3Virginia Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607. First permanent English settlement in North America.A corporate colony, founded by the Virginia Company.Investors hoped to make a profit from the colony.
4Powhatan Indians Hostile to new settlers Attacked Jamestown John Smith was able to negotiate with them for food
5Success of the Virginia Colony Tobacco became the most profitable cash cropHeadright System allowed families to move in and own landHouse of Burgesses allowed self-government
6Virginia’s House of Burgesses Virginia’s colonial legislatureNathaniel Bacon led a rebellion because the legislature failed to provide settlers protection from hostile Indians in the backcountry
7First Africans in Virginia In 1619 a Dutch slave ship arrived in the colonyThe Africans on board (who were destined to be traded as slaves in the West Indies), were traded for supplies in VirginiaThe Virginia colony treated the Africans as indentured servants, not slavesAll of them eventually gained their freedom before slavery was introduced in Virginia
8Sample Question One reason the colony of Virginia succeeded was the profitable tobacco cropleadership of John Smithmanagement of the Virginia Companyrelationship with the Powhatan Indians
10New EnglandOriginally settled by English Separatists, who had broken away from the Anglican ChurchThey were persecutedThese settlers were called “Pilgrims”They sailed on the Mayflower from England to America
11Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled by English Puritans (who were Anglican, but wanted to reform the Church of its “catholic” practices)They were persecuted in Great BritainThey established their “City Upon A Hill”, what they considered a model utopia, in Boston
12Puritans vs. Native Americans King Philip’s WarChief of the Wampanoags (Metacom/”King Philip”) led an attack on the Puritans in response to their laws that restricted the IndiansIt was a very brutal and destructive warFood shortages, disease, and heavy casualties kept the Indians from fightingMetacom was killed and the Indian resistance in New England ended
13Tension in New EnglandRoger Williams challenged forced religion on the citizens of MassachusettsHe was exiled and eventually founded the colony of Rhode IslandSeparation of church and state established in Rhode island
14Halfway CovenantAllowed second and third generation Puritans partial membership in the church until they experienced a true religious conversion
15Salem, MassachusettsLocation of Salem Witch Trials
16Massachusetts Bay Loses Its Charter Puritans refused to obey English lawIn 1684, King Charles II revoked the colony’s corporate charterMassachusetts became a royal colony, under strict control of the king
17Sample QuestionWhich factor directly affected the settlement of New England in the 1600s?Religious persecution in Great BritainThe opportunity to cultivate tobaccoGrowing conflict with the southern farmersThe chance to participate in the slave trade
18Answer:A: religious persecution in Great Britain
19Middle Colonies New Netherland to New York Originally claimed and settled by NetherlandDiverse Population (settlers were allowed from all over Europe)James, Duke of York and brother of King Charles II, sent a fleet of ships to take the colony away from the DutchIt was accomplished without firing a single shotIt became the English colony of New York
20Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania William Penn: foundedQuakers were first settlersPenn’s “Holy Experiment”: allowed freedom of religion
21Sample QuestionThe original settlers of the Mid-Atlantic colonies werePilgrimsQuakersPuritansDutch
25African Colonial Population As employment opportunities increased in England, fewer indentured servants came to AmericaTransatlantic trade included stops along the African coast to trade rum (from New England) and guns and manufactured goods (from England) in exchange for slavesSlaves were taken to the West Indies and various parts of North America in the Middle Passage of the transatlantic trade
26Sample Question: Rum Slaves Manufactured goods The items listed above were part of theProducts produced in the New England coloniesProducts traded to England from the American coloniesItems traded along the transatlantic tradeItems England provided to its American colonies
27Correct Answer:C: items traded along the transatlantic trade
28Results of French & Indian War and Causes of the American Revolution In the Treaty of Paris of 1763,Britain won control of North America; France lost most of its North American possessionsIn its attempt to govern a larger colonial empire, Parliament passed a series of laws to control the colonistsProclamation of 1763 forbade settlement west of Appalachian Mountains to protect them from hostile IndiansStamp Act placed direct taxes on printed materials to pay for war debt
29Colonial ReactionsNo taxation without representation – colonists believed only their colonial legislatures could tax themIn response to the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agentsIn response to the Boston Massacre, each colony formed a committee of correspondence to communicate with other coloniesIn response to the Tea Act, the colonists dumped British tea in the Boston Harbor
30Intolerable ActsIn response to the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passed a series of laws to punish the colony of MassachusettsThe Daughters of Liberty led boycotts of English goods, especially tea
31Sample Question:Which event was NOT a direct result of the French and Indian War?Proclamation of 1763Stamp ActTreaty of Paris of 1763Tea Act
33Sample Question The Sons of Liberty The Daughters of Liberty The committees of correspondenceWhich issue caused British colonists to form the organizations in the list above?The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies.Native Americans had attacked British colonial outpost within the Northwest Territory.British naval vessels had seized colonial ships and forced colonial sailors into service in the British navy.Armed slave rebellions had begun throughout the British colonies to end the continued practice of slavery.
