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Chapter 4 Native Texans 10,000 BC-1800’s AD

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Native Texans 10,000 BC-1800’s AD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Native Texans 10,000 BC-1800’s AD
Pages 74-95 Essential Question: Did geography have a significant impact on the ways of life of Native Americans in Texas?

2 Objectives Section 1: Life in Prehistoric Texas
Identify the major eras in Texas History Describe the defining characteristics of the major eras in Texas History Identify the dates and sequence of major eras in Texas History Section 2: Native American Groups in Texas Compare the cultures of Native Americans in Texas prior to European colonization Identify ways in which Texans adapted to and modified the environment Compare types and uses of technology past and present Section 3: A Time of Change for Native Texans Analyze how migration to Texas in the 19th century has influenced Texas Describe how Native Texans attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture Explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities, celebrations, and performances

3 Section 1 Vocabulary Prehistoric: before written history
Culture: how a group of people act and believe Extinction: no longer existing (extinct) Civilization: a group of people who live the same kind of life Mesoamerica: ancient civilization in Central America Social Structure: the way a society is organized

4 Early Americans First people to live in North America probably immigrated from Asia about 37,000 years ago As they searched for food, they crossed a land bridge that was formed during the Ice Age These groups of people came to America at different times They had to adjust to new environments They traveled to rest of North, Central, and South America Because they did not keep a written record, or history of their daily life, they are called Prehistoric people

5 3 Time Periods of Prehistoric Cultures
Paleo-Indian Period In Texas area about 12,000 years ago Known as the Big Game Hunters Used flint-tipped spears to hunt They hunted: Woolly mammoths, mastodons, sloths, giant buffalo & short nosed bears But the big animals died off by 8000 bc. Why did they die? Humans killed so many of them they became Extinct Or, the environment changed as ice age melted Fortunately, the people didn’t die off In 1953 around the Midland area, scientists found bones of Paleo-Indian woman…they named her Midland Minnie

6 Paleo-Indian Period

7

8 3 Time Periods, con’t Archaic Period
After giant animals died, Native Texas had to adapt to a new environment New way of life developed around 6000 bc These people were known as the Hunter-Foragers They hunted smaller animals (antelope, deer) Developed better weapons…dart pointed sticks Men hunted and women gathered food from plants, berries, roots, etc They began to tame dogs and teach them to help Scientists found bones of Archaic Period man near Abilene around 1829…named him Abilene Man

9 Archaic Period

10 3 Time Periods, con’t Late Prehistoric Period
This time began in Texas around A.D. 700 The people lived in villages, planted crops, and tamed some animals Became good farmers Used bow and arrow for the 1st time With bow and arrow, they could hunt both large and small animals (buffalo, deer, rabbits) Bow and Arrow: became most important weapon for Native Texans

11 Late Prehistoric Period

12 Paint Rock Pictograhs

13 2 New Civilizations Begin
2 groups of people built civilizations in Southern Mexico and Central America: called Mesoamerica Maya Social Structure had royal families Had large trade centers Had pyramids Studied astronomy and developed calendars Mayan calendar Complex number system (see Linking History…page 78) Society died out over 1000 years ago..no one knows why

14 2 New Civilizations, con’t
Aztecs AKA: the Mexica Rose to power in Central America in A.D. 1200 Built city in area that is now Mexico City Had pyramids, temples, and created works of art The influence from Mesoamerica (the Mayans and the Aztecs) spread to Texas…crops such as corn, beans, and squash may have come from these peoples

15 Mayans

16 Aztecs

17 Map of Maya and Aztec Civilations

18 First Agriculture in Texas
From A.D. 700 until Europeans arrived in Texas in 1500s Farming was popular if climate was good Farming produced more food than hunting/gathering Learned to store extra food Developed pottery When food supply was stable, people could stay in one place longer Early Texans learned to adapt to their environment and established organized groups and cultures a. These cultures are what the Europeans found when they first came to America

19 The Origin of the Caddoes
Read about the Origin of the Caddoes on page 80

20 Section 2 Vocabulary Nomad: person who moves from place to place
Adobe: bricks made of dried mud and straw

21 Native Texans on Gulf Coast
Coahuiltecans (ko.ah.WEEL.tay.cunz) Were nomads —when food supply ran out, they moved Were hunters and gatherers Had temporary houses made of mud, animal skins, brush Made up of several groups of native Texans Lived from Gulf Coast to San Antonio area Very hardy, tough people…had great endurance

22 Native Texans on Gulf Coast, con’t
Karankawas Lived on Gulf Coast between Corpus Christi and Galveston Used dug-out canoes they pushed with poles Used cane traps and bows/arrows to catch fish Gathered seafood (clams, oysters, etc) by coast Hunted for small game Learned to cope with mosquitoes by covering themselves with alligator or shark grease Women made clothes from deerskin and moss Tattooed and painted their bodies Very gentle with their children and they loved dogs Read “Texas Voices” p. 82

23 Native Texans of East Texas
Caddoes Largest tribe in East Texas (Piney Woods area) Most lived along Angelina and Neches Rivers Farmers: fertile soil and lots of rain in East Texas would grow lots of crops—pumpkins, beans, corn Hunters: deer, bears, buffalo Built permanent houses (forests provided wood) Also built grass lodges and lived in villages Had beautiful rugs, baskets, pottery Had a large trade network (as far west as New Mexico) Built huge temples and burial mounds Developed complex societies---ruled by the major chief known as the caddi Caddi made important political decisions Oldest women in each family controlled the family---even if the family had chiefs or warriors in them

