can be made research is continuing in several directions. This with the following aims :

30 30 Further improvement -how to increase the ease of manufacture -what is the required volume of reinforcement –what is the optimum configuration for the reinforcement -what is the optimum configuration for the glass –What is the best adhesive for the reinforcement –What is the maximum length that can be attained

31 31 Ease of manufacture

32 32 Required volume of reinforcement thickness

33 33 Reinforcement configuration

34 34 Adhesive type Stainless steel reinforced glass bonded using GB 368 adhesive Stainless steel reinforced glass Bonded using araldite 2013 adhesive

35 35 configuration for the glass

36 36 configuration for the glass

37 37 maximum length

38 38 Conclusions The results so far show that reinforced glass beams : –can exceed the 6 meter length limitation imposed by the standard glass panel size –can have a build in structural safety mechanism which shows considerable deformation after initial cracking and thus cannot collapse spontaneously –can in theory be used as structural member of the main load bearing construction –have a length limit of about 20 m –can result in innovative architectural solutions

39 39 Conclusions The main obstacles to introduction of reinforced glass beams are: –the lack of an adequate knowledge base on which to design the components –the problem in joining the glass components together –the lack of knowledge about these components at the architecture and engineering level –the lack of clearly applicable building codes for the regulatory body –the need for specialised staff and expertise for the contractor


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