Immersion Syndrome Prevention Appropriate footwear (shoes and socks for the climate) Changing socks routinely Powder feet 14
Flash Frost Injuries (Contact Frostbite) A rapid transfer of heat from an area of the body to another object A.Fluid spills on bare skin (fluids that remain liquid below freezing) that evaporate removing heat B.Rapid cooling of surface temperature by touch Keep body surfaces covered Requires medical treatment Treatment similar to thermal burns 15
Treatment of Frostbite Prevent Remove the Threat: Evacuate v. Shelter in Place Superficial: remove the threat to the tissue, rewarm slowly Deep: remove the threat to the tissue, Do not rewarm if there is a potential to refreeze! Do not use friction to rewarm frosbitten parts! Observe and re-assess for repeat injury 21
Frostbite vs. Hypothermia Frostbite takes place in the outer layers, starting with the skin, then progresses through layers on into the bone Hypothermia takes place in the body's core Frostbite has anatomical effects primarily, while Hypothermia has physiological effects Prevention is the same, treatment is different 22
Bibliography State of Alaska. Cold Injuries Guidelines. Department of Health & Human Services. 2003. United States Army. Cold Weather Student Handout. Northern Warfare Training Center, USARAK. (2011) 23
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