24 Native Texans of East Texas, con’t
Atakapans (ah.TAK.us.pans) Lived in SE Texas and SW Louisiana Lived in wet marshlands and hunted and fished from dug-out canoes Also gathered fish, berries, etc Alabama-Coushatta Came from Alabama in 1700s Settled along Trinity River Hunters/gatherers Lived in cabins Skilled in making baskets

25 Native Texans of the Plains
Lived in North, West, and Central Texas These tribes based lives and cultures around buffalo …for food and shelter Dried buffalo meat for jerky Pounded dried meat and mixed it with nuts/berries to form Pemmican Used bones for tools Used hide for clothes, tepees, shoes, blankets Nomadic people —followed the buffalo Used dogs to drag things from place to place Also gathered plants for food Family was basis of society Groups of families banded together under one chief Groups were very self-sufficient and brave

26 Native Texans of the Plains, con’t
Tribes of Plains Indians Apaches Came into Texas in 1600s Wore soft leather boots as protection Wore headbands to absorb sweat Good hunters Women were held in high importance Apache Groups Mescalero Apaches West Texas and northern Mexico Nomadic hunters Lipan Apaches Hunted and farmed Lived in farming communities along rivers or streams called rancherias Grew beans, corn, squash, pumpkins Traded with neighboring tribes Eventually moved into South Texas to avoid Comanches

27 Native Texans of the Plains, con’t
Comanches Migrated from Canada Very fierce warriors Very skilled at riding horses…Europeans called them “lords of the plains” Skilled traders Women wore buckskin dresses Raided other tribes…took hostages and food Kiowas (KEE.uh.was) Came to Texas from South Dakota and Montana Joined with Comanches to drive Apaches from their territories Painted pictures of important events on their tepees Made beautiful beaded crafts Developed a calendar One of the most feared tribes

28 Plains Indians Before the Europeans Came

29 Native Texas of North Central Texas
These tribes combined the lifestyles of their neighbors Tribes Tonkawas Lived near Austin Hunted buffalo and deer; traded hides Fished for crawfish and clams Did not migrate—plenty of food nearby Lived in villages and in grass houses Joined Europeans in fighting the Comanches

30 North Central Tribes, con’t
Wichitas Migrated from Kansas and settled near Waco, Dallas, and Corsicana Primarily farmers—grew beans, corn, squash, pumpkin, and melons Also hunted buffalo some Made clay pots, jars and leather bags Built grass lodges that held 8-10 people Warriors elected chiefs who enforced rules Women were held in high regard

31 Native Texans of the Far West
Jumanos Lived in farming villages of one-room houses along the Rio Grande from El Paso to Bid Bend Houses were made of Adobe (cool in summer and warm in winter) Houses were brightly painted inside Planted crops along rivers Sometimes hunted and traded Tiguas Came to Texas in late 1600s with Spanish settlers Settled along Rio Grande near El Paso Lived in adobe houses Cooked food in round adobe ovens Hunted, fished, and grew corn, tomatoes, squash, beans, and grapes Made beautiful pottery cooking and storing food Grew cotton and wove it into cloth

32 Latecomers Cherokees Kickapoos
Came to Texas around to get away from settlers moving to northern and eastern states Settled along Sabine, Neches, and Angelina Rivers Grew corn, beans, pumpkins and squash Lived in log cabins and used metal tools Some Cherokees married out their tribe and adopted new lifestyles Some owned plantations and had slaves Lived in peace with Europeans Kickapoos Came to Texas in 1830s from Great Lakes area Lived in villages and raised crops Also hunted Women built the homes…round structures covered with woven mats Women made baskets and buckskin clothing as well as made items with beads

33 Native Americans in Texas Before 1850

34 What Were the Native Texans Good At?
Tilling the land Planting crops Knowing which crops had medicinal value Understood hunting and the animals they hunted Knew how to use every part of the animals they hunted Understood the environment and they best ways to survive

35 Section 3 Vocabulary Treaty: an agreement between people
Descendant: person born of a family or group

36 Europeans Come to Texas
Came to Texas around the 1500s At first, the Native Texans welcomed them and helped them learn about land But, Europeans did not respect the Native Texans or their cultures They thought the Indians were inferior (read “A Real Life Story” on page 89 They wanted the Indians to live in missions, be slaves to the Europeans, and give up their way of life Some Indians did adopt Spanish culture and married Europeans…starting new cultures They brought diseases like measles, smallpox, and the flu to the Indians…many Indians died because of the diseases Many Indian tribes died out or decreased in number after the Europeans came

37 Decline of the Native Texans
Settlers arrived in Texas in early 1800s The settlers didn’t understand the Indians and their ways of life Indians resented their land being taken away by the settlers Many Indians fought to hold on to their lands a. The Apaches, Comanches, and Kiowas fought to keep settlers from moving west of the Balcones Escarpment b. Many settlers were killed by these raids Treaties were written—didn’t work Buffalo died out Most Native Texans were killed or moved to reservations Many of their cultures died off but there are many descendants of Native Americans in Texas today The tribes of the Alabama-Coushatta, Tigua, and Kickapoo still live in Texas Alabama-Coushatta: East Texas Tigua: around El Paso Kickapoo: Eagle Pass, Texas These tribes have tried hard to hold on to some of the old customs and cultures

38 Picture Sources


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