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**MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group**

John J. Lesko Kenneth L. Reifsnider Stephan P. Phifer Charles E. Bakis Anthony Nanni Clem Heil ASME 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 2000

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**Fatigue Issue Not Covered in This Talk**

?

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**Fatigue Failure Mechanisms**

Fatigue-Life Diagram proposed by Talreja

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**Fatigue - Overview Material & Processing Effects**

Failure Mechanisms Fiber Matrix Residual Cure Stress Interface - Sizing Laminate Processing Environmental & Testing Effects Frequency/Creep Hygrothermal Temperature Acid/Base/Electrolyte Interactive Effects

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**Material Effects Fatigue Failure Mechanisms Fiber**

E-glass, carbon/graphite, Kevlar Matrix Brittle, toughened Interface Compatible and non-compatible sizings Laminate Woven, stitched, and unidirectional Stacking sequence - 0°, ±45 °, 90° plies Processing Type

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FIBERS - (0/90°)s Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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**FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue E-Glass**

Demers, Cornelia. E The National Seminar on Advanced Composite Material Bridges, May 5-7.

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**Normalized Fatigue Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester**

F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

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**Glass Composite Fatigue**

1. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.5 2. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.33 3. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf=0.16 4. 0°/90° glass % glass in poly(hexamethylene adipamide), injection molded % glass in polycarbonate injection molded % glass in polyphenylenesulfide injection molded % glass in poly(amide-imide) injection molded 9. Chopped-strand mat polyester 10. Sheet molding compound (smc) of rubber-modified epoxy 11. SMC, rubber-modified epoxy 12. SMC, r50 13. 0°/±45 ° /90° glass/epoxy 14. Chopped-strand mat polyester Mandell, J. F., 1978, “Fatigue Behavior of Fibre-Resin Composites,” Developments in Reinforced Plastics 2, Properties of Laminates, Ed. G. Pritchard.

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**Mechanism: Fatigue of Glass Composites**

Crack growth in the fiber dominates the failure process Accumulation of damage is accounted for in crack growth that takes place based on the fractional time spent at a damaging stress level Glass fiber remaining strength given a s (t)

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**Fatigue Simulation & Experiment**

UCFR - unidirectional continuous fiber/epoxy UCMFR - unidirectional & continuous strand mat fiber/vinyl ester S-N Slope (%UTS/decade) Data: 10.2 and 13 Predictions: 12 to 14 F. McBagonluri, G. Foster, S. Case, W. Curtin, & J. Lesko, “ Simulation Of Fatigue Performance Of Polymeric Composites For Infrastructure Applications,” Simulation of Fatigue Performance of Polymeric Composites for Infrastructure Applications ASME IMECE 98, Anaheim CA, Nov 1998

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**Matrix & Sizing Effects**

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**Matrix Effects - S-N Curves for E-glass Laminates**

Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

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**Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to The eo & log(N10)eo process related by

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**Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi-pupose sizing Epoxy Resin**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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**Pultruded AS-4/Derakane 411-35 LI: Sizing Effect**

Input: R=0.1 Unidirectional Fatigue Data

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Processing Effects

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**Process Type Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding**

P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of The eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

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**Process & Laminate Effects - Pultruded CP, Prepreg CP & Woven**

Laminated Stitched or Woven We see that the pultruded stitched cross-ply laminates have nearly the same S-N curve as the woven 181 style laminate which are both well below cross-ply laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepreg press molded. Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech.

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**Testing & Environmental Effects**

Mean Stress & R - Ratio Frequency Environmental Hygrothermal Temperature pH Effects

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**Frequency & Mean Stress Effects**

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**Static vs. Dynamic Fatigue**

Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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Test Effects: R - ratio Gathercole, Reiter, Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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Test Effects: R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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**Environmental Effects**

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**Enviro-mechanical Fatigue of Glass/Vinyl Ester**

F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

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**Temperature Effects - S-N Curves**

Branco, Ferreira, Fael & Richardson Int. J. Fatigue, V. 18, No. 4, p. 255

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**Effect of Temperature Effect on E-Glass FRP Fatigue**

Pultruded E-Glass/Vinyl Ester 4 °C 30 °C 65 °C

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**So Where Are the Gaps? Combined Conditions Tools Creep & Fatigue**

