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U.S. History Part I 1607-1865.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Part I 1607-1865."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History Part I

2 Colonial Period

3 Virginia Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607.
First permanent English settlement in North America. A corporate colony, founded by the Virginia Company. Investors hoped to make a profit from the colony.

4 Powhatan Indians Hostile to new settlers Attacked Jamestown
John Smith was able to negotiate with them for food

5 Success of the Virginia Colony
Tobacco became the most profitable cash crop Headright System allowed families to move in and own land House of Burgesses allowed self-government

6 Virginia’s House of Burgesses
Virginia’s colonial legislature Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion because the legislature failed to provide settlers protection from hostile Indians in the backcountry

7 First Africans in Virginia
In 1619 a Dutch slave ship arrived in the colony The Africans on board (who were destined to be traded as slaves in the West Indies), were traded for supplies in Virginia The Virginia colony treated the Africans as indentured servants, not slaves All of them eventually gained their freedom before slavery was introduced in Virginia

8 Sample Question One reason the colony of Virginia succeeded was the
profitable tobacco crop leadership of John Smith management of the Virginia Company relationship with the Powhatan Indians

9 Answer: A: the profitable tobacco crop

10 New England Originally settled by English Separatists, who had broken away from the Anglican Church They were persecuted These settlers were called “Pilgrims” They sailed on the Mayflower from England to America

11 Massachusetts Bay Colony
Settled by English Puritans (who were Anglican, but wanted to reform the Church of its “catholic” practices) They were persecuted in Great Britain They established their “City Upon A Hill”, what they considered a model utopia, in Boston

12 Puritans vs. Native Americans
King Philip’s War Chief of the Wampanoags (Metacom/”King Philip”) led an attack on the Puritans in response to their laws that restricted the Indians It was a very brutal and destructive war Food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties kept the Indians from fighting Metacom was killed and the Indian resistance in New England ended

13 Tension in New England Roger Williams challenged forced religion on the citizens of Massachusetts He was exiled and eventually founded the colony of Rhode Island Separation of church and state established in Rhode island

14 Halfway Covenant Allowed second and third generation Puritans partial membership in the church until they experienced a true religious conversion

15 Salem, Massachusetts Location of Salem Witch Trials

16 Massachusetts Bay Loses Its Charter
Puritans refused to obey English law In 1684, King Charles II revoked the colony’s corporate charter Massachusetts became a royal colony, under strict control of the king

17 Sample Question Which factor directly affected the settlement of New England in the 1600s? Religious persecution in Great Britain The opportunity to cultivate tobacco Growing conflict with the southern farmers The chance to participate in the slave trade

18 Answer: A: religious persecution in Great Britain

19 Middle Colonies New Netherland to New York
Originally claimed and settled by Netherland Diverse Population (settlers were allowed from all over Europe) James, Duke of York and brother of King Charles II, sent a fleet of ships to take the colony away from the Dutch It was accomplished without firing a single shot It became the English colony of New York

20 Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania
William Penn: founded Quakers were first settlers Penn’s “Holy Experiment”: allowed freedom of religion

21 Sample Question The original settlers of the Mid-Atlantic colonies were Pilgrims Quakers Puritans Dutch

22 Correct Answer: D: Dutch

23 Mercantilism Export raw materials from colonies to England
Sell manufactured goods back to the colonies Become completely self sufficient as a country Acquire wealth

24 Triangular Trade Route

25 African Colonial Population
As employment opportunities increased in England, fewer indentured servants came to America Transatlantic trade included stops along the African coast to trade rum (from New England) and guns and manufactured goods (from England) in exchange for slaves Slaves were taken to the West Indies and various parts of North America in the Middle Passage of the transatlantic trade

26 Sample Question: Rum Slaves Manufactured goods
The items listed above were part of the Products produced in the New England colonies Products traded to England from the American colonies Items traded along the transatlantic trade Items England provided to its American colonies

27 Correct Answer: C: items traded along the transatlantic trade

28 Results of French & Indian War and Causes of the American Revolution
In the Treaty of Paris of 1763,Britain won control of North America; France lost most of its North American possessions In its attempt to govern a larger colonial empire, Parliament passed a series of laws to control the colonists Proclamation of 1763 forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mountains to protect them from hostile Indians Stamp Act placed direct taxes on printed materials to pay for war debt

29 Colonial Reactions No taxation without representation – colonists believed only their colonial legislatures could tax them In response to the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agents In response to the Boston Massacre, each colony formed a committee of correspondence to communicate with other colonies In response to the Tea Act, the colonists dumped British tea in the Boston Harbor

30 Intolerable Acts In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed a series of laws to punish the colony of Massachusetts The Daughters of Liberty led boycotts of English goods, especially tea

31 Sample Question: Which event was NOT a direct result of the French and Indian War? Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Treaty of Paris of 1763 Tea Act

32 Correct Answer: D. Tea Act

33 Sample Question The Sons of Liberty The Daughters of Liberty
The committees of correspondence Which issue caused British colonists to form the organizations in the list above? The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies. Native Americans had attacked British colonial outpost within the Northwest Territory. British naval vessels had seized colonial ships and forced colonial sailors into service in the British navy. Armed slave rebellions had begun throughout the British colonies to end the continued practice of slavery.

