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MDA/CERF: Durability Study Fatigue Task Group John J. Lesko Kenneth L. Reifsnider Stephan P. Phifer Charles E. Bakis Anthony Nanni Clem Heil ASME 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 2000

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Fatigue Issue Not Covered in This Talk ?

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Fatigue Failure Mechanisms Fatigue-Life Diagram proposed by Talreja

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Fatigue - Overview Failure Mechanisms Fiber Matrix Residual Cure Stress Interface - Sizing Laminate Processing Material & Processing Effects Frequency/Creep Hygrothermal Temperature Acid/Base/Electrolyte Environmental & Testing Effects Interactive Effects

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Material Effects Fatigue Failure Mechanisms Fiber E-glass, carbon/graphite, Kevlar Matrix Brittle, toughened Interface Compatible and non-compatible sizings Laminate Woven, stitched, and unidirectional Stacking sequence - 0°, ±45 °, 90° plies Processing Type

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FIBERS - (0/90°) s Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523.

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FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue E-Glass Demers, Cornelia. E The National Seminar on Advanced Composite Material Bridges, May 5-7.

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Normalized Fatigue Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

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Glass Composite Fatigue 1. Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf= Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf= Unidirectional glass/epoxy, vf= °/90° glass % glass in poly(hexamethylene adipamide), injection molded % glass in polycarbonate injection molded % glass in polyphenylenesulfide injection molded % glass in poly(amide- imide) injection molded 9. Chopped-strand mat polyester 10. Sheet molding compound (smc) of rubber-modified epoxy 11. SMC, rubber-modified epoxy 12. SMC, r °/±45 ° /90° glass/epoxy 14. Chopped-strand mat polyester Mandell, J. F., 1978, Fatigue Behavior of Fibre-Resin Composites, Developments in Reinforced Plastics 2, Properties of Laminates, Ed. G. Pritchard.

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Mechanism: Fatigue of Glass Composites Crack growth in the fiber dominates the failure process Accumulation of damage is accounted for in crack growth that takes place based on the fractional time spent at a damaging stress level Glass fiber remaining strength given a (t)

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Fatigue Simulation & Experiment UCFR - unidirectional continuous fiber/epoxy UCMFR - unidirectional & continuous strand mat fiber/vinyl ester S-N Slope (%UTS/decade) Data : 10.2 and 13 Predictions : 12 to 14 F. McBagonluri, G. Foster, S. Case, W. Curtin, & J. Lesko, Simulation Of Fatigue Performance Of Polymeric Composites For Infrastructure Applications, Simulation of Fatigue Performance of Polymeric Composites for Infrastructure Applications ASME IMECE 98, Anaheim CA, Nov 1998

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Matrix & Sizing Effects

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Matrix Effects - S-N Curves for E-glass Laminates Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

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Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi- pupose sizing Epoxy Resin Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Pultruded AS-4/Derakane LI: Sizing Effect Input: R=0.1 Unidirectional Fatigue Data

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Processing Effects

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Process Type Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Process & Laminate Effects - Pultruded CP, Prepreg CP & Woven Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd Laminated Stitched or Woven

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Testing & Environmental Effects Testing Mean Stress & R - Ratio Frequency Environmental Hygrothermal Temperature pH Effects

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Frequency & Mean Stress Effects

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Static vs. Dynamic Fatigue Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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Gathercole, Reiter, Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. Test Effects: R - ratio

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Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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Environmental Effects

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Enviro-mechanical Fatigue of Glass/Vinyl Ester F. McBagonluri, K. Garcia, M. Hayes, N. Verghese, & J. J. Lesko, "Characterization of Fatigue and Combined Environment on Durability Performance of Glass/Vinyl Ester Composite for Infrastructure Applications" International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 2000, pp

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Temperature Effects - S-N Curves Branco, Ferreira, Fael & Richardson 1995 Int. J. Fatigue, V. 18, No. 4, p. 255

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Effect of Temperature Effect on E-Glass FRP Fatigue 65 °C 30 °C 4 °C Pultruded E-Glass/Vinyl Ester

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So Where Are the Gaps? Combined Conditions Creep & Fatigue Temperature & Fatigue Temp, Moisture & Fatigue Chemistry & Fatigue Spectrum loadings (stress and environment) Tools Generalization of Glass Fatigue Remaining strength representations for combined loading

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Estimating Remaining Strength Life Stress or Strength N Stress on Critical Element Remaining Strength Initial Strength Cycle dependent damage Kinetic Chemical Thermodynamic Degradation Processes Geometry Constitutive Reifsnider & Stinchcomb, A Critical Element Model of the Residual Strength and Life of Fatigue-loaded Composite Coupons, ASTM STP 907, 1986