Temperature & Fatigue Temp, Moisture & Fatigue Chemistry & Fatigue Spectrum loadings (stress and environment) Tools Generalization of Glass Fatigue Remaining strength representations for combined loading

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**Estimating Remaining Strength**

Degradation Processes Cycle dependent damage Kinetic Chemical Thermodynamic Geometry Constitutive Remaining Strength Initial Strength Stress or Strength Stress on Critical Element N Life Reifsnider & Stinchcomb, “A Critical Element Model of the Residual Strength and Life of Fatigue-loaded Composite Coupons,” ASTM STP 907, 1986

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**AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR COMPOSITES**

16th Annual Technical Conference CALL FOR PAPERS September 9-12, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Donaldson Brown Hotel & Conference Center Abstracts should be submitted no later than January 31, 2001. M.W. Hyer by as a pdf file to

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QUESTIONS

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**Ranking of Importance of Data for Fatigue Effects**

Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 5: Critical, cannot go forward without it 3: Important 1: Good to have

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**Ranking of Availability of Data for Fatigue Effects**

Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 1: Widely available and validated 3: Sparse and/or questionable 5: Not available

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**Overall Ranking of Gaps for Fatigue Effects**

Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 2: Widely available and validated 6: Sparse and/or questionable 10: Not available

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MRLife Methodology

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Fiber Effects Mandell, J. F. 1982

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**Material Effects - Kevlar Fibers - (0/90°)**

Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July KFRP

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**Material Effects - E-Glass Fibers - (0/90°)**

Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July GRP

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**Material Effects - Carbon Fibers - (0/90°)**

Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. CFRP

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**Tensile Fatigue Damage Mechanism**

Kim & Ebert 1978, J. of Composite Matl., V. 12, April .

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**Manufacturing Effects**

S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to eo & log(N10)eo process related

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**Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW-Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to The eo & log(N10)eo process related by

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**Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi-pupose sizing Epoxy Resin**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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**Process Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding**

P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253. Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of The eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

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**Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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**Summary from Salvia et al.**

Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of eo was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. eo(pultrusion) = 0.0me

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**Tensile Strain Fatigue**

Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

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**Tensile Stress Fatigue**

Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

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**Material Effects - Shear Fatigue - Mean Stress**

Bevan 1977 Composites Oct. p. 277.

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**Fatigue Failure Mechanims - Fatigue Stiffness Loss/Crack Development**

Jamison etc ASTM STP 836 p38

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**Fatigue - Failure Mechanisms**

Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

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**Fatigue - Fiber Type E-glass Type I Carbon Type II Carbon**

Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989. Type II Carbon

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**Fatigue - Fiber Type Type III Carbon**

Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989. Type III Carbon

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**Environmental Effects-Frequency**

Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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**Environmental Effects- Dynamic Fatigue**

Mandell & McGarry 1985 Polymer Composites Vol. 6 No. 3 p.168 Single Fiber - No Fiber Interaction Fiber Bundle

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**Environmental Effects- R ratio**

Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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**Environmental Effects-Temperature**

Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

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**Environmental Effects-Hygrothermal Aging**

Pooled Fatigue data Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233. where e = endurance value of “f” at high N fo = f value at low N A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245

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**Environmental Effects R - ratio**

Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245

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**Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.**

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**FIBERS - Tensile Strain Fatigue**

E-glass Matrix Graphite Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p

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**Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.**

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**Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.**

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**FIBERS - Shear Stress Fatigue (±45°) Fibers**

Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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**FIBERS - Torsional Shear Strain Fatigue - Fiber/Resin**

Phillips & Scott 1977 Composites Oct. p. 233. Compared with previous graph that there is variation or order of strength between glass and carbon fibers Type I - High Modulus Type II - High Strength Type III - Low Modulus Introduce matrix effects

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**Material Effects - Sizing**

Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137. 4 different Sizing variation to immersion in boiling water.

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**Material Effects - Sizing**

Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137. Showing the S-N effect of two sizings to a 30 minute immersion in boiling water.

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**Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects**

Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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**Process & Laminate Effects - Extracted Uni from Pultruded CP & QI Laminates vs. Uni**

Extracted unidirectional response of pultruded stitched laminates are well below Demer’s 95% lover confidence limit Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech.

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**FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue**

Graphite E-glass Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p

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**Test Effects: R - ratio where e = endurance value of “f” at high N**

Adams, Dickson, etc. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, v. 11, no. 4, p.233. where e = endurance value of “f” at high N fo = f value at low N A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves

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