34 Answer A. The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies.

35 American Revolutionary Period


37 Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Message: A call for independence
Sold 500,000 copies

38 Declaration of Independence
Author: Thomas Jefferson Based on John Locke’s Enlightenment philosophy “All men are created equal” All have natural, unalienable rights Life Liberty Pursuit of happiness (Locke said “property”) Government gets its powers from the consent of the people People have a right to alter or abolish their government after a long period of abuses

39 Grievances against King George III noted in the Declaration of Independence
“He has obstructed the administration of justice” “He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies” “He has plundered our seas”

40 Sample Question John Locke’s theory that all people have basic natural rights directly influenced The Proclamation of 1763 The Declaration of Independence The outbreak of the French and Indian War The expansion of transatlantic mercantilism

41 Answer: B. The Declaration of Independence

42 Sample Question Which idea from the Social Contract Theory is expressed within the U.S. Declaration of Independence? Congress must consist of two legislative houses. Political term limits are necessary for all elected officials. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed. Individual citizens must be protected by a federal bill of rights.

43 Answer C. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed.

44 American Revolution The war for independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America


46 George Washington Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution
Took an all volunteer, undisciplined, inexperienced army and turned it into a professional army

47 Lexington and Concord (1775)
Battles that started the American Revolution.

48 Battle of Trenton Christmas, 1776
Washington’s army, who had volunteered for one year of service, was about to go home There had been no victories for the army and no reason to reenlist General Washington planned a surprise attack on Hessian soldiers across the Delaware River from the Continental Army Washington and his army crossed the Delaware in the middle of the night (see next slide) In the early morning, they attacked the Hessians and won In a few days, they defeated a British force at Princeton, NJ Many men in Washington’s army, reenlisted and new recruits joined


50 Battle of Saratoga (October, 1777)
Colonist victory over British. Turning point in Revolutionary War. Convinced the French to become ally of the United States Benjamin Franklin played a key role, as the U.S. diplomat to France, in convincing them to form this alliance Marquis de LaFayette volunteers to fight

51 Valley Forge, PA Winter of 1777-78
Washington and the Continental Army are camped at Valley Forge They have little food They have poor shelter Many have no shoes or blankets to keep them warm Yet Washington rallies his troops, inspires them, and uses the time to prepare them for battle

52 Battle of Yorktown (1781) Yorktown is located on the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers that flow into the Chesapeake Bay Washington and his army entrench themselves on the land side of Yorktown The French fleet blocks the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay Cornwallis and the British surrender The American Revolution is over!

53 Treaty of Paris (1783) Officially ended the Revolutionary War.
British recognized colonists’ independence. British gave colonists all the lands east of the Mississippi River Florida was returned to Spain

54 Sample Question: What battle led the French to form a military alliance with the United States against the British? Concord Trenton Saratoga Yorktown

55 Correct Answer: C: Saratoga

56 Establishing a New Government

57 Constitutional Convention
1787 James Madison introduced a new plan of government to address the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation The Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia, PA resulted in the creation of a FEDERAL government (separate executive, judicial and legislative branches) The convention replaced the Articles of Confederation with the U.S. Constitution

58 Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention
Virginia Plan Bicameral Congress Representation of both houses based on population of the individual states New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress Representation of states would be equal COMPROMISE: Bicameral legislature Representation in the House of Representatives would be based on population of each state Representation of the Senate would be equal with 2 senators from each state

59 The Slavery Debate in the Constitutional Convention
Debates over slavery resulted in An agreement to outlaw the importation of slaves from Africa within 20 years (by 1808) Southern states being able to count 3 out of 5 slaves in its census for the purpose of representation in Congress However, this formula would also be considered for the appropriation of taxes per state

60 Limited Government The federal government’s powers are limited to those specified in the U.S. Constitution

61 Separation of Powers Each branch of government has a specific purpose and powers are different from the other branches A legislative branch (Congress) An executive branch (the President) A judicial branch (Supreme Court)

62 Montesquieu, Enlightenment Thinker
Championed the idea of separation of powers

63 Checks and Balances Each branch of the government checks the powers of the other two branches Prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful

64 Federalism Distribution of the powers of government between a central (federal) government and the regional (states) governments. State laws cannot interfere with federal law