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AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR COMPOSITES 16th Annual Technical Conference CALL FOR PAPERS September 9-12, 2001 Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Donaldson Brown Hotel & Conference Center Abstracts should be submitted no later than January 31, M.W. Hyer by as a pdf file to

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QUESTIONS

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Ranking of Importance of Data for Fatigue Effects Rank 5: Critical, cannot go forward without it 3: Important 1: Good to have Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate

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Ranking of Availability of Data for Fatigue Effects Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate Rank 1: Widely available and validated 3: Sparse and/or questionable 5: Not available

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Overall Ranking of Gaps for Fatigue Effects Rank 2: Widely available and validated 6: Sparse and/or questionable 10: Not available Key: A composite B composite/substrate interface; adhesive (if any) C substrate

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MRLife Methodology

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Fiber Effects Mandell, J. F. 1982

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Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July Material Effects - Kevlar Fibers - (0/90°) KFRP

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Jones, Dickson, Adam, Reiter, Harris 1983, Composites, V. 14, No.3, July Material Effects - E-Glass Fibers - (0/90°) GRP

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Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. Material Effects - Carbon Fibers - (0/90°) CFRP

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Tensile Fatigue Damage Mechanism Kim & Ebert 1978, J. of Composite Matl., V. 12, April.

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Manufacturing Effects S-N curves are dependent upon manufacturing process( P-pultrusion, FW- Filament Winding, PMC-Press Molding of Prepreg) Variations in resin and fiber sizing. Curve fit to o & log(N 10 ) o process related

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Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Sizing Effects EP - Epoxy Sizing MP - Multi- pupose sizing Epoxy Resin Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Process Effects FW - Filament Winding PMC - Prepreg Press Molding P - Pultrusion Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Summary from Salvia et al. Pultrusion yields lower durabilility composites than Filament wound or press molded Resin and sizing strongly affect both A and B of o was directly related to accoustic emission threshold. o (pultrusion) = 0.0

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Tensile Strain Fatigue Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

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Tensile Stress Fatigue Harris 1977 Composites Oct. p. 214.

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Material Effects - Shear Fatigue - Mean Stress Bevan 1977 Composites Oct. p. 277.

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Fatigue Failure Mechanims - Fatigue Stiffness Loss/Crack Development Jamison etc ASTM STP 836 p38

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Fatigue - Failure Mechanisms Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July 1989.

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Fatigue - Fiber Type Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July E-glass Type I Carbon Type II Carbon

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Fatigue - Fiber Type Konur & Matthews 1989, Composites, V.20, No. 4, July Type III Carbon

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Environmental Effects- Frequency Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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Environmental Effects- Dynamic Fatigue Mandell & McGarry 1985 Polymer Composites Vol. 6 No. 3 p.168 Single Fiber - No Fiber Interaction Fiber Bundle

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Environmental Effects- R ratio Mandell & Meier 1983 ASTM STP 813 p.60

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Environmental Effects- Temperature Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

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Environmental Effects- Hygrothermal Aging Pooled Fatigue data Ma, Lin, Tai, Wu & Wu 1995, Polymer Composites, V.16, No.3, June.

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Environmental Effects R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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Environmental Effects R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233. where e = endurance value of f at high N f o = f value at low N A and B are curve fit constants needed for the wider range of R curves

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Environmental Effects R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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Environmental Effects R - ratio Adams, Fernando, Dickson, Reiter & Harris. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, V. 11, no. 4, p.233.

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Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. Environmental Effects R - ratio

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Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. Environmental Effects R - ratio

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Schutz & Gerjarz 1977, Composites Oct. p. 245

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Environmental Effects R - ratio

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Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.

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FIBERS - Tensile Strain Fatigue Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p Graphite Matrix E-glass

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Highsmith & Reifsnider 1982, ASTM STP 775, p105.

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Gathercole, Reiter,Adam, Harris 1994, IJ of Fatigue, v. 16, no. 8, p.523. FIBERS - Shear Stress Fatigue (±45°) Fibers

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FIBERS - Torsional Shear Strain Fatigue - Fiber/Resin Phillips & Scott 1977 Composites Oct. p. 233.

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Material Effects - Sizing Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137.

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Material Effects - Sizing Shih & Ebert, 1987, Comp. Sci. & Tech., V.28, p.137.

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Sizing & Matrix Toughening Effects Salvia, Fiore, Fournier & Vincent I.J. of Fatigue, 1997,V.19 No.3, p. 253.

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Process & Laminate Effects - Extracted Uni from Pultruded CP & QI Laminates vs. Uni Phifer 1998, Thesis Virginia Tech http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd

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FIBERS - Tensile Stress Fatigue Dharan 1975, J of Matl. Science, V.10, p E-glass Graphite

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Adams, Dickson, etc. 1989, IJ of Fatigue, v. 11, no. 4, p.233. Test Effects: R - ratio

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