34AnswerA. The British Parliament had passed series of taxes on its North American colonies.
37Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Message: A call for independence Sold 500,000 copies
38Declaration of Independence Author: Thomas JeffersonBased on John Locke’s Enlightenment philosophy“All men are created equal”All have natural, unalienable rightsLifeLibertyPursuit of happiness (Locke said “property”)Government gets its powers from the consent of the peoplePeople have a right to alter or abolish their government after a long period of abuses
39Grievances against King George III noted in the Declaration of Independence “He has obstructed the administration of justice”“He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies”“He has plundered our seas”
40Sample QuestionJohn Locke’s theory that all people have basic natural rights directly influencedThe Proclamation of 1763The Declaration of IndependenceThe outbreak of the French and Indian WarThe expansion of transatlantic mercantilism
42Sample QuestionWhich idea from the Social Contract Theory is expressed within the U.S. Declaration of Independence?Congress must consist of two legislative houses.Political term limits are necessary for all elected officials.Government authority comes from the consent of the governed.Individual citizens must be protected by a federal bill of rights.
43AnswerC. Government authority comes from the consent of the governed.
44American RevolutionThe war for independence fought between Britain and 13 of its colonies in North America
46George Washington Leader of the Continental Army during the Revolution Took an all volunteer, undisciplined, inexperienced army and turned it into a professional army
47Lexington and Concord (1775) Battles that started the American Revolution.
48Battle of Trenton Christmas, 1776 Washington’s army, who had volunteered for one year of service, was about to go homeThere had been no victories for the army and no reason to reenlistGeneral Washington planned a surprise attack on Hessian soldiers across the Delaware River from the Continental ArmyWashington and his army crossed the Delaware in the middle of the night (see next slide)In the early morning, they attacked the Hessians and wonIn a few days, they defeated a British force at Princeton, NJMany men in Washington’s army, reenlisted and new recruits joined
50Battle of Saratoga (October, 1777) Colonist victory over British.Turning point in Revolutionary War.Convinced the French to become ally of the United StatesBenjamin Franklin played a key role, as the U.S. diplomat to France, in convincing them to form this allianceMarquis de LaFayette volunteers to fight
51Valley Forge, PA Winter of 1777-78 Washington and the Continental Army are camped at Valley ForgeThey have little foodThey have poor shelterMany have no shoes or blankets to keep them warmYet Washington rallies his troops, inspires them, and uses the time to prepare them for battle
52Battle of Yorktown (1781)Yorktown is located on the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers that flow into the Chesapeake BayWashington and his army entrench themselves on the land side of YorktownThe French fleet blocks the entrance to the Chesapeake BayCornwallis and the British surrenderThe American Revolution is over!
53Treaty of Paris (1783) Officially ended the Revolutionary War. British recognized colonists’ independence.British gave colonists all the lands east of the Mississippi RiverFlorida was returned to Spain
54Sample Question:What battle led the French to form a military alliance with the United States against the British?ConcordTrentonSaratogaYorktown
57Constitutional Convention 1787James Madison introduced a new plan of government to address the weaknesses in the Articles of ConfederationThe Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia, PA resulted in the creation of a FEDERAL government (separate executive, judicial and legislative branches)The convention replaced the Articles of Confederation with the U.S. Constitution
58Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention Virginia PlanBicameral CongressRepresentation of both houses based on population of the individual statesNew Jersey PlanUnicameral CongressRepresentation of states would be equalCOMPROMISE:Bicameral legislatureRepresentation in the House of Representatives would be based on population of each stateRepresentation of the Senate would be equal with 2 senators from each state
59The Slavery Debate in the Constitutional Convention Debates over slavery resulted inAn agreement to outlaw the importation of slaves from Africa within 20 years (by 1808)Southern states being able to count 3 out of 5 slaves in its census for the purpose of representation in CongressHowever, this formula would also be considered for the appropriation of taxes per state
60Limited GovernmentThe federal government’s powers are limited to those specified in the U.S. Constitution
61Separation of PowersEach branch of government has a specific purpose and powers are different from the other branchesA legislative branch (Congress)An executive branch (the President)A judicial branch (Supreme Court)
62Montesquieu, Enlightenment Thinker Championedthe idea ofseparation ofpowers
63Checks and BalancesEach branch of the government checks the powers of the other two branchesPrevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful
64FederalismDistribution of the powers of government between a central (federal) government and the regional (states) governments.State laws cannot interfere with federal law
65Federalists vs. Anti-federalists Supported ratification of U.S. ConstitutionSupported strong central (national) governmentBelieved it kept factions from becoming too powerfulBelieved the President’s powers would be check by the other branchesEvery state had its own Bill of Rights; that was sufficientAnti-FederalistsOpposed ratification of the U.S. ConstitutionFelt power of government should remain with the individual statesBelieved factions could not be controlled from taking powerBelieved the President could become like a dictator with his power as commander-in-chiefEspecially concerned about the absence of a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of citizens
66Federalist Papers Newspaper articles published in New York Explained reasons why the states should ratify the new US constitutionThe anonymous authors (Publius): Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
67Bill of RightsFreedom of speech, press, religion, petition and peaceful assemblyRight to bear armsProtection for unlawful searches and seizuresRights of the accusedAttorneyTo remain silentTo have charges explainedTo question witnessesPublic trial by juryNo excessive fines or cruel or unusual punishmentProtection of propertyAdditional rights (9th)States’ rights (10th)
68Sample QuestionThe Bill of Rights was adopted by Congress in 1791 to preserve which political principle?The separation of powersThe restriction of political termsThe prohibition of racial discriminationThe limitation of the federal government
69Answer: DThe Bill of Rights limited the federal government’s ability to interfere with individuals’ and states’ rights.