65 Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
Supported ratification of U.S. Constitution Supported strong central (national) government Believed it kept factions from becoming too powerful Believed the President’s powers would be check by the other branches Every state had its own Bill of Rights; that was sufficient Anti-Federalists Opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution Felt power of government should remain with the individual states Believed factions could not be controlled from taking power Believed the President could become like a dictator with his power as commander-in-chief Especially concerned about the absence of a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of citizens

66 Federalist Papers Newspaper articles published in New York
Explained reasons why the states should ratify the new US constitution The anonymous authors (Publius): Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

67 Bill of Rights Freedom of speech, press, religion, petition and peaceful assembly Right to bear arms Protection for unlawful searches and seizures Rights of the accused Attorney To remain silent To have charges explained To question witnesses Public trial by jury No excessive fines or cruel or unusual punishment Protection of property Additional rights (9th) States’ rights (10th)

68 Sample Question The Bill of Rights was adopted by Congress in 1791 to preserve which political principle? The separation of powers The restriction of political terms The prohibition of racial discrimination The limitation of the federal government

69 Answer: D The Bill of Rights limited the federal government’s ability to interfere with individuals’ and states’ rights.

70 Early Presidents George Washington John Adams
Proclaimed U.S. neutrality in the war between England and France As commander in chief, sent troops to stop the rebellion over the whiskey tax First political parties formed during this presidency Federalists (Hamilton) Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) John Adams Federalist Sent representatives to France to negotiate problems French officials tried to bribe them Referred to as the XYZ Affair Led to a Quasi War with France

71 Sample Question President John Adams became involved with which U.S. foreign-policy issue in the late 1790s? Purchasing the Louisiana Territory Avoiding full-scale war with France Strengthening the Monroe Doctrine Arranging for the annexation of Texas

72 Answer C: avoiding full-scale war with France
The XYZ Affair resulted in armed conflict (a Quasi War) with France, but not full-scale war.

73 United States History 1800 to 1865

74 Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency
Sent representative to France to purchase the port of New Orleans Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the U.S. Doubled the size of U.S. territory

75 War of 1812 President Madison declares war on Great Britain
Reasons: Impressment of U.S. sailors in British navy War helped form a strong national identity

76 Monroe Doctrine Established U.S. dominance in the western hemisphere
European countries could not claim any more colonies here The U.S. would stay out of European affairs

77 Sample Question What was the importance of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823? It reinforced tensions between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States. It authorized the creation of a permanent professional military to defend the United States. It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America. It proclaimed the U.S. intention of expanding it political borders westward to the Pacific Ocean.

78 Answer C. It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America.

79 Sample Question Use this quote to answer the question:
“British cruisers have been in the continued practice of violating the American flag on the great highway of nations, and of seizing and carrying off person sailing under it…” -President James Madison, in a message to Congress What resulted from the actions described by President Madison in the quotation? The beginning of the War of 1812 The outbreak of the Revolutionary War The signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 The adoption of the Articles of Confederation

80 Answer A. The beginning of the War of 1812

81 Industrial Revolution
Eli Whitney, Inventor Interchangeable parts: aided growth of industry in the North Cotton gin: aided growth of cotton as the main cash crop of the South

82 Manifest Destiny A God-given right to expand U.S. territory
1845: Texas annexation 1846: Oregon Country (divided with Britain) 1848: Mexican Cession (resulted from Mexican War)


84 Reform Movements Temperance: campaign to reduce, or “temper” the use of alcohol Abolition: campaign to abolish slavery Education: effort to support the funding of public education

85 Seneca Falls, NY Women’s Rights convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, leading advocate Main issue: Women’s Suffrage

86 Jacksonian Democracy Expanding voting rights
Non-property owners could vote by 1828 Now all adult white males could vote Most supported Andrew Jackson, the symbol of the “common man” Popular votes counted for the first time in 1828 Increased suffrage led to increased nationalism

87 Sample Question Which term BEST describes the period during which white male suffrage greatly expanded in the United States? Manifest Destiny The Enlightenment The Great Awakening Jacksonian Democracy

88 Answer: A. Manifest Destiny

89 North-South Divisions Related to Westward Expansion

90 Abolitionist Movement
Key abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Grimke sisters Successful slave rebellion led by Nat Turner

91 Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri requested admission into the Union as a slave state There were an even number of slave and free states Much congressional debate 1820 Compromise Maine would be admitted as a free state Missouri would be admitted as a slave state North of 36, 30 North latitude: slavery prohibited South of 36,30 North latitude: slavery allowed

92 Nullification Crisis Attempt by South Carolina to nullify of federal tariff in 1832. South Carolina protested/refused to pay Vice-President John C. Calhoun led the protest Threatened to secede if force was used President Jackson ->Force Act Henry Clay offered a compromise tariff Tariff would gradually be lowered over a ten year period Increased the issue of sectionalism: putting the interests of a region over those of the entire nation

