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MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group

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Presentation on theme: "MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group"— Presentation transcript:

1 MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group
John J. Lesko Kenneth L. Reifsnider Stephan P. Phifer Charles E. Bakis Anthony Nanni Clem Heil ASME 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 2000

2 Fatigue Issue Not Covered in This Talk
?

3 Fatigue Failure Mechanisms
Fatigue-Life Diagram proposed by Talreja

4 Fatigue - Overview Material & Processing Effects
Failure Mechanisms Fiber Matrix Residual Cure Stress Interface - Sizing Laminate Processing Environmental & Testing Effects Frequency/Creep Hygrothermal Temperature Acid/Base/Electrolyte Interactive Effects

5 Material Effects Fatigue Failure Mechanisms Fiber
E-glass, carbon/graphite, Kevlar Matrix Brittle, toughened Interface Compatible and non-compatible sizings Laminate Woven, stitched, and unidirectional Stacking sequence - 0°, ±45 °, 90° plies Processing Type

6 FIBERS - (0/90°)s Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

7 FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue E-Glass
Demers, Cornelia. E The National Seminar on Advanced Composite Material Bridges, May 5-7.

8 Normalized Fatigue Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester
F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

9 Glass Composite Fatigue
1. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.5 2. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.33 3. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.16 4. 0°/90° glass % glass in poly(hexamethylene adipamide), injection molded % glass in polycarbonate injection molded % glass in polyphenylenesulfide injection molded % glass in poly(amide-imide) injection molded 9. Chopped-strand mat polyester 10. Sheet molding compound (smc) of rubber-modified epoxy 11. SMC, rubber-modified epoxy 12. SMC, r50 13. 0°/±45 ° /90° glass/epoxy 14. Chopped-strand mat polyester Mandell, J. F., 1978, “Fatigue Behavior of Fibre-Resin Composites,” Developments in Reinforced Plastics 2, Properties of Laminates, Ed. G. Pritchard.

10 Mechanism: Fatigue of Glass Composites
Crack growth in the fiber dominates the failure process Accumulation of damage is accounted for in crack growth that takes place based on the fractional time spent at a damaging stress level Glass fiber remaining strength given a s (t)

11 Fatigue Simulation & Experiment
UCFR - unidirectional continuous fiber/epoxy UCMFR - unidirectional & continuous strand mat fiber/vinyl ester S-N Slope (%UTS/decade) Data: 10.2 and 13 Predictions: 12 to 14 F. McBagonluri, G. Foster, S. Case, W. Curtin, & J. Lesko, “ Simulation Of Fatigue Performance Of Polymeric Composites For Infrastructure Applications,” Simulation of Fatigue Performance of Polymeric Composites for Infrastructure Applications ASME IMECE 98, Anaheim CA, Nov 1998

12 Matrix & Sizing Effects

13 Matrix Effects - S-N Curves for E-glass Laminates
Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

14 Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to The eo & log(N10)eo process related by

15 Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi-pupose sizing Epoxy Resin
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

16 Pultruded AS-4/Derakane 411-35 LI: Sizing Effect
Input: R=0.1 Unidirectional Fatigue Data

17 Processing Effects

18 Process Type Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding
P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of The eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

19 Process & Laminate Effects - Pultruded CP, Prepreg CP & Woven
Laminated Stitched or Woven We see that the pultruded stitched cross-ply laminates have nearly the same S-N curve as the woven 181 style laminate which are both well below cross-ply laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepreg press molded. Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech.

20 Testing & Environmental Effects
Mean Stress & R - Ratio Frequency Environmental Hygrothermal Temperature pH Effects

21 Frequency & Mean Stress Effects

22 Static vs. Dynamic Fatigue
Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

23 Test Effects: R - ratio Gathercole, Reiter, Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

24 Test Effects: R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

25 Environmental Effects

26 Enviro-mechanical Fatigue of Glass/Vinyl Ester
F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

27 Temperature Effects - S-N Curves
Branco, Ferreira, Fael & Richardson Int. J. Fatigue, V. 18, No. 4, p. 255

28 Effect of Temperature Effect on E-Glass FRP Fatigue
Pultruded E-Glass/Vinyl Ester 4 °C 30 °C 65 °C

29 So Where Are the Gaps? Combined Conditions Tools Creep & Fatigue
Temperature & Fatigue Temp, Moisture & Fatigue Chemistry & Fatigue Spectrum loadings (stress and environment) Tools Generalization of Glass Fatigue Remaining strength representations for combined loading