70Early Presidents George Washington John Adams Proclaimed U.S. neutrality in the war between England and FranceAs commander in chief, sent troops to stop the rebellion over the whiskey taxFirst political parties formed during this presidencyFederalists (Hamilton)Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson)John AdamsFederalistSent representatives to France to negotiate problemsFrench officials tried to bribe themReferred to as the XYZ AffairLed to a Quasi War with France
71Sample QuestionPresident John Adams became involved with which U.S. foreign-policy issue in the late 1790s?Purchasing the Louisiana TerritoryAvoiding full-scale war with FranceStrengthening the Monroe DoctrineArranging for the annexation of Texas
72Answer C: avoiding full-scale war with France The XYZ Affair resulted in armed conflict (a Quasi War) with France, but not full-scale war.
74Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency Sent representative to France to purchase the port of New OrleansNapoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the U.S.Doubled the size of U.S. territory
75War of 1812 President Madison declares war on Great Britain Reasons: Impressment of U.S. sailors in British navyWar helped form astrong national identity
76Monroe Doctrine Established U.S. dominance in the western hemisphere European countries could not claim any more colonies hereThe U.S. would stay out of European affairs
77Sample QuestionWhat was the importance of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823?It reinforced tensions between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States.It authorized the creation of a permanent professional military to defend the United States.It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America.It proclaimed the U.S. intention of expanding it political borders westward to the Pacific Ocean.
78AnswerC. It established the U.S. policy of preventing other nations from interfering in Latin America.
79Sample Question Use this quote to answer the question: “British cruisers have been in the continued practice of violating the American flag on the great highway of nations, and of seizing and carrying off person sailing under it…”-President James Madison,in a message to CongressWhat resulted from the actions described by President Madison in the quotation?The beginning of the War of 1812The outbreak of the Revolutionary WarThe signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783The adoption of the Articles of Confederation
84Reform MovementsTemperance: campaign to reduce, or “temper” the use of alcoholAbolition: campaign to abolish slaveryEducation: effort to support the funding of public education
85Seneca Falls, NY Women’s Rights convention Elizabeth Cady Stanton, leading advocateMain issue: Women’s Suffrage
86Jacksonian Democracy Expanding voting rights Non-property owners could vote by 1828Now all adult white males could voteMost supported Andrew Jackson, the symbol of the “common man”Popular votes counted for the first time in 1828Increased suffrage led to increased nationalism
87Sample QuestionWhich term BEST describes the period during which white male suffrage greatly expanded in the United States?Manifest DestinyThe EnlightenmentThe Great AwakeningJacksonian Democracy
89North-South Divisions Related to Westward Expansion
90Abolitionist Movement Key abolitionistsWilliam Lloyd GarrisonFrederick DouglassGrimke sistersSuccessful slave rebellion led by Nat Turner
91Missouri Compromise1819Missouri requested admission into the Union as a slave stateThere were an even number of slave and free statesMuch congressional debate1820CompromiseMaine would be admitted as a free stateMissouri would be admitted as a slave stateNorth of 36, 30 North latitude: slavery prohibitedSouth of 36,30 North latitude: slavery allowed
92Nullification CrisisAttempt by South Carolina to nullify of federal tariff in 1832.South Carolina protested/refused to payVice-President John C. Calhoun led the protestThreatened to secede if force was usedPresident Jackson ->Force ActHenry Clay offered a compromise tariffTariff would gradually be lowered over a ten year periodIncreased the issue of sectionalism: putting the interests of a region over those of the entire nation
93Mexican War1846U.S. declares war on Mexico over boundary disputeU.S. wins victories in El Paso, TX; Monterrey, CA; and, Monterrey, MexicoCongressman David Wilmot proposes that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired in the warMuch congressional debate over the Wilmot Proviso; it is defeated1847U.S. wins victories in Buena Vista and Mexico City1848Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo establishes boundary at Rio Grande; gives entire southwestern territory to U.S. (Mexican Cession)
94Sample QuestionThe western expansion of the United States in the early 1800s provoked a congressional debate over the slavery issue. Congress resolved this debate byMaking the Louisiana PurchasePassing a constitutional amendmentAdopting the Missouri CompromiseAccepting the doctrine of nullification
96Sample QuestionWhich principle of U.S. government did the Nullification Crisis of 1832 directly challenge?FederalismJudicial reviewPopular sovereigntyChecks and balances
97AnswerFederalismWhen South Carolina declared their nullification of the federal tariff, they were challenged federal law. No state laws, policy, or court decision can conflict with federal law. Therefore, South Carolina was challenging the principle of federalism.
98Causes, Main Events, and Consequences of the American Civil War
99Compromise of 1850 1848 Gold discovered in California 1849 Thousands of people travel to California in the Gold RushCalifornia’s population escalates enough to apply for statehood (free state)1850Much congressional debate (even number of free states and slave states)Compromise:California will be a free stateUtah and New Mexico will decide slavery by popular sovereigntySlave trade is abolished in Washington, D.C.A stronger Fugitive Slave Law is passed to satisfy a pro-slavery South
100Kansas-Nebraska ActRepealed the Missouri Compromise by reopening territory that had been closed to slaveryLeft the slavery issue to be decided by the people who settled in those territories (popular sovereignty)
101“Bleeding Kansas”A race to Kansas between those who supported slavery and those who didn’t beganAnti-slavery and pro-slavery forces fought against each otherTwo territorial legislatures will be chosenPopular sovereignty will fail
102Dred Scott CaseDred Scott was a slave that had been taken into free territoryAfter his owner died, Scott wanted his freedomThe Supreme Court decision:ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S.African Americans were not free just because they were taken into free territories by their ownersLaws like the Missouri Compromise were unconstitutionalCongress could not deny slave owners from taking slaves into the western territories because they were property under the 5th Amendment
103John Brown A staunch abolitionist Had committed five murders of pro-slavery people in Pottawatomie, Kansas in 1856In 1859, he raided a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA, in an attempt to arm a slave resurrectionHe was captured, charged with treason, and executed by hanging for his crimes
104Civil War Leaders South/Confederacy North/Union President: Jefferson DavisGenerals:Robert E. Lee – commander the Army of Northern Virginia; successfully won defensive battles against the Union, but lost both attempts at offensive battles“Stonewall” Jackson – Lee’s right-hand man; helped him win many victories against the UnionNorth/UnionPresident: Abraham LincolnGenerals:Ulysses S. Grant – defeated Lee and ended the warWilliam T. Sherman – capture the railroad city of Atlanta, GA and led a destructive march through Georgia
105Civil War BattlesFort Sumter (April, 1861) – where the Civil War beganAntietam (August, 1862) – Lee’s first attempt to fight an offensive battle and first one outside the Confederacy; he lostGettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) – Lee’s second attempt to fight an offensive battle; the turning point of the war; Lee would never recover from this lossVicksburg – “the nail that held the two halves of the Confederacy together” (Davis); located on the Mississippi River, it fail to Union control on July 4, 1863; the Union had control of the MississippiAtlanta (September, 1864) – the main rail center of the southeast captured by General Sherman and where he began his March to the Sea
106Emancipation Proclamation After the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln announced he would issue his proclamation on January 1, 1863 if the Confederacy did not surrenderJanuary 1, 1863, Lincoln announced the he was freeing the slaves who were still in the states that continue to fight the UnionThe Union army had a new purpose for fighting the war: they would free all slaves as they moved through the states at war with themSlaves in states still in the Union were not freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, but will be freed by the 13th Amendment
107Economic Disparity between the North and the South
108Sample QuestionWhich factor provided a military advantage during the U.S. Civil War?Over 80% of the nation’s factories existed in the NorthSouthern merchant ships outnumbered those controlled by the NorthSeventy percent of U.S. railroad tracks existed in the southern territory.The North made an alliance with France to receive troops and other aid to fight the South.
109Answer A. Over 80% of the nation’s factories existed in the North European nations essentially remained neutral throughout the course of the U.S. Civil War. The North possessed more merchant ships than the South, as well as the majority of railroad tracks. The North was far more industrialized than the South. Northern factories gave the Union a powerful military advantage.