93 Mexican War 1846 U.S. declares war on Mexico over boundary dispute U.S. wins victories in El Paso, TX; Monterrey, CA; and, Monterrey, Mexico Congressman David Wilmot proposes that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired in the war Much congressional debate over the Wilmot Proviso; it is defeated 1847 U.S. wins victories in Buena Vista and Mexico City 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo establishes boundary at Rio Grande; gives entire southwestern territory to U.S. (Mexican Cession)

94 Sample Question The western expansion of the United States in the early 1800s provoked a congressional debate over the slavery issue. Congress resolved this debate by Making the Louisiana Purchase Passing a constitutional amendment Adopting the Missouri Compromise Accepting the doctrine of nullification

95 Answer C. Passing a constitutional amendment

96 Sample Question Which principle of U.S. government did the Nullification Crisis of 1832 directly challenge? Federalism Judicial review Popular sovereignty Checks and balances

97 Answer Federalism When South Carolina declared their nullification of the federal tariff, they were challenged federal law. No state laws, policy, or court decision can conflict with federal law. Therefore, South Carolina was challenging the principle of federalism.

98 Causes, Main Events, and Consequences of the American Civil War

99 Compromise of 1850 1848 Gold discovered in California 1849
Thousands of people travel to California in the Gold Rush California’s population escalates enough to apply for statehood (free state) 1850 Much congressional debate (even number of free states and slave states) Compromise: California will be a free state Utah and New Mexico will decide slavery by popular sovereignty Slave trade is abolished in Washington, D.C. A stronger Fugitive Slave Law is passed to satisfy a pro-slavery South

100 Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise by reopening territory that had been closed to slavery Left the slavery issue to be decided by the people who settled in those territories (popular sovereignty)

101 “Bleeding Kansas” A race to Kansas between those who supported slavery and those who didn’t began Anti-slavery and pro-slavery forces fought against each other Two territorial legislatures will be chosen Popular sovereignty will fail

102 Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was a slave that had been taken into free territory After his owner died, Scott wanted his freedom The Supreme Court decision: ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. African Americans were not free just because they were taken into free territories by their owners Laws like the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional Congress could not deny slave owners from taking slaves into the western territories because they were property under the 5th Amendment

103 John Brown A staunch abolitionist
Had committed five murders of pro-slavery people in Pottawatomie, Kansas in 1856 In 1859, he raided a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA, in an attempt to arm a slave resurrection He was captured, charged with treason, and executed by hanging for his crimes

104 Civil War Leaders South/Confederacy North/Union
President: Jefferson Davis Generals: Robert E. Lee – commander the Army of Northern Virginia; successfully won defensive battles against the Union, but lost both attempts at offensive battles “Stonewall” Jackson – Lee’s right-hand man; helped him win many victories against the Union North/Union President: Abraham Lincoln Generals: Ulysses S. Grant – defeated Lee and ended the war William T. Sherman – capture the railroad city of Atlanta, GA and led a destructive march through Georgia

105 Civil War Battles Fort Sumter (April, 1861) – where the Civil War began Antietam (August, 1862) – Lee’s first attempt to fight an offensive battle and first one outside the Confederacy; he lost Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) – Lee’s second attempt to fight an offensive battle; the turning point of the war; Lee would never recover from this loss Vicksburg – “the nail that held the two halves of the Confederacy together” (Davis); located on the Mississippi River, it fail to Union control on July 4, 1863; the Union had control of the Mississippi Atlanta (September, 1864) – the main rail center of the southeast captured by General Sherman and where he began his March to the Sea

106 Emancipation Proclamation
After the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln announced he would issue his proclamation on January 1, 1863 if the Confederacy did not surrender January 1, 1863, Lincoln announced the he was freeing the slaves who were still in the states that continue to fight the Union The Union army had a new purpose for fighting the war: they would free all slaves as they moved through the states at war with them Slaves in states still in the Union were not freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, but will be freed by the 13th Amendment

107 Economic Disparity between the North and the South

108 Sample Question Which factor provided a military advantage during the U.S. Civil War? Over 80% of the nation’s factories existed in the North Southern merchant ships outnumbered those controlled by the North Seventy percent of U.S. railroad tracks existed in the southern territory. The North made an alliance with France to receive troops and other aid to fight the South.

109 Answer A. Over 80% of the nation’s factories existed in the North
European nations essentially remained neutral throughout the course of the U.S. Civil War. The North possessed more merchant ships than the South, as well as the majority of railroad tracks. The North was far more industrialized than the South. Northern factories gave the Union a powerful military advantage.

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