30 Estimating Remaining Strength
Degradation Processes Cycle dependent damage Kinetic Chemical Thermodynamic Geometry Constitutive Remaining Strength Initial Strength Stress or Strength Stress on Critical Element N Life Reifsnider & Stinchcomb, “A Critical Element Model of the Residual Strength and Life of Fatigue-loaded Composite Coupons,” ASTM STP 907, 1986

31 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR COMPOSITES
16th Annual Technical Conference CALL FOR PAPERS September 9-12, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Donaldson Brown Hotel & Conference Center Abstracts should be submitted no later than January 31, 2001. M.W. Hyer by as a pdf file to

32 QUESTIONS

33 Ranking of Importance of Data for Fatigue Effects
Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 5: Critical, cannot go forward without it 3: Important 1: Good to have

34 Ranking of Availability of Data for Fatigue Effects
Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 1: Widely available and validated 3: Sparse and/or questionable 5: Not available

35 Overall Ranking of Gaps for Fatigue Effects
Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 2: Widely available and validated 6: Sparse and/or questionable 10: Not available

36 MRLife Methodology

37 Fiber Effects Mandell, J. F. 1982

38 Material Effects - Kevlar Fibers - (0/90°)
Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July KFRP

39 Material Effects - E-Glass Fibers - (0/90°)
Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July GRP

40 Material Effects - Carbon Fibers - (0/90°)
Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. CFRP

41 Tensile Fatigue Damage Mechanism
Kim & Ebert 1978, J. of Composite Matl., V. 12, April .

42 Manufacturing Effects
S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to eo & log(N10)eo process related

43 Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to The eo & log(N10)eo process related by

44 Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi-pupose sizing Epoxy Resin
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

45 Process Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding
P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of The eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

46 Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

47 Summary from Salvia et al.
Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

48 Tensile Strain Fatigue
Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

49 Tensile Stress Fatigue
Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

50 Material Effects - Shear Fatigue - Mean Stress
Bevan 1977 Composites Oct. p. 277.

51 Fatigue Failure Mechanims - Fatigue Stiffness Loss/Crack Development
Jamison etc ASTM STP 836 p38

52 Fatigue - Failure Mechanisms
Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

53 Fatigue - Fiber Type E-glass Type I Carbon Type II Carbon
Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989. Type II Carbon

54 Fatigue - Fiber Type Type III Carbon
Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989. Type III Carbon

55 Environmental Effects-Frequency
Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

56 Environmental Effects- Dynamic Fatigue
Mandell & McGarry 1985 Polymer Composites Vol. 6 No. 3 p.168 Single Fiber - No Fiber Interaction Fiber Bundle

57 Environmental Effects- R ratio
Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

58 Environmental Effects-Temperature
Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

59 Environmental Effects-Hygrothermal Aging
Pooled Fatigue data Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

60 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

61 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233. where e = endurance value of “f” at high N fo = f value at low N A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves

62 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

63 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

64 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

65 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

66 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245

67 Environmental Effects R - ratio
Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245

68 Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.

69 FIBERS - Tensile Strain Fatigue
E-glass Matrix Graphite Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p

70 Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.

71 Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.

72 FIBERS - Shear Stress Fatigue (±45°) Fibers
Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

73 FIBERS - Torsional Shear Strain Fatigue - Fiber/Resin
Phillips & Scott 1977 Composites Oct. p. 233. Compared with previous graph that there is variation or order of strength between glass and carbon fibers Type I - High Modulus Type II - High Strength Type III - Low Modulus Introduce matrix effects

74 Material Effects - Sizing
Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137. 4 different Sizing variation to immersion in boiling water.

75 Material Effects - Sizing
Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137. Showing the S-N effect of two sizings to a 30 minute immersion in boiling water.

76 Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects
Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

77 Process & Laminate Effects - Extracted Uni from Pultruded CP & QI Laminates vs. Uni
Extracted unidirectional response of pultruded stitched laminates are well below Demer’s 95% lover confidence limit Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech.

78 FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue
Graphite E-glass Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p

79 Test Effects: R - ratio where e = endurance value of “f” at high N
Adams, Dickson, etc. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, v. 11, no. 4, p.233. where e = endurance value of “f” at high N fo = f value at low N A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves


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