Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Part I 1607-1865 Colonial Period Virginia Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607. Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607. First permanent."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. History Part I
Virginia Jamestown, Virginia was founded in Jamestown, Virginia was founded in First permanent English settlement in North America. First permanent English settlement in North America. A corporate colony, founded by the Virginia Company. A corporate colony, founded by the Virginia Company. Investors hoped to make a profit from the colony. Investors hoped to make a profit from the colony.
Powhatan Indians Hostile to new settlers Attacked Jamestown John Smith was able to negotiate with them for food
Success of the Virginia Colony Tobacco became the most profitable cash crop Headright System allowed families to move in and own land House of Burgesses allowed self- government
Virginias House of Burgesses Virginias colonial legislature Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion because the legislature failed to provide settlers protection from hostile Indians in the backcountry
First Africans in Virginia In 1619 a Dutch slave ship arrived in the colony The Africans on board (who were destined to be traded as slaves in the West Indies), were traded for supplies in Virginia The Virginia colony treated the Africans as indentured servants, not slaves All of them eventually gained their freedom before slavery was introduced in Virginia
Sample Question One reason the colony of Virginia succeeded was the a. a. profitable tobacco crop b. b. leadership of John Smith c. c. management of the Virginia Company d. d. relationship with the Powhatan Indians
Answer: A: the profitable tobacco crop
New England Originally settled by English Separatists, who had broken away from the Anglican Church They were persecuted These settlers were called Pilgrims They sailed on the Mayflower from England to America
Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled by English Puritans (who were Anglican, but wanted to reform the Church of its catholic practices) They were persecuted in Great Britain They established their City Upon A Hill, what they considered a model utopia, in Boston
Puritans vs. Native Americans King Philips War Chief of the Wampanoags (Metacom/King Philip) led an attack on the Puritans in response to their laws that restricted the Indians It was a very brutal and destructive war Food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties kept the Indians from fighting Metacom was killed and the Indian resistance in New England ended
Tension in New England Roger Williams challenged forced religion on the citizens of Massachusetts He was exiled and eventually founded the colony of Rhode Island Separation of church and state established in Rhode island
Halfway Covenant Allowed second and third generation Puritans partial membership in the church until they experienced a true religious conversion
Salem, Massachusetts Location of Salem Witch Trials
Massachusetts Bay Loses Its Charter Puritans refused to obey English law In 1684, King Charles II revoked the colonys corporate charter Massachusetts became a royal colony, under strict control of the king
Sample Question Which factor directly affected the settlement of New England in the 1600s? A. A. Religious persecution in Great Britain B. B. The opportunity to cultivate tobacco C. C. Growing conflict with the southern farmers D. D. The chance to participate in the slave trade
Answer: A: religious persecution in Great Britain
Middle Colonies New Netherland to New York Originally claimed and settled by Netherland Diverse Population (settlers were allowed from all over Europe) James, Duke of York and brother of King Charles II, sent a fleet of ships to take the colony away from the Dutch It was accomplished without firing a single shot It became the English colony of New York
Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania William Penn: founded Quakers were first settlers Penns Holy Experiment: allowed freedom of religion
Sample Question The original settlers of the Mid-Atlantic colonies were a. a. Pilgrims b. b. Quakers c. c. Puritans d. d. Dutch
Correct Answer: D: Dutch
Mercantilism Export raw materials from colonies to England Sell manufactured goods back to the colonies Become completely self sufficient as a country Acquire wealth
Triangular Trade Route
African Colonial Population As employment opportunities increased in England, fewer indentured servants came to America Transatlantic trade included stops along the African coast to trade rum (from New England) and guns and manufactured goods (from England) in exchange for slaves Slaves were taken to the West Indies and various parts of North America in the Middle Passage of the transatlantic trade
Sample Question: Rum Slaves Manufactured goods The items listed above were part of the a. a. Products produced in the New England colonies b. b. Products traded to England from the American colonies c. c. Items traded along the transatlantic trade d. d. Items England provided to its American colonies
Correct Answer: C: items traded along the transatlantic trade
Results of French & Indian War and Causes of the American Revolution In the Treaty of Paris of 1763,Britain won control of North America; France lost most of its North American possessions In its attempt to govern a larger colonial empire, Parliament passed a series of laws to control the colonists Proclamation of 1763 forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mountains to protect them from hostile Indians Stamp Act placed direct taxes on printed materials to pay for war debt
Colonial Reactions No taxation without representation – colonists believed only their colonial legislatures could tax them In response to the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agents In response to the Boston Massacre, each colony formed a committee of correspondence to communicate with other colonies In response to the Tea Act, the colonists dumped British tea in the Boston Harbor
Intolerable Acts In response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed a series of laws to punish the colony of Massachusetts The Daughters of Liberty led boycotts of English goods, especially tea
Sample Question: Which event was NOT a direct result of the French and Indian War? a. a. Proclamation of 1763 b. b. Stamp Act c. c. Treaty of Paris of 1763 d. d. Tea Act
Correct Answer: D. Tea Act
Sample Question The Sons of Liberty The Daughters of Liberty The committees of correspondence Which issue caused British colonists to form the organizations in the list above? A. A. The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies. B. B. Native Americans had attacked British colonial outpost within the Northwest Territory. C. C. British naval vessels had seized colonial ships and forced colonial sailors into service in the British navy. D. D. Armed slave rebellions had begun throughout the British colonies to end the continued practice of slavery.
Answer A. The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies.
American Revolutionary Period
IDEOLOGY OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Message: A call for independence Sold 500,000 copies
Declaration of Independence Author: Thomas Jefferson Author: Thomas Jefferson Based on John Lockes Enlightenment philosophy Based on John Lockes Enlightenment philosophy All men are created equal All have natural, unalienable rights Life Liberty Pursuit of happiness (Locke said property) Government gets its powers from the consent of the people People have a right to alter or abolish their government after a long period of abuses
Grievances against King George III noted in the Declaration of Independence He has obstructed the administration of justice He has obstructed the administration of justice He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies He has plundered our seas He has plundered our seas
Sample Question John Lockes theory that all people have basic natural rights directly influenced A. A. The Proclamation of 1763 B. B. The Declaration of Independence C. C. The outbreak of the French and Indian War D. D. The expansion of transatlantic mercantilism
Answer: B. The Declaration of Independence
Sample Question Which idea from the Social Contract Theory is expressed within the U.S. Declaration of Independence? A. A. Congress must consist of two legislative houses. B. B. Political term limits are necessary for all elected officials. C. C. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed. D. D. Individual citizens must be protected by a federal bill of rights.
Answer C. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed.
American Revolution The war for independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America The war for independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America
MILITARY ASPECTS OF AMERICAN REVOLUTION
George Washington Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution Took an all volunteer, undisciplined, inexperienced army and turned it into a professional army Took an all volunteer, undisciplined, inexperienced army and turned it into a professional army
Lexington and Concord (1775) Battles that started the American Revolution. Battles that started the American Revolution.
Battle of Trenton Christmas, 1776 Washingtons army, who had volunteered for one year of service, was about to go home There had been no victories for the army and no reason to reenlist General Washington planned a surprise attack on Hessian soldiers across the Delaware River from the Continental Army Washington and his army crossed the Delaware in the middle of the night (see next slide) In the early morning, they attacked the Hessians and won In a few days, they defeated a British force at Princeton, NJ Many men in Washingtons army, reenlisted and new recruits joined
Battle of Saratoga (October, 1777) Colonist victory over British. Colonist victory over British. Turning point in Revolutionary War. Turning point in Revolutionary War. Convinced the French to become ally of the United States Convinced the French to become ally of the United States Benjamin Franklin played a key role, as the U.S. diplomat to France, in convincing them to form this alliance Benjamin Franklin played a key role, as the U.S. diplomat to France, in convincing them to form this alliance Marquis de LaFayette volunteers to fight Marquis de LaFayette volunteers to fight
Valley Forge, PA Winter of Washington and the Continental Army are camped at Valley Forge They have little food They have poor shelter Many have no shoes or blankets to keep them warm Yet Washington rallies his troops, inspires them, and uses the time to prepare them for battle
Battle of Yorktown (1781) Yorktown is located on the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers that flow into the Chesapeake Bay Yorktown is located on the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers that flow into the Chesapeake Bay Washington and his army entrench themselves on the land side of Yorktown Washington and his army entrench themselves on the land side of Yorktown The French fleet blocks the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay The French fleet blocks the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay Cornwallis and the British surrender Cornwallis and the British surrender The American Revolution is over! The American Revolution is over!
Treaty of Paris (1783) Officially ended the Revolutionary War. Officially ended the Revolutionary War. British recognized colonists independence. British recognized colonists independence. British gave colonists all the lands east of the Mississippi River British gave colonists all the lands east of the Mississippi River Florida was returned to Spain Florida was returned to Spain
Sample Question: What battle led the French to form a military alliance with the United States against the British? a. a. Concord b. b. Trenton c. c. Saratoga d. d. Yorktown
Correct Answer: C: Saratoga
Establishing a New Government
Constitutional Convention 1787 James Madison introduced a new plan of government to address the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation The Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia, PA resulted in the creation of a FEDERAL government (separate executive, judicial and legislative branches) The convention replaced the Articles of Confederation with the U.S. Constitution
Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan Bicameral Congress Representation of both houses based on population of the individual states New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress Representation of states would be equal COMPROMISE: Bicameral legislature Representation in the House of Representatives would be based on population of each state Representation of the Senate would be equal with 2 senators from each state
The Slavery Debate in the Constitutional Convention Debates over slavery resulted in An agreement to outlaw the importation of slaves from Africa within 20 years (by 1808) Southern states being able to count 3 out of 5 slaves in its census for the purpose of representation in Congress However, this formula would also be considered for the appropriation of taxes per state
Limited Government The federal governments powers are limited to those specified in the U.S. Constitution
Separation of Powers Each branch of government has a specific purpose and powers are different from the other branches A legislative branch (Congress) An executive branch (the President) A judicial branch (Supreme Court)
Montesquieu, Enlightenment Thinker Championed the idea of separation of powers
Checks and Balances Each branch of the government checks the powers of the other two branches Prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful
Federalism Distribution of the powers of government between a central (federal) government and the regional (states) governments. State laws cannot interfere with federal law
Federalists vs. Anti-federalists Federalists Supported ratification of U.S. Constitution Supported strong central (national) government Believed it kept factions from becoming too powerful Believed the Presidents powers would be check by the other branches Every state had its own Bill of Rights; that was sufficient Anti-Federalists Opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution Felt power of government should remain with the individual states Believed factions could not be controlled from taking power Believed the President could become like a dictator with his power as commander-in-chief Especially concerned about the absence of a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of citizens
Federalist Papers Newspaper articles published in New York Explained reasons why the states should ratify the new US constitution The anonymous authors (Publius): Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
Bill of Rights Freedom of speech, press, religion, petition and peaceful assembly Right to bear arms Protection for unlawful searches and seizures Rights of the accused Attorney To remain silent To have charges explained To question witnesses Public trial by jury No excessive fines or cruel or unusual punishment Protection of property Additional rights (9 th ) States rights (10 th )
Sample Question The Bill of Rights was adopted by Congress in 1791 to preserve which political principle? A. A. The separation of powers B. B. The restriction of political terms C. C. The prohibition of racial discrimination D. D. The limitation of the federal government
Answer: D The Bill of Rights limited the federal governments ability to interfere with individuals and states rights.
Early Presidents George Washington Proclaimed U.S. neutrality in the war between England and France As commander in chief, sent troops to stop the rebellion over the whiskey tax First political parties formed during this presidency Federalists (Hamilton) Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) John Adams Federalist Sent representatives to France to negotiate problems French officials tried to bribe them Referred to as the XYZ Affair Led to a Quasi War with France
Sample Question President John Adams became involved with which U.S. foreign- policy issue in the late 1790s? A. A. Purchasing the Louisiana Territory B. B. Avoiding full-scale war with France C. C. Strengthening the Monroe Doctrine D. D. Arranging for the annexation of Texas
Answer C: avoiding full-scale war with France The XYZ Affair resulted in armed conflict (a Quasi War) with France, but not full-scale war.
United States History 1800 to 1865
Thomas Jeffersons Presidency Sent representative to France to purchase the port of New Orleans Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the U.S. Doubled the size of U.S. territory
War of 1812 President Madison declares war on Great Britain Reasons: Impressment of U.S. sailors in British navy War helped form a strong national identity
Monroe Doctrine Established U.S. dominance in the western hemisphere European countries could not claim any more colonies here The U.S. would stay out of European affairs
Sample Question What was the importance of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823? A. A. It reinforced tensions between pro-slavery and anti- slavery factions in the United States. B. B. It authorized the creation of a permanent professional military to defend the United States. C. C. It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America. D. D. It proclaimed the U.S. intention of expanding it political borders westward to the Pacific Ocean.
Answer C. It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America.
Sample Question Use this quote to answer the question: British cruisers have been in the continued practice of violating the American flag on the great highway of nations, and of seizing and carrying off person sailing under it… -President James Madison, in a message to Congress What resulted from the actions described by President Madison in the quotation? A. A. The beginning of the War of 1812 B. B. The outbreak of the Revolutionary War C. C. The signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 D. D. The adoption of the Articles of Confederation
Answer A. The beginning of the War of 1812
Industrial Revolution Eli Whitney, Inventor Interchangeable parts: aided growth of industry in the North Cotton gin: aided growth of cotton as the main cash crop of the South
Manifest Destiny A God-given right to expand U.S. territory 1845: Texas annexation 1846: Oregon Country (divided with Britain) 1848: Mexican Cession (resulted from Mexican War)
Reform Movements Temperance: campaign to reduce, or temper the use of alcohol Abolition: campaign to abolish slavery Education: effort to support the funding of public education
Seneca Falls, NY Womens Rights convention Elizabeth Cady Stanton, leading advocate Main issue: Womens Suffrage
Jacksonian Democracy Expanding voting rights Non-property owners could vote by 1828 Now all adult white males could vote Most supported Andrew Jackson, the symbol of the common man Popular votes counted for the first time in 1828 Increased suffrage led to increased nationalism
Sample Question Which term BEST describes the period during which white male suffrage greatly expanded in the United States? A. A. Manifest Destiny B. B. The Enlightenment C. C. The Great Awakening D. D. Jacksonian Democracy
Answer: A. Manifest Destiny
North-South Divisions Related to Westward Expansion
Key abolitionists Key abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Grimke sisters Successful slave rebellion led by Nat Turner Abolitionist Movement
Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri requested admission into the Union as a slave state There were an even number of slave and free states Much congressional debate 1820 Compromise Maine would be admitted as a free state Missouri would be admitted as a slave state North of 36, 30 North latitude: slavery prohibited South of 36,30 North latitude: slavery allowed
Nullification Crisis Attempt by South Carolina to nullify of federal tariff in South Carolina protested/refused to pay Vice-President John C. Calhoun led the protest Threatened to secede if force was used President Jackson ->Force Act Henry Clay offered a compromise tariff Tariff would gradually be lowered over a ten year period Increased the issue of sectionalism: putting the interests of a region over those of the entire nation Increased the issue of sectionalism: putting the interests of a region over those of the entire nation
Mexican War 1846 U.S. declares war on Mexico over boundary dispute U.S. wins victories in El Paso, TX; Monterrey, CA; and, Monterrey, Mexico Congressman David Wilmot proposes that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired in the war Much congressional debate over the Wilmot Proviso; it is defeated 1847 U.S. wins victories in Buena Vista and Mexico City 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo establishes boundary at Rio Grande; gives entire southwestern territory to U.S. (Mexican Cession)
Sample Question The western expansion of the United States in the early 1800s provoked a congressional debate over the slavery issue. Congress resolved this debate by A. A. Making the Louisiana Purchase B. B. Passing a constitutional amendment C. C. Adopting the Missouri Compromise D. D. Accepting the doctrine of nullification
Answer C. Passing a constitutional amendment
Sample Question Which principle of U.S. government did the Nullification Crisis of 1832 directly challenge? A. A. Federalism B. B. Judicial review C. C. Popular sovereignty D. D. Checks and balances
Answer A. A. Federalism When South Carolina declared their nullification of the federal tariff, they were challenged federal law. No state laws, policy, or court decision can conflict with federal law. Therefore, South Carolina was challenging the principle of federalism.
Causes, Main Events, and Consequences of the American Civil War
Compromise of Gold discovered in California 1849 Thousands of people travel to California in the Gold Rush Californias population escalates enough to apply for statehood (free state) 1850 Much congressional debate (even number of free states and slave states) Compromise: California will be a free state Utah and New Mexico will decide slavery by popular sovereignty Slave trade is abolished in Washington, D.C. A stronger Fugitive Slave Law is passed to satisfy a pro-slavery South
Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise by reopening territory that had been closed to slavery Left the slavery issue to be decided by the people who settled in those territories (popular sovereignty)
Bleeding Kansas A race to Kansas between those who supported slavery and those who didnt began Anti-slavery and pro-slavery forces fought against each other Two territorial legislatures will be chosen Popular sovereignty will fail
Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was a slave that had been taken into free territory Dred Scott was a slave that had been taken into free territory After his owner died, Scott wanted his freedom After his owner died, Scott wanted his freedom The Supreme Court decision: The Supreme Court decision: ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. African Americans were not free just because they were taken into free territories by their owners African Americans were not free just because they were taken into free territories by their owners Laws like the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional Laws like the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutional Congress could not deny slave owners from taking slaves into the western territories because they were property under the 5 th Amendment Congress could not deny slave owners from taking slaves into the western territories because they were property under the 5 th Amendment
John Brown A staunch abolitionist Had committed five murders of pro-slavery people in Pottawatomie, Kansas in 1856 In 1859, he raided a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA, in an attempt to arm a slave resurrection He was captured, charged with treason, and executed by hanging for his crimes
Civil War Leaders North/Union President: Abraham Lincoln Generals: Ulysses S. Grant – defeated Lee and ended the war William T. Sherman – capture the railroad city of Atlanta, GA and led a destructive march through Georgia South/Confederacy President: Jefferson Davis Generals: Robert E. Lee – commander the Army of Northern Virginia; successfully won defensive battles against the Union, but lost both attempts at offensive battles Stonewall Jackson – Lees right-hand man; helped him win many victories against the Union
Civil War Battles Fort Sumter (April, 1861) – where the Civil War began Antietam (August, 1862) – Lees first attempt to fight an offensive battle and first one outside the Confederacy; he lost Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) – Lees second attempt to fight an offensive battle; the turning point of the war; Lee would never recover from this loss Vicksburg – the nail that held the two halves of the Confederacy together (Davis); located on the Mississippi River, it fail to Union control on July 4, 1863; the Union had control of the Mississippi Atlanta (September, 1864) – the main rail center of the southeast captured by General Sherman and where he began his March to the Sea
Emancipation Proclamation After the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln announced he would issue his proclamation on January 1, 1863 if the Confederacy did not surrender January 1, 1863, Lincoln announced the he was freeing the slaves who were still in the states that continue to fight the Union The Union army had a new purpose for fighting the war: they would free all slaves as they moved through the states at war with them Slaves in states still in the Union were not freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, but will be freed by the 13 th Amendment
Economic Disparity between the North and the South
Sample Question Which factor provided a military advantage during the U.S. Civil War? A. A. Over 80% of the nations factories existed in the North B. B. Southern merchant ships outnumbered those controlled by the North C. C. Seventy percent of U.S. railroad tracks existed in the southern territory. D. D. The North made an alliance with France to receive troops and other aid to fight the South.
Answer A. Over 80% of the nations factories existed in the North European nations essentially remained neutral throughout the course of the U.S. Civil War. The North possessed more merchant ships than the South, as well as the majority of railroad tracks. The North was far more industrialized than the South. Northern factories gave the Union a powerful